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ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE NATURAL of the hippotamus or the ox. It is compact, well HISTORY.-No. I.
proportioned, and sizeable, a perfect model of strength NATURAL HISTORY OF THE LION.
adapted for agility.
Dr. Young, contemplating the distinguishing qua"SCRIPTURE natural history” is a subject of great lities of the lion, in his sublime poem on the book interest, especially to young persons. And this branch of Job, thus describes this noble animal :of science may be made not only attractive to gratify “ Bút fiercer still the lordly lion stalks, curiosity and improve knowledge in our youth, but Grimly majestic in his lonely walks ; to enlarge the understanding and sanctify the heart When round he glares, all living creatures fly, of all Christians, affording many of the most instruc- He clears the desert with his rolling eye. tive illustrations of various parts of the Word of Say, mortal, does he rouse at thy command, God.
And roar to thee, and live upon thy hand ? The Lion is frequently referred to in the Scrip- Dost thou for him in forests bend thy bow, ture, and some of the most remarkable passages And to his gloomy den the morsel throw, both in the Old and the New Testament allude to Where bent on death lie hid his tawny brood, the distinguishing qualities of this majestic animal, And couch'd in dreadful ambush, pant for blood; so commonly designated the KING OF BEASTS.
Or stretched on broken limbs, consume the day Felis Leo, the Lion Cat. From the earliest periods In darkness wrapt, and slumber o'er their prey ? of antiquity to the present day, this terrific beast By the pale moon they take their destined round, has held a sort of ascendancy over the mind of man, And lash their sides, and furious tear the ground: to which his noble presence, gigantic bodily power, Now shrieks and dying groans the desert fill; and undaunted resolution have contributed. His They rage, they rend, their ravenous jaws distil haughty growl, his short sharp roar of anger, the With crimson foam ; and when the banquet's o'er, steady and fixed gaze of his fiery piercing eye, the They stride away, and paint their steps with gore: majestic dignity of his step, unite to proclaim him In flight alone the shepherd puts his trust, the monarch of his race. The stature of the lion is And shudders at the talon in the dust." not overgrown like that of the elephant or rhino- This majestic animal, though now greatly limited ceros; nor does his shape appear clumsy like that as to the countries in which it is found, was once vor. V.
common in Syria, Palestine, and the adjacent country, Isaiah xi. 6. “ The calf, the young lion, and the as well as in the mountains of Thrace and Macedonia : fatling together : and a little child shall lead them," but with the increase of human population and the is a poetical hyperbole denoting the renovating and progress of civilization, it became more scarce, driven sanctifying influence of the Gospel, in the latter days back more and more from the habitations of men. of the church, when the Spirit of Christ shall have Mr. Shaw remarks, that in the glory of Rome, been poured forth upon all nations, influencing the more lions were imported from Lybia in one year, fiercest minds to holy and fraternal love, every one for the purpose of gladiatorial combats in the theatre, living to the glory of God, than could now be collected in five, or than are supposed to exist in all Africa. However, this noble
SAMSON COMBATING The Lion, ILLUSTRATION OF animal is still found, with some trifling variations as
Judges xiv. 5, 6. to colour and development of mane, throughout “ Then went Samson down, and his father and his mother, Africa, and thinly thronghout India and Persia, as to Timnath, and came to the vineyards of Timnath : and, far as the confines of China.
bebold, a young lion roared against him And the Spirit The male lion, when full grown, measures eight
of the Lord came mightily upon bim, and he rent bim or nine feet in length, and four and a half feet
as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his height; the female is about one fourth less, and
hand: but he told not bis father or his mother what he
had done." without a mane. As the lion advances in years, his mane grows longer and thicker. The hair on the Modern history furnishes a striking illustration of rest of the body is short and smooth, of a tawny
this passage, as related by Poiret :-“ In a douar, colour, but whitish on the belly. Its roaring is loud
or a camp of Bedouin Arabs, near to La Calle, a and dreadful. When heard in the night it resembles
French factory, a young lion had seized a cow. A distant thunder. Its cry of anger is much louder
young Moor threw himself upon the savage beast to and shorter. The attachment of the lioness to her
tear his booty from him, and, as it were, to stifle him young is remarkably strong. For their support she
in his arms, but he would not let go his prey. The is more ferocious than the lion himself; makes her
father of the young man hastened to him, armed incursions with greater boldness; destroys without
with a kind of hoe ; and aiming at the lion, struck distinction, every animal that falls in her way, and
his son's hand, and cut off three of his fingers. It carries it reeking to her cubs. She usually brings
cost a great deal of trouble to rescue the prey from forth in the most retired and inaccessible places ;
the young lion. I saw this young man, who was and when afraid that her retreat should be discovered,
attended by Mr. Gay, at that time surgeon to the endeavours to hide her track by brushing the ground hospital of La Calle. "
. with her tail. When much disturbed or alarmed,
David, as recorded in 1 Sam. xvii. 34, had, when she will sometimes transport her young, usually
a shepherd, once fought with a lion, and another three or four in number, from one place to another
time with a bear, and rescued their prey from them. in her mouth; and, if obstructed in her course, will
Tellez relates that an Abyssinian shepherd had once defend them to the last extremity.
killed a lion of extraordinary size with only two poles. SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE Habits OF
DÁNIEL IN THE DEN OF Lions. ILLUSTRATION OF Lions.
Dan. vi. 16. Divine inspiration has employed several names to
« They brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions." designate the lion, according to his different ages or “ In Morocco," says Höst,“ the king has a lions' characteristic habits :
den, into which men, particularly Jews, are some. 1. 79 gur or gor, a little lion, a lion's whelp. times thrown; but the latter generally come off unDeut.
hurt, because the keepers of these animals are Jews, 2. 7ochephir, a lion's whelp that is weaned, and who may safely be with them, with a rod in the having left the covert begins to seize its own prey : hand, if they only take care to go out backwards, Ezek. xix, 3,“ it devoured men."
as the lion does not suffer any one to turn his back 3. 178 ari, or 17078 arieh, a grown and vigorous upon him. The other Jews do not let their brethren lion having whelps, Nah. ii. 13; this is the more remain longer than a night among the lions, as they common name for this terrible animal.
might otherwise become too hungry; but ransom 4. bnw shachal, a lion in the full strength of his them with money, which is, in fact, the king's obage. Job iv. 10.
ject.”. The following is his description of the con5. ws laish, a decrepit old lion, worn out with struction of the lions' den : “At one end of the age.
royal palace there is a place for ostriches and their Regard for these characteristics and distinctions young; and beyond the other end, towards the moun. is highly important in ascertaining the force of the tains, there is a large lions' den, which consists of a idea and metaphorical allusions of the prophetical large square hole in the ground, with a partition, in and poetical parts of the Hebrew Scriptures.
the middle of which there is a door, which the Jews, Rev. v. 5. “ The lion of the tribe of Judah," is who are obliged to maintain and keep them for designed for Jesus Christ, who is so denominated as nothing, are able to open and shut from above, and having sprung from the royal family of King David, can thus entice the lions, by means of their food, and tribe of Judah, whose tribal staff or standard is from one division to the other, to clean the other in supposed to have been distinguished by the figure of the mean time. It is all in the open air, and a per: a lion, to which this allusion is made, Gen. xlix. 9. son may look down over a wall, which is a yard and
Jer. i. 44. The “lion from the swelling of Jor- a quarter high.” dan," intimates the progress of king Nebuchadnetzar, marching like a lion against Judea. He is compared
MODERN INSTANCES OF THE HABITS OF THE LION. to a lion by reason of his swiftness, strength, and South Africa abounds with lions, and their ravages fierceness, to a lion lying in the thickets on the among the cattle of the Hottentots, Caffres, &c., are banks of that river, but driven by the overflowing of sometimes dreadful; nor do the poor inhabitants the rising waters of Jordan ; thus enraged, to fury, always escape. Our engraving represents a lion in and ready to fall on every thing he meets for its his native wilds, leaping across a deep ravine with a destruction,
wretched Hottentot, whom he has seized for his evening's meal: the melancholy case shows the im
MY SCRAP BOOK. mense muscular power of this animal, which, as intelligent travellers inform us, finds as little difficulty
LEAF LXXXVIII. in performing this feat as a domestic cat would in “ The Bee that wanders, and sips from every Power, discarrying a rat.
poses what she has gathered into her cells."-SENECA. Prodigious is the strength of this “king of beasts ;" it is certain that he can carry off a buffalo on his
EXTRACTS FROM THE ANCIENT RECORDS back with ease; and Mr. Thompson states an in
OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH IN BROAD. stance which he witnessed of a very young lion con
MEAD, BRISTOL. veying a horse half a mile from the spot where he (Continued from page 374, Vol. 4). killed it; and a more extraordinary case was mentioned to him, on good authority, when a lion having
[Mr. Isaac James's MS. p. 24]. Now three of our carried off a heifer, was followed in the track for
ministers being imprisoned, some of each congregamore than five hours by a party on horseback, and
tion met together to consult how to carry on our throughout the whole distance the carcass of the
meetings, that we might be kept to our duty, and heifer was only once or twice discovered to have
edify one another. Now our pastors were gone, touched the ground.
some were ready even of thinking to give off, viz, of A Hottentot at Jackal's fountain, on the skirts of the presbyterians, because their principle was, not the Great Karroo, had a narrow, though ludicrous
to hear a man not bred up at the university and escape of his life; he was sleeping a few yards from
ordained. But the Lord helped us to prevail with his master, in the usual mode of his nation, wrapped
them to keep up their meetings. And we concluded up in his sheep's skin carosse, with his face to the to assemble together, and for one to pray and read a ground. A lion came softly up, and seizing him by
chapter, and then sing a psalm and conclude with the thick folds of his greasy mantle, began to trot
prayer; and so two brethren to carry on the meeting away with him, counting securely, no doubt, on a
one day, and two another, for a while to try what savory and satisfactory meal. But the Hottentot,
they would do with us. So we did, and ordered one on awaking, being quite unhurt, though sufficiently of the doors of our meeting to be made fast, and all astonished, contrived somehow to wriggle himself
to come in at one, but open it when we go forth. out of his wrapper, and scrambled off, while the dis- And to appoint some youth or two to be out at the appointed lion trotted away with the empty cloak.
door every meeting to watch when Hellier or other
informers or officers were coming, and so to come MAGNIFIED REPRESENTATION OF THE LION'S TONGUE. in, one of them, and give us notice. Also some Terrible as is the “lion's mouth," and proverbially
women and sisters would sit and crowd in the stairs dreadful on account of its vast opening, his incisor
when we did begin the meeting with any exercise, teeth, and formidable tusks, and rough papillæ tongue,
that the informers might not suddenly come in upon when carefully examined, present a most fearful in
us. By which they were prevented divers times. strument of destruction as possessed by this majestic
On the 21st of Feb.  being the next Lord's animal. Our young readers especially, will be in
day after our pastor was imprisoned, Hellier comes terested in the representation given in the engraving
about to our meetings with his man and officers. of a part of the lion's tongue magnified.
In the morning goes to Mr. Gifford's, and finds him preaching, which he informs the mayor of for his conviction, that if they catch him that day after his conviction in the corporation, they might imprison him. In the afternoon he goes to Mr. Weekes's and carries away divers to prison. Then comes to our meeting, and finding that door we came in, to be thronged with people and women in the stairs, so that they could not get in, though they did hale several, and pulled Mrs. Bush down stairs, yet could not get up through them. Then they went to the other door and broke it open, and rushed in upon us that way, and took the names of them they counted chief, and carried away Brother Courtny with them before the mayor, and Mr. Sam. Tipton, and Mr. Joseph White, whom they struck very violently, and
bound them over to answer for meeting. THE ROMISH ROSARY.
On the 28th, the informers came to our meeting This Roman Catholic utensil is divided into fifteen again, and at Br. Gifford's, Hellier with the officers decads of smaller beads for the Ave Maria, with a finds him preaching again, and now having a warlarger one betwixt each ten, for the Pater-nosters. rant they carry him away before the mayor, who It was not till the fifteenth century, that their virtue binds him to appear the next day, which being the was preached far and wide, and that the history and first of March, or the first month, the mayor commystery of the rosary were revealed. No such im- mits Mr. Gifford to prison to the three ministers beplement was in general use before the 12th century. fore for six months. The Dominicans claim the credit of the invention But one of the ministers, Mr. Thompson, who was for St. Dominic their patriarch, ever memorable, first imprisoned, was very sick when he came in, and in their language, ever glorious, as the founder and although divers persons of note in this city, in of the inquisition. Major Moore, in his Hindu Pan- the compassion of their hearts did go to the mayor theon, supposes the practice of praying by beads, to and sheriffs, and to Sir John Knight, to get leave be of Hindu origin. It is used also in Tartary. that he might go home, they could not prevail. Ysbrant's Ides describes a Lama whose thumb was And his physician interceded that he might be reworn through the flesh and nail up to the knuckle, moved out of that stinking prison to some more conby the perpetual telling of his beads. And this rub- venient house for air, and to administer somewhat bing off by slow degrees, did not pain him at all. more conveniently to him, and shewed the danger of his condition ; yet they hardened their hearts and a wainscott board in a convenient place in their would not grant it, because the bishop would not meeting, behind which he that spake did stand out give leave. So that on the 4th of March at 12 o'clock of the sight of the greatest part of the people, and in the night, Mr. Thompson, the said imprisoned yet all might hear, and they suffer none to come minister for Jesus Christ, departed this life in New- into that part of the meeting but friends; and when gate prison. He was a corpulent, tall, big man, the informers came, they had convenience to convey having lain in prison about three weeks two days. him that spake, out of that part of the meeting into Of that he was sick about one week. Wherefore, another house. being gross, could not keep him, so that the next Brother Gifford's people took this course. A comday, being the 5th of March, he was honourably pany of tall brethren stand about him that speaks, interred at Philips, being carried from the prison to and having near his feet made a trap door in the his grave accompanied with all sorts of professors floor, when the informers come, then let down the except Quakers. * Insomuch that the like funeral for brother that speaks into a room under, keeping one number had not been seen in Bristol in the memory at the door to give notice. of this generation, being judged by some to be not Mr. Thompson's people were not so much followed less than five thousand people of all sorts, which by the informers as the other three meetings for a made the adversaries admire. Such honour have all while, indeed but little at all in comparison with Mr. his saints.
Weekes's meeting and ours, for we did so fill their Now all our ministers being taken from us, one hands, that before they could have done with us, dead, the rest imprisoned, and we feared their deaths their meeting ended. “And Mr. Gifford's meeting likewise in such a bad prison, and we being pursued was frequently sheltered by our two meetings, which closely every meeting, hardly one escaped, but we lay as the frontiers of their assaults. But when the were followed by the bishop's men, Hellier, or other bishop's men did some week days follow Mr. Thompinformers and officers from the mayor. For our son's meeting, they likewise contrived ways to frusparts, at our meeting, we presently made use of our trate the informers and save their speakers. (Having ministring gifts in the church as we did in former lost their minister as before related.) Now their persecutions, contenting ourselves with mean gifts meeting place being a lower room, and two lofts and coarse fare in the want of better. In order to over head, one over another, they made a door to prevent spies, that might come in as hearers, and the stair foot into the second story, and made the yet that strangers or persons we knew not, might minister stand in that middle room, and so he not be hindered from coming into our meeting, preached that they below and over might all hear, whether good or bad, to hear the Gospel, we con- and they caused a curtain to be made that when the trived a curtain to be hung in the meeting-place that informers came in they might draw that curtain bedid enclose as much room as about 50 might sit fore the ministers, that the informers could not see within it; and among those men he that preached him that preached, but only hear him, and could not should stand. That so if any informer was private come at him by reason the new door at stairfoot was in the room as a hearer, he might hear him that kept fast, and none suffered to go up but those they spake, but could not see him. There were brethren knew. And if they went to break open the door, without the curtain that would hinder any from before that could be done, they could from that going within that they did not know to be friends. second story convey the minister away into another And when our company and time was come to begin house; and if they had timely notice, they would be the meeting, we drew the curtain and filled up the all singing when the informers came, as we and Mr. stairs with women and maids that the informers Weekes's meeting did. These ways we took to could not quickly run up. When we had notice that maintain our meetings, and the Lord helped us. the informers or officers were coming, we caused the Thus in brief, was the manner of the four congregaminister or brother that preached, to forbear and sit tions in general. But our particular troubles at Mr. down. Then we drew back the curtain, laying the Hardcastle's, are as follow. whole room open that they might see us all, and all
S. J. B *****. the people began to sing a psalm. At the beginning
To be continued. of the meeting we did always name what psalm we would sing if the informers or the mayor or his
ERRATUM. officers came in. Thus when they came in they Page 132, second column, line 10 from the bottom. could not find any one preaching, but all singing. For The result of their deliberations seem to And we ordered that none read the psalm after the
have been,' read · The result of their deliberations first line, but every one bring their bibles and read
seems to have been.' for themselves, that they might not lay hold of any one for preaching, or as much as reading the psalm; which means the Lord blessed, that many times when the mayor came, they were all singing, that SCRIPTURE LIGHT ON IMPORTANT he knew not whom to take away. And when the
SUBJECTS. mayor, Hellier, or other informers had taken our names, and done what they would, and carried away
(Continued from p. 157.) whom they pleased, and were gone down out of our
The new relationship of Man with God. rooms, we ceased singing and drew the curtain again, and the minister or brother would go on “Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace again with the rest of his sermon until they came with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom. again, which sometimes they would thrice in one meeting. Thus was our constant manner during “ But speaking the truth in love, may grow up this persecution in Ollive's mayoralty, and we were into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ in a good measure edified, and our enemies often (Eph. iv. 15). disappointed. Laus Deo.
“ If any man love God, the same is known of him" We taking this course, after a little while, Mr. (1 Cor. viii. 3). Weekes's people did so likewise. They shut up one “ Now are we the sons of God; and it doth not of their doors, and instead of a curtain, they put up appear what we shall be ; but we know that when
he shall appear we shall be like him, for we shall His religious opinions, however, were not so fully see him as he is” (1 John iii. 2).
matured as those of some of his philanthropic friends; “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature ; but we rejoice in the following hopeful testimony old things are passed away ; behold all things are from his "Memoirs,” by his son:become new” (2 Cor. v. 17).
“His nights were very wakeful, and spent in “ The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, much uneasiness of body; he became very silent that we are the children of God: and if children, and thoughtful; and with his Bible open before him, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ; spoke more than usual upon religious subjects if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be perhaps it would be more correct to say upon God, also glorified together" (Rom. viii. 16, 17).
and his disposition towards man. His mind seemed “ Know ye not that your body is the temple of the less occupied with speculations, and more with his Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, own personal relationship to his Creator. Our Lord and ye are not your own" (1 Cor. vi. 19).
Jesus Christ was very frequently the subject of his “He that overcometh shall inherit all things; thoughts; he seemed often perplexed and not able and I will be his God, and he shall be my son" to comprehend much of his history. He once said (Rev. xxi. 7).
to me, It is a great mystery to me-I cannot unNew Character towards the World and his Fellow
derstand it.' At another time he told me, that, dur
ing the many sleepless nights he passed, the conMen.
templation of the character of Jesus Christ, and " That ye put off, concerning the former conver- thoughts concerning the Gospel, with prayers to sation, the old man which is corrupt according to God, was his chief occupation. He spoke of the dethe deceitful lusts, and be renewed in the spirit of light he had in dwelling on his noble character. I your mind. And that ye put on the new man, which have heard his voice falter as he repeated, “He went after God is created in righteousness and true holi- about doing good;' but he added, “There is much ness" (Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24).
connected with him I cannot understand.' I cannot “ Neither yield ye your members as instruments attempt to give his words; but his difficulty lay in of unrighteousness unto sin : but yield yourselves the account given of the manner in which Jesus beunto God as those that are alive from the dead, and comes the Saviour of man. On Saturday a great your members as instruments of righteousness unto change took place. He became very silent, and had God” (Rom. vi. 13).
the appearance of one listening. Whenever a word For the grace of God that bringeth salvation from the Scriptures was repeated to him, he always hath appeared to all men, teaching us that denying manifested that he heard it; and I especially obungodliness, and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, served that, at every mention of the name of Jesus righteously, and godly, in this present world” (Titus Christ, if his eyes were closed, he always opened ii. 11, 12).
them, and looked at the person who had spoken “ This is a faithful saying; and these things I them: I said to him, at one time, Jesus Christ loves will that thou affirm constantly ; that they which you.' He answered slowly, and pausing between have believed in God might be careful to maintain each word, “Jesus Christ-love-the same thing.' good works. These things are good and profitable After a long silence, he said, 'I believe We unto men" (Titus iii. 8).
said, in a low voice of inquiry, 'in God?". He answered, 'in Jesus.' He spoke but once more after this.
Upon our inquiry how he felt, he said— happy."" ADAM'S PEAK. The highest mountain in Ceylon is Adam's Peak, which is 8000 feet above the level of the sea. It has
THE PRIESTS OF NAPLES. seldom been ascended, not so much from its height, as from the difficulty of the latter part of the ascent,
This city swarms with priests, and religions of which is quite perpendicular; two ladies, however,
various denominations, so much so, that they seem to have been among the few adventurers, and got up
constitute nearly one third of the entire population, by means of chains and pulleys. The Mussulmans yet, far from indicating a greater degree of religioushave a tradition, that Adam, when driven out of ness than usual in the people, this excessive numerParadise, alighted upon the peak. And a mark,
ousness of ecclesiastics is no small cause, and conwhich bears à resemblance to a human foot, is sup- sequence likewise, of the laxity in which they inposed to be the impression made by him, while dulge. Hardly would they abound to the extent expiating his crime, by standing on one foot till his they do, were a severe discipline enforced; while, sins were forgiven.—Heber's Journal.
on the other hand, were there fewer of them, they would be better regulated; would be more open to
observation, and have some duties to perform, whereRELIGIOUS OPINIONS AND LAST MO
as, at present, they are mere loungers and idlers; MENTS OF SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.
every way unprofitable members of the community.
Some of them act the part of itinerant preachers, Sir James Mackintosh will long be remembered but their eloquence is like the oratory of the mountby British patriots and philanthropists.
ebanks and quacks-all is addressed, not to the heart, erful support of all measures for the extension of ci- but to the pockets, of their auditors. One of these vil and religious liberty, and especially for the abo. ambulant doctors of the church will take his station lition of the slave trade and the extinction of colonial on the mole or the corner of a street, where he slavery, endeared his name to thousands. On these mounts upon a melon-vender's stall, and forth with a accounts, independently of the service he rendered to crowd of lazzarain and others of the populace collects his country by his moral, metaphysical, and historical around him. He proceeds to denounce them most writings, by which his reputation was great among lustily as vile reprobates and sinners, for whom there the learned and the wise, his name deserves to be is no hope. The flames of purgatory, the day of honourably enrolled among those of his coadjutors, judgment, the horrors of final condemnation are deClarkson, Sharp, Macauley, Wilberforce, and Buxton. picted by him in tones truly terrific. When he thinks