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HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE NOTICES Angles, and made a part of the kingdom of Mercia, OF LINCOLNSHIRE.

till towards the middle of the ninth century, when it

became the scene of the piratical incursions of the LINCOLNSHIRE is the largest county in England, ex- Danes, who, in 870, landed in great numbers at cept Yorkshire, from which it is divided on the Humberstone, ravaged the country, and destroyed north by the river Humber. Its extent of surface- the monasteries of Bardney and Croyland. its local situation-its geographical character—and Alfred the Great having achieved many victories, its ecclesiastical history, would each furnish a rich Mercia submitted to his authority, and was governed variety of peculiarly interesting topics for the medi- by an earl or ealdorman ; yet some parts, at least, of tation of the intelligent Christian.

Lincolnshire, continued to be held by the Danes, Lincolnshire is about 70 miles in length from who retained possession of Lincoln and Stamford till north to south, and 45 in breadth from east to 941, when they were expelled by Edmund the Elder. west, and about 200 in circumference : it contains When the barons took arms against king John, and 2748 square miles, 632 parishes, 32 towns, and in invited prince Lewis of France to accept of the 1831, a population of 317,465 souls.

crown, in the subsequent war, Lincoln castle was This great county is bounded on the north by the successfully defended by the king's party against the

on the east by the German Ocean; on the insurgents; and John, dying in 1216, was succeeded south by Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire ; by Henry III., whose forces gained a decisive victory and on the west by the counties of Rutland, Leices- at this place over those of the French prince, who ter, Nottingham, and York. The earliest inhabitants shortly after quitted the kingdom. In 1536, the of this part of the country, of whom we have any in- alterations in the ecclesiastical government, made by formation, were the Coritani, or Costanni, a tribe of Henry VIII., occasioned an insurrection of the Rothe ancient Britons, on whose subjugation by the man Catholics in this country, headed by the prior Romans, several military stations were fixed in this of Barlings, and the commotion extended into the district, and in the ultimate division of the island, neighbouring counties, but was at last suppressed by under the Roman government, Lincolnshire was the duke of Norfolk. included in the province called Flavia Cæsariensis. Lincolnshire has three principal divisions; Lind. Three British, or

Roman roads, traversed the county, sey, with fifteen hundreds, containing one city, called the Fossway, the Ermin Street, and the Upper Lincoln, nineteen market-towns, and 431 villages; Saltway; and within its limits were the Roman sta- Kesteven, with nine hundreds, containing seven tions, Lindum or Lincoln, Causensis or Ancaster, market-towns, and 190 villages; Holland, with three Vernometum, Croceolana, Ad Abum, Margidunum, hundreds, containing five market-towns, and thirty. and Ad Pontem, the sites of which are not accurately six villages. Lincolnshire presents three great natuknown. On the conquest of South Britain, by the ral divisions, the Wolds, the Heaths, two long ridges Anglo-Saxons, this county fell to the share of the of high land, and the Fens, an extensive tract of low




land, which includes nearly all the district of Hol. Dr. Kaye is bishop of Lincoln ; and his diocese, land. These fens formerly inundated by the sea, the largest in England, embraces 1269 benefices, and form now, being protected by great embankments, 855,039 souls. The bishop has a net income of one of the richest tracts of land in the kingdom. 11,545l., with the prebend of Buckden, &c. The The drainage of them has been mostly accomplished cathedral corporation consists of the dean, the prowithin the last fifty years : it is still going forward, curator, the chancellor, the subdean, four primate forming one of the greatest works ever undertaken vicars, with an annual net income of 70011. In this in Great Britain. Upwards of 150,000 acres have in diocese there are 1251 benefices that yield a net this manner been reclaimed from the sea, yielding income of 358,0731., or an average yearly stipend of an annual revenue, exclusive of expenses, of at least 2861. each. There are also 629 curates, with total 150,000l. The fertility of the improved land is, in stipends amounting to 48,7301., or 771. each per many places, extraordinary, owing, it is supposed,

The Church Building Society has made to the great impregnation of sea-salt. They are seventy-two grants to their diocese, amounting to adapted to all the ordinary crops, but are chiefly de- 11,8601., which have increased its church-room voted to grazing. The cattle are of great size, with 18,380 sittings. large heads and short horns. They are principally Episcopal Places of Worship.- In the county of fattened for the butcher, little attention being paid Lincoln there are 607 churches and chapels. to the dairy. The sheep are a large horned breed, Voluntary Churches.—Total number of Congrewith a heavy fleece of coarse, long stapled wool. gations, 306, i. e. Roman Catholics, 11 ; PresbyteTheir number is immense, amounting, according to rians, 3; Independents, 19; Baptists, 36; Calvinistic Mr. Young, to upwards of 2,500,000, and yielding Methodists, 2; Wesleyan Methodists, 211; other annually 22,000,000lbs. of wool; but manufactures Methodists, 24 ; Quakers, 9. are inconsiderable in this county, its trade consisting Contributions to Missionary and Bible Societies, chiefly in exchange of its produce for manufactured 1834-5 : goods and other consumable commodities.

Episcopalians. Lincolnshire is celebrated for the number of its Propagation Society 464 11 7 handsome churches, erected during the middle ages, Church Missionary, do. 978 3 4 by the munificent liberality of the Catholics: several

1442 14 1 of them are highly ornamented; and it is remark- Nonconformists. able that the most splendid of them are found in London Missionary Soc. 372 0 3 low, fenny situations, still difficult of access, and Wesleyan Ditto

255 | 5 doubtless much more so at the periods when they Baptist Ditto

44 18 2 were founded. Some of these churches, however,

672 9 10 as those of Boston, Louth, and Spalding, are crowned British and Foreign Bible Society 1843 15 11 with lofty towers or spires, one object of their erec- Education.-Children in Irfant Schools, 1771; tion probably was that of furnishing landmarks for Daily, 36,353; Sunday, 31,881. travellers.

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Lincoln, ecclesiastically considered, is a place of tion during the civil wars, when the soldiers of the considerable interest to the Christian historian, as parliamentary army made it a stable for their Robert Greathead, cardinal Beaufort, and cardinal | horses. Wolsey were among its famous bishops.

Lincoln cathedral consists of a nave, with its Lincoln was called Lindcoit, by the ancient Britons; aisles; a transept at the west end formerly crowned Lindum, by Ptolemy; Lyndo-Collyne, by the Saxons, with angular towers and wooden spires, the latter of and Nichol, by the Normans; from which names it which were taken down in 1808, and two other tranis supposed to have been distinguished as the town septs, one near the centre, and the other towards the or colony seated on a hill. This city is still remark- eastern end; also a choir and chancel, with their able for some rare monuments of Roman architec- aisles, and a large central tower. The entire length ture.

of this edifice is 524 feet; the breadth of the western Lincoln cathedral, or minster, is the chief orna- front 174 feet; the length of the great transept 250 ment of the city : it is one of the largest in England, feet; the length of the lesser or eastern transept 170 and the ground on which it stands is so elevated, feet; the breadth of the body of the cathedral 80 that the venerable edifice may be seen over fire or feet; the height of the central tower to the top of six counties, fifly miles to the north, and thirty to one of its angular pinnacles 300 feet; and that of the the south : but though it is inferior in beauty to two western towers 180 feet. The most striking several others in England, it was so admired by the part of this edifice is the grand western front, which monks of Lincoln, that they imagined the devil could lord Burlington has characterized as an unrivalled never look at it without frowns of malevolence : and specimen of the magnificence of Gothic architecture. hence arose the proverb, frequently applied to mali, In one of the towers was one of the largest bells in cious and envious persons, He looks like the devil England, called “Tom of Lincoln:" it is twenty-two orer Lincoln."

feet nine inches in circumference; it weighs 9894 Ecclesiastical

power and wealth had prodigiously pounds, almost five tons; and it will hold 424 gallons increased in England before any prelate established ale measure;

but it broke while under repair in 1831. his seat at Lincoln : and the first of the episcopal | Lincoln has twenty episcopal churches, and many order in that city was Remigius, bishop of Dor-chapels for the different denominations of Dissenters; chester. Various provincial synods in 1072, 1075, but it is not reputed as eminent for the power and and 1078, made new decrees for the consolidation of prevalence of vital Christianity. the episcopal authority, and Remigius chose Lincoln as a most eligible situation. In the reign of William the Conqueror, he procured the ground for the cathedral, the bishop's palace, and the houses of the

FORTITUDE OF THE MARTYR IGNATIUS. dignitaries and officers, and commenced the build- The emperor Trajan, A.D. 107, (being puffed up with ings, which he nearly completed, dying in 1092, pride on account of his victory over the Scythians only four days before the consecration of his cathe- and Dacians, and many other nations,) thinking that dral. Remigius had established twenty-one pre- the Christians, who worshipped the true God, were bends, but his successor in the episcopacy, Robert yet wanting in an entire obedience to him, was Bloet, increased their number to forty-two.

iherefore determined to compel them to embrace the Lincoln cathedral was partly destroyed by fire, in service of idols, and to worship the gods of the 1124, but it was repaired by Alexander, the third Romans. In order to this, he compelled the Chrisbishop, who vaulted the aisles with stone ; but the tians, with the threats of persecution, either to sacri. great tower falling some time after, bishop Hugh, of fice to the Heathen deities or to die. Burgundy, who succeeded to the see in 1186, under- Hereupon Ignatius, (who was also called Theo. took the re-erection of a great part of it: he, how-phorus, carrying God,) being in pain for the church ever, built only the eastern part, from the great tran- of Antioch, was voluntarily carried before Trajan, sept to the end of the choir, together with the who was then at Antioch on his way to Armenia chapter-house. Bishops Hugh de Wells, and Robert and Parthia, against the people of which countries Greathead (Grosse teste) erected the nave and tran- he was hastening. Being come into the presence of sept; and Henry de Lexington, the next prelate, the emperor, Trajan, looking earnestly at him, asked, enlarged the church towards the east, extending the Are not you a wicked wretch, thus to hasten to choir ; this is considered the most beautiful part of transgress our commands and to persuade others to the whole structure. Many additions were made to do the same, to their destruction ? it till about the year 1400, when the building seems Ignatius answered, “No one ought to call Theoto have attained its completion; and the subsequent phorus wicked; for all evil spirits are departed from introduction of chapels, oratorios, and other orna- the servants of God: but, if because I am a trouble mental structures, may be regarded as so many super- to those evil spirits, you call me wicked with referfluous additions.

ence to them, I confess the charge; for having Lincoln bishopric in the days of popery was im. within me Christ, the heavenly king, Í dissolve all mensely rich ; its prelates having succeeded in get- the snares of the devil." ting possession of a thirty-two of the best manors in Trajan. “And who is Theophorus ?" England.” The revenues of this bishopric were Ignatius. “ He who has Christ in his breast." valued at the dissolution by Henry VIII. at 20952. Trajan. “ And do not we then seem to thee to 12s. 5d, a-year, and the common revenues of the have the gods within us, who fight for us against chapter at 5781. 8s. 2d. The splendour and value of our enemies?" the decorations of this sumptuous fabric may partly Ignatius. “You err, in that you call the evil bę estimated from the fact, that Henry VIII. spirits of the Heathens Gods; for there is but one 1540, took away 2621 ounces of gold, and 4285 God, who made heaven and earth, and the sea, and ounces of silver, besides diamonds and other precious all that are in them; and one Jesus Christ his only stones of great value. This great cathedral was begotten son; whose favour may I enjoy." stripped of its remaining treasures in the reign of Trajan. His favour you say who was crucified Edward VI., when its tombs, statues, shrines, and under Pontius Pilate." altars were destroyed; and it suffered some degrada- Ignatius. “ His who crucified sin, with the inventor of it; and has put all the power and the malice a view of covenant relationship, my soul, thou canst of the devil under their feet, who from their hearts say with Paul concerning Jesus, Whose I am : do believe in him.”

thou next search after the love-tokens of thine own T'rajan. “ Dost thou then carry Christ within heart in covenant engagements also, and see whether thee?"

thou canst adopt Paul's language in the other parti. Ignatius. “I do: for it is written, I will dwell cular, and say as he did, whom I serve. Is Jesus in them and walk in them?” (2 Cor. vi, 16.)

the one only object of thy love? Did he give himself This answer irritated Trajan so much, that he for thee; and hath he by his Holy Spirit enabled pronounced the following sentence against him : thee to give thyself unto him? Hast thou given thy* Forasmuch as Ignatius has confessed that he car- self to him, and given thyself for him, and art thou ries about within himself him that was crucified, we willing to part with every thing for the promotion of command that he be bound and carried by soldiers to his glory? These will be sweet testimonies, both of to the Great Rome, there to be thrown to the beasts his property, and of thy service. And depend upon for the entertainment of the people.” On the hear- it, the real true confidence of the soul, can only be ing of his sentence, Ignatius exclaimed, “ I thank found in faith's enjoyment of these things. My sonl! thee, O Lord, that thou hast vouchsafed to honour drop not into the arms of sleep before that thou hast me with a perfect love towards thee, and hast made brought the point to a decision. See to it, that me to be put in iron bonds with thy apostle Paul !" Paul's experience is thine. No storm of the night, His bonds were now put about him; and having no tempest without will alarm, while Jesus, by his prayed for the church of which he was bishop, and Holy Spirit, speaks peace within. If Jesus be thine, commended it with tears to the Lord, he was hurried then all is thine ; and as thou art his, every promise away, by the brutish soldiers, in order to his being is made over to thee with him, whose thou art, and carried to Rome, where he was to be devoured by whom thou dost serve. Sweet promise to lie down the beasts of prey. He was now speedily wafted to with on the bed of the night, or the bed of death. the capital of the Roman empire, where, being My people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and arrived, he prayed to the Son of God in behalf of in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places (Isaiah the churches; that he would put a stop to the per- xxxii. 18).—Dr. Hauker. secution, and increase the love of the brethren towards each other. Having finished his prayer, he was hastily led into the amphitheatre, and there, according to the command of Trajan, thrown to the

HINTS, MAXIMS, &c. MATERIALS FOR wild beasts; by whom he was devoured, exulting in

MEDITATION. the Lord, and triumphing in Jesus !

(Continued from p. 217.) 11. An ill spent Sabbath is commonly the fore

runner of a bad week. “ WHOSE I AM, AND WHOM I SERVE." 12. Whatever gait or habit you acquire yourself (Acts 27, 28.)

when young, is likely to be your position through

life, easy or awkward. HERE is a delightful subject for an evening medita- 13. In prayer, never stand when you can kneel, tion, if so be like the apostle who thus expressed nor sit when you can possibly stand; true the heart himself. A child of God can take up the same words, is every thing, but that man must be misled who and from the same well-grounded authority. Paul presumes he may sit when there is convenience for was in the midst of a storm, and not only the pros- him to kneel or stand to pray. pect, but the certainty of shipwreck before him, 14. The seeing of God in every thing is one of the when he thus reposed himself in his covenant rela- greatest blessings to man; it far more than doubles tions,

his blessings and pleasures; while on the other hand, An angel had informed him of what would hap- it lessens every trouble. “ It is the LORD," says old pen; and had bidden him be of good courage. But Eli, “ let him do what seemeth him good." Paul's chief confidence arose from the consideration, Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away," saith whose property he was, and whose service he was holy Job, “blessed be the name of the LORD. Shall engaged in. See to it, my soul, that thy assurance we receive good at the hand of the LORD, and not is the same, and thy security in every dark night receive evil ?". Surely then our greatest consolation will be the same also. For if thou art Jesus's pro- in_times of danger, is to realize this sentiment, perty, depend upon it thou wilt be Jesus's care. It " Thou GOD SEEST ME.” is true indeed thou art God's property by creation; 15. Beware of envy. The way to wealth and but if this were all, the Turk and Infidel have the happiness is as open and free for your neighbour as same claims as thou hast. Look for some nearer ties for yourself: why then cherish for a moment such of affinity in the new creation of God. Hath Jesus an odious disposition. If it were possible to feel bought thee with his blood; made thee his by grace; shame in heaven, how must you feel, if you have and hast thou voluntarily given up thyself to him in any thought at all of meeting your envied neighbour a covenant not to be broken? Hath the Lord spoken there? to thee by the sweet voice of his word, bronght home 16. Beware of slander ; " for with what measure to the heart in the gracious application of his Spirit ? ye mete it shall be measured to you again, think Doth he say to thee as to Jacob of old: Fear not, then that when you are calumniating others, some for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy other, as false a friend as yourself, is retaliating upon name, thou art mine! Oh! then, how sure will be you, in what you would not have brought to light the promise that follows: When thou passest through for the world. the waters I will be with thee, and through the rivers 17. As politeness, when it is natural and easy, is they shall not overflow thee; when thou walkest an accomplishment which makes even our enemies through the fire thou shalt not be burned, neither to speak well of us, so affectation brings us into conshall the flame kindle upon thee : for I am the Lord tempt among very friends. thy God, the Holy One of Israel ihy Saviour.-If in Cambridge.

L. C.

i. The

CHRISTIAN LADY'S FRIEND. hands; and though many of these institutions, as

already observed, merit the highest commendations,

there are others conducted upon a much less praiseON THE CULPABLE NEGLECT OF FEMALE worthy plan. “ The chief end to be proposed in EDUCATION.

cultivating the understandings of women (says the

celebrated Hannah More *) is to qualify them for NOTWITHSTANDING the rapid strides of literature

the practical purposes of life.” But this is totally within the last century, the period is not far distant unknown in the modern systems of education. A when females of superior rank, even in England, female studies (or ought to study) not that she may were incapable of spelling the most common word qualify herself to become an orator or a pleadercorrectly; and though of late this shameful negli

not that she may learn to debate, but to act. “ She gence has been considerably remedied, yet how in- is to read the best books, not so much to enable her sufficient is the education they now generally receive to talk of them, as to bring the improvement she to fit them to be prudent mothers, sensible compa- derives from them to the rectification of her princinions, wise and valuable members of society, or ples, and the formation of her habits." But where (and which is a consideration of no small magni- do we find the female thus anxious to improve hertude) thoughtful and religious Christians! It too

self? where the mother, thus solicitous for the wel. frequently happens, that as soon as an infant is born

fare of her daughter? A novel, or romance, is more it is consigned to the care of a mercenary nurse, frequently seen in the hands of a female than a book who infuses into her milk, the illiberality of her of solid instruction. Domestic occupations are conmind, the ruggedness of her temper, and, very possibly, the diseases of her constitution, and even

sidered as inelegant and degrading; the active duties when the child arrives at an age most capable of

of life are neglected; and the daughter thus educated

is converted into either a faithless or an inattentive discriminating, and laying in a stock of useful ideas, wife! it is sent to a boarding-school-and here, what does Hence springs the culpable neglect of female eduit learn ?-music and dancing, of course; dissipation cation in England, which is so much to be deplored and vanity; every thing but solid knowledge ; every thing but humility ; every thing but piety ; every

at the present time; and it is a fact which no one thing but virtue! Not but that there are seminaries

can deny, that the superficial mode of their instruc

tion, furnishes them with an improper standard of for the education of females, formed on a different i intellectual excellence. Too much time is occupied principle, combining a useful with a religious educa

in what are termed accomplishments, whilst the tion; but they are so rarely to be met with, that the

more solid and important studies are disregarded. great end of instruction would be more effectually It must, however, be observed, that, in a flourishaccomplished under a mother's eye.

ing, commercial country like Great Britain, some Strange as it may appear, various objections have been made as to the propriety of cultivating the

parents will rise from the lowest state of poverty to

affluence and independence; such parents, conseminds of females :-many of the lords of the creation quently, wish their children to have a better educa. maintain, notwithstanding the absurdity of the idea, tion than they themselves had an opportunity of that to educate a woman is to raise her above that enjoying, or are capable of imparting, And it is sphere in which nature designed her to move! Learn- probable that, under their roofs, daughters might ing, it is said, would improve their talents of address, imbibe only a set of illiberal notions, or a system of and only make them worse by rendering them more artful. This is an idea which no man who ever en

vulgar, purse-proud superciliousness. In cases of

this kind, seminaries, combining a religious with a joyed the conversation of a good and virtuous woman could for one moment indulge.

useful education, are highly beneficial. But where

mothers are themselves equal to the task (if a task it The grand cause, however, of the culpable neglect may be deemed) there cannot be a doubt about the of female education at the present day, arises, in a difference of the advantage. great measure, from the melancholy effects of dissi- Reason, religion, the thrillings of affection, the pation, which so occupies the time that but little

voice of nature, and the voice of God; the interests else is regarded ; and unfortunately the first peeress of the realm is scarcely more culpable, or, rather,

of society, the happiness of private life; the honour,

the dignity, and true policy of woman-all say, that more inattentive to the discharge of domestic duties, a MOTHER 'should be the preceptress of her children, than the wife of a common tradesman; both are en- and that such children would stand a chance of the gaged in successive rounds of visiting or receiving happiest instruction. “ If well nurtured sons grow company, and both depute to others the formation of their children's minds.

up as young plants, such daughters would be as

polished corners of the temple.”—Goakman on Fe. Allowing, however, (which is straining a point) male Education. that during a state of adolescence, a child does not feel the want of a mother's protecting kindness, that careful attendants have been provided, in whom others have placed confidence; yet who, like an

ON CONVERSATION. anxious parent, will watch the opening bud of intel- CONVERSATION is an index to the mind. “ Out of lect ?-who, like her, will have penetration to dis- the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaketh." cover its leading propensities ?-who, like her, will The observation is true, not only when referring to repress the bold and encourage the timid ? How can those who use the language of openness and sincethe parent who has never been the friend and com

rity, but also when applied to the reserved man and panion of her children, be expected to discover the

the dissembler. Closeness indicates distrust; and leading feature in their characters ? or how can she

often, by sharpening curiosity, causes the discovery expect to inspire them with confidence and affection

of the very thing which is meant to be concealed. when they have been merely taught to treat her

Art, sooner or later, drops the mask, or gives ample with a mixture of form and respect ?

proof that she wears one. If it be admitted, conThe number of female seminaries which abound in the environs of the metropolis, prove that the important business of education is not in domestic

* Now deceased.

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