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sat whittling upon a log near by: He was 2d. As a solvent of gums, gutta percha, as happy as a young father with his first India rubber, etc., it is said to be preferable bairn. He had formerly been in the mer- to any other article. cantile business in Warren, Pa., and having 3d. In the manufacture of gas it is said failed, had now gone in pursuit of oil, in to be cheaper and better than the best fish hopes of retrieving his fortune. His first oil. well in another locality was unsuccessful, 4th. It is now used to a certain extent for and he abandoned it almost discouraged, and lubricating purposes, but experiments are in with scarcely a cent left. With the help of progress which justify the belief that it can friends, however, he secured another site, 'be made one of the best lubricators in the and after patient drilling for a few weeks world. had met with what every one deemed great 5th. For export it is worth all it costs, success. He asked me if I was from New and is already extensively shipped to foreign York. I told him that I was. He then in- markets. But quired if I knew various firms in New York. 6th. As an illuminating oil it excels every I told him that I did. “Well,” said he, thing yet produced. It is already adopted "when you see them, tell them that Williams, to a great extent by the various railroad of Warren, is all right; that he has struck lines, and government has just closed a large oil,' and they will soon hear from him.” I contract for it to supply the lighthouses congratulated him upon his success. "Well,” upon our coast. In fact, it possesses twentyhe said, " he could call but one-sixth of it five per cent more illuminating power than his own, having been obliged to pledge all the best coal oil, and from the fact that it the rest for means to carry it through.” does not chill in the cold is far superior to “But,” said he “I shall take that arrange- the best sperm oil. In fact, Messrs. Editors, ment up, and put in the drill again; I am coal oil no longer pays for making, and soon not satisfied with that, and mean to have a the poor whale will be followed only for his thirty-barrel well yet.” We laughed at his bones. enthusiasm, and thought he had better let Similar oil has been found in Canada, in well enough alone. We left him, however; Kentucky, in Ohio, and in Kansas, as well and, about two weeks later—as soon as he as in other countries of the globe, but this had replenished his pockets—as good as his of Oil Creek is said to be equal, if not suword, he opened his pipe, put in the drill perior, to the best ever yet discovered, and again, and, after drilling about two feet and it certainly is a source of wealth of which a-half, opened a perfect river of oil, which Pennsylvania may justly be proud. was forced by the gas over the top of the There are many speculations as to the tube at the rate of ten barrels per hour for origin of this oil. Dr. Deck, of this city, has about twenty hours, when the gas having recently visited the region, and will no doubt blown off, the oil subsided and settled to a soon enlighten the public as to his researches, level within sight of the top of the tube. A but with no pretensions to scientific knowlpump has since been inserted, and the daily edge. I will give my guess, that, geologiyield is now from seventy-five to one hun-cally speaking, this oil is all found below dred barrels. Another well was opened last the bituminous coal beds, and I have little week within a few miles of this, with similar doubt but that it is the drainage from those results, the oil discharging in such quantities beds. This is a crude theory, but, whether for more than a day as to make it impossible correct or not, it may provoke a better one to secure it, and it is supposed that not less from some scientific or practical geologist, than fifty barrels ran off into the creek and and thus I shall gain a point, at least. was lost. You will perceive by these facts I should have stated in the proper place that this is a growing affair, of which we that this oil comes from the earth of a dirtyhave as yet but a faint conception; and it is brown opaque color, and, on account of a safe to venture the assertion that no mining large admixture of gas, readily takes fire. in the world pays better for the labor be- Several accidents have taken place in constowed, or with greater certainty, than this sequence of the use of lights about the wells rock oil. This region, too, is within twenty- and vats; barrels, oil and all have been clean four hours of the city, and offers an abundant burnt off in the conflagration. Upon refining opening for the poor laborer as well as for it, however, it parts with all these offensive the man of means seeking an investment. properties, losing from fifteen to twenty per
But what are the uses of this oil? We cent, only in bulk, and yielding a fluid as will name a few of them :
pure and limpid as the best spring water, 1st. In medicine it has long been used as free from explosive qualities as the best under the name of Seneca oil, and is a val- sperm oil, and worth seventy-five to eighty uable liniment, possessing nearly all the cents the gallon. So far nearly all the wells virtues of arnica, etc.
have been quietly monopolized by a large
diride the federal territory, it is s possible that Germany can assume position as the greatest of continental The imperfect military, organization league can only be corrected by play the northern and western contingent the absolute control of Prussia; scandals which have occurred in E Hesse prove that the authorized intei of the same power is necessary to cor abuses of civil administration. Thi of Prussia, or his successors, must h overrule the misdirected delicacy w clines a patriotic duty because it si tend to personal aggrandizement; bu theless, the refusal to disturb Ger rangements, on the invitation of was at the same time prudent and The impudent pretext which was pu to justify the seizure of Savoy fu suficient illustration of the overtu were addressed to the supposed Prussia
. The pamphleteers of Par with imprudent logic, that the me of Hanover and of Brunswick you as legitimate a ground of compe France as the recent aggrandi
but the representativ many, even if he thought it desir form the ancient tenure, was not pay a fine for enfranchisement to the adjacent manor. There is re lieve that, if the concurrence could bave been obtained, Prussi have been indisposed to resist lawless and menacing annexati and Nice. The immediate obje ing the Rhenish Provinces fro has, for the present, been secured cost, but one of the alternative held out by France still presse many. Internal division, occas erated by common fears, is bette dismemberment; but any serio create a sounder organization bly be met by a revival of F sion.
From The Saturday Review, 18 Aug. For the time, the princes of the confeder-
ation seem to be cultivating the most harTHE German sticks seem to be tying monious relations. The king of Hanover, themselves up into something like a faggot. who lately allowed his minister to hold out Æsop himself could not have pointed the a French alliance as a menace to Prussia, moral of union and strength more forcibly was frightened by the visit of Napoleon III. than their industrious neighbor who came to Baden, and was won over by the loyal to Baden in search of stray bits of wood frankness with which the compliment was which he might break up to light his fire. received and slighted. The grateful guests The regent of Prussia is influenced in his invited the prince regent to complete the German policy by scruples which seem ex- union of Germany by the renewal of friendly cessive to some of the wisest of his coun- relations with Austria, and the interview of trymen. His anxious respect for the rights Töplitz seems to have led to an understandof the princely houses is scarcely reconcil. ing which, in connection with the English able with the permanent interests of the na- armaments, accounts for the pacific language tion. As long as six-and-thirty sovereigns which has recently been employed by France. divide the federal territory, it is scarcely No foreign power will ever venture an attack possible that Germany can assume her true on united Germany; and it seems probable position as the greatest of continental powers. that, at the present moment, an invader The imperfect military, organization of the would be met by the whole force of the conleague can only be corrected by placing all federation. The permanence of the concord the northern and western contingents under among the governments must depend on the the absolute control of Prussia; and the removal of the causes which have hitherto scandals which have occurred in Electoral produced constant dissension. It is possible Hesse prove that the authorized intervention that the emperor of Austria may have promof the same power is necessary to correct the ised substantial concessions to Prussia, in abuses of civil administration. The prince reference to the Hessian question, to the of Prussia, or his successors, must hereafter composition of the Diet, and to the command overrule the misdirected delicacy which de- of the federal armies ; but if no serious clines a patriotic duty because it seems to change has been effected, the existing friendtend to personal aggrandizement; but never- ship will be as liable to accidents as any theless, the refusal to disturb German ar- ordinary alliance between foreign states. It rangements, on the invitation of France, will be no hardship for France to wait till was at the same time prudent and dignified. the re-opening of some standing quarrel again The impudent pretext which was put forward leaves an opportunity for external intrigue. to justify the seizure of Savoy furnished a One statement, which is probably true, sufficient illustration of the overtures which augurs well for the genuineness of the recent were addressed to the supposed cupidity of approximation between the governments. Prussia. The pamphleteers of Paris showed, Austria is said to have acquiesced in the with imprudent logic, that the mediatization wise refusal of Prussia to guarantee the of Hanover and of Brunswick would furnish Venetian territory unless the expected Italian as legitimate a ground of compensation to attack is supported by France. Last year's France as the recent aggrandizement of experience has perhaps convinced the statesPiedmont; but the representative of Ger- men of Germany that there is no chance of many, even if he thought it desirable to re- aid from England in any war which may be form the ancient tenure, was not disposed to directed against the independence of Italy. pay a fine for enfranchisement to the lord of The reported intention of Austria to act the adjacent manor. There is reason to be against Garibaldi in Naples is menacing to lieve that, if the concurrence of England the peace of the world, as it would furnish could have been obtained, Prussia would not an excuse for the interference of France, and have been indisposed to resist by force the at the same time ensure the neutrality of lawless and menacing annexation of Savoy England. If the contingency should unhapand Nice. The immediate object of secur- pily arise, Prussia would probably attempt ing the Rhenish Provinces from invasion to confine the theatre of war within the has, for the present, been secured at a cheaper limits of Italy. If France took the initiacost, but one of the alternatives which are tive against Austria, even on the Venetian held out by France still presses upon Ger- frontier, the whole of the German Confedermany. Internal division, occasionally mod-ation would at once enter into the struggle ; erated by common fears, is better than actual but, in a single-handed war between Austria dismemberment; but any serious attempt to and Italy, it would be unnecessary, imprucreate a sounder organization would proba- dent, and unjust for Prussia to interfere. bly be met by a revival of French preten- Venetia is, unfortunately, a constant source
of danger to Europe, as it involves a stand
pare, in negotiation or in war, for par cal and unexpected results. The di at Canton, and the consequent disp English force, led to Lord Elgin's pro treaty, and the attempt to ratify the e ment produced the disaster on the The results of the English and Frer pedition which lately left Hong Ko the north are, for the present, ext doubtful
The majority of the few residents in land who possess any special knowle China deprecate an undertaking whic be mischievous by its success as well its failure. It is asserted, with muel sibility, that the imperial government spring or regulator of a vast and d machine, which may at any moment incapable of working. Notwithstandii porary interruptions and local exce the rule of Pekin maintains order a fourth part of the human race; and i possible to estimate the confusion might be produced by the withdrawa central object of obedience. Provin
bellions have long since been recogn the Chinese mind as a customary es to the general unity of the empire ; 1 said that the humiliation of the gove by the capture of Pekin would disso allegiance of the subject populations duce a state of universal anarchy. mercial war which led to the destri national industry would be as co! mistake as an unreasonable dema might drive a substantial debtor ruptey, It may be conjectured th cient equilibrium of social order i too stable to be overthrown in a s paign, and that the prophets of e other theorists on the same subje confident and dogmatic in their pr On the other hand, their views are by the moralists who, like Mr. when he was out of office, regarı the purpose of forcing admissio as a crime, which happens incide also a blunder. There is no dou highly unsatisfactory to attack & which can never be induced to n ordinary etiquette of hostilitie tires are as willing to work for As to serve their own governm mandarins themselves, at a st from the scene of action, inter tesies with the foreign officers. nor-general of Canton has jus the English a perpetual lease ground for the purpose of for opposite Hong Kong. The in moral justification of the war into the principles of ethical p
pore, in negotiation or in war, for paradoxi- it ought to have been commenced at the cal and unexpected results. The disputes time of the original collision, when Mr. at Canton, and the consequent display of Gladstone characteristically advocated the English force, led to Lord Elgin's promising right of the Chinese to destroy the invader treaty, and the attempt to ratify the engage- by poisoning their wells. Even if the gorment produced the disaster on the Peiho. ernment of Pekin were, in the first instance, The results of the English and French ex- entitled to shut up the empire with a wall of pedition which lately left Hong Kong for brass, it by no means follows that the treaties the north are, for the present, extremely of Sir Henry Pottinger and Lord Elgin are doubtful.
to be regarded as waste paper, for the deThe majority of the few residents in Eng- fence of a possession which may at a former land who possess any special knowledge of time have been wrongfully acquired may China deprecate an undertaking which may often become both justifiable and necessary. be mischievous by its success as well as by Where so much may be said on both sides its failure. It is asserted, with much plau- of the question, it is as well to leave it unsibility, that the imperial government is the said. The immediate occasion of the present spring or regulator of a vast and delicate war is also unfortunately in a high degree machine, which may at any moment become questionable, but in the middle of a camincapable of working. Notwithstanding tem-paign it is too late to examine the merits or porary interruptions and local exceptions, the quarrel. the rule of Pekin maintains order among a In answer to the objection which is founded fourth part of the human race; and it is im- on the duty of maintaining the imperial govpossible to estimate the confusion which ernment, a well-known writer in the Times, miglit be produced by the withdrawal of the substituting his own experience for the ordicentral object of obedience. Provincial re- nary function of discussion and criticism, bellions have long since been recognized by asserts that the unity of the Chinese is a the Chinese mind as a customary exception mere fiction, and that their most remarkable to the general unity of the empire ; but it is quality consists in their capacity for local or said that the humiliation of the government municipal organization. According to this by the capture of Pekin would dissolve the theory, the government and mandarins of allegiance of the subject population and pro- the capital are mainly responsible for all acts duce a state of universal anarchy. A com- of hostility to foreigners, and it is desirable mercial war which led to the destruction of to cripple their power and to punish their national industry would be as complete a ill-feeling by a vigorous attack on Pekin. mistake as an unreasonable demand which It must be admitted that the cool indiffermight drive a substantial debtor to bank- ence of the provincial authorities seems to ruptcy. It may be conjectured that the an- show that it is easier to establish friendly cient equilibrium of social order in China is relations in detail than to conclude a satistoo stable to be overthrown in a single cam- factory arrangement with the empire as a paign, and that the prophets of evil, like all whole. When one viceroy at the outbreak other theorists on the same subject, are too of a war leases ground for an enemy's camp, confident and dogmatic in their propositions. and another receives an English consul at On the other hand, their views are supported his own invitation, the bonds which unite by the moralists who, like Mr. Gladstone the official hierarchs with their august chief when he was out of office, regard a war for must be singularly elastic, if they are not the purpose of forcing admission to China already broken. The candid student inclines as a crime, which happens incidentally to be to either opinion in turn, as it seems to be also a blunder. There is no doubt that it is recommended by argument or authority; highly unsatisfactory to attack a population but, as a practical politician, he would probwhich can never be induced to maintain the ably refuse to take the most trivial step ordinary etiquette of hostilities. The na- either on the hypothesis that China is a hive tives are as willing to work for the invader with its indispensable queen-bee at Pekin, as to serve their own government, and the or on the assumption that it is rather to bo mandarins themselves, at a short distance considered as a vast federal republic. There from the scene of action, interchange cour- is no more vulgar abuse of the great adtesies with the foreign officers. The gover- vantage of newspapers than the propensity nor-general of Canton has just granted to to adopt positive opinions on insufficient the English a perpetual lease of a piece of grounds. Even the government has probaground for the purpose of forming a camp bly contented itself by issuing the most genopposite Hong Kong. The inquiry into the eral instructions to Lord Elgin and to the moral justification of the war would go deep naval and military commanders. into the principles of ethical philosophy, and If it proves to be true that the entrance