Page images

ble in the higher works of the imagination." But after acknowledging that such purpose should not be the predominant spirit of fiction and poetry, he adds, as it seems to us very justly:—

"But subordinate to this, which is not the duty, but the necessity, of all fiction that outlasts the hour, the writer of imagination may well permit to himself other purposes and objects, taking care that they be not too sharply defined, and too obviously meant to contract the poet into the lecturer—the fiction into the homily. The delight in Shylofk is not less vivid for the humanity it latently but profoundly inculcates ; the healthful merriment of the Tartuffe is not less enjoyed for the exposure of the hypocrisy it denounces. We need not demand from Shukspeare or from Moliere other morality than that which genius unconsciously throws around it— the natural light which it reflects; but if some great principle which guides us practically in the daily intercourse with men becomes in the general lustre more clear and more pronounced—we gain doubly, by the general tendency and the particular result."

The taste of the present age at all events runs strongly in favor of " a moral purpose." All the most successful novels ol the last twenty years have either had, or seemed to have, such an object. Even Mr. Thackeray's satires have their moral, such as it is j i.e., that all is vanity. We need scarcely point to "Jane Eyre," "Uncle Tom," "Adam Bede," "Martin Chuzzlewit," or "David Copperfield," in proof of our remark. And whether the doctrinal vein which permeates Sir Edward's novels spring exclusively from his own conceptions of art, or be the result of conformity to a prevailing sentiment, its management, at all events, is in the highest degree creditable to his literary skill. It is never wholly lost sight of, yet never obtrusive to the detriment of the main interest. Like Charles II.'s model minister, it is never in the way and never out of the way.

As we note the influence of active life upon his natural disposition, may we, in turn, note the influence of his natural disposition upon his active life? In his views of political questions he is remarkable for rising above all purely empirical considerations j and has always shown himself a sympathizer with the more generous and spiritual of any two conflicting parties. When the ancient fabric of Georgian Toryism, which had so long towered proudly over the land, was assailed by the champions of progress and development, he, in common with thousands of impulsive and sanguine young men, joined the ranks of the assailants. But when the disciples of progress, not content with redressing anomalies, began to cast stones at institutions,—

when they began to disgust all refined and cultivated intellects by the apotheosis of utility, and the desecration of our national traditions,—then the man of imagination, of broad general views, the champion of intelligence and letters, at once abjured their companionship, and set himself to resist their policy. In each case he chose his party when its prospects of success were remote, and its popularity at a low ebb, regardless of any thing but what he considered to be in each case the triumph of intelligence over prejudice. When he found his first expectations disappointed,—when he discovered that the little finger of the ten-pounder was heavier than the loins of the boroughmonger, —when his taste and understanding were alike shocked by the uneducated bullies and callous cosmopolites who -were gradually domineering over Parliament, he at once threw in his lot with the apparently losing side, and brought all the weight of his eloquence, his zeal, and his knowledge to the aid of Conservatism. Of his oratory it is perhaps sufficient to saythat it is worthy of the pre-Reform era. He is one of the few men in the present House of Commons who have compelled attention to the highly wrought diction and impassioned appeals which constituted the glorious eloquence of our grandfathers. We have no hesitation in saying that his last speech upon Reform has never been surpassed in Parliament. In the exquisite finish of his periods, in the felicity of his illustrations, the remarkable clearness of his statements, and the happy play of his wit, he rqse to the full stature of the orator. There was, moreover, a character stamped upon the speech, producing the invaluable impression that it was not worked up for the occasion, but was drawn from the abundant riches of an intellectual treasury ready at any moment to answer the demands of its possessor.

Taken altogether, Sir Bulwer Lytton is as favorable a specimen of the literary statesman as could possibly be selected. With the wide reading and high power of generalization which were so effective in the late Lord Macaulay, he combines a real heartfelt sympathy with the more spiritual cravings of our nature. No sneer at enthusiasm, no mockery of humanity has ever sullied his pages. His chief parliamentary efforts are associated with the interests of literature and the cause of the constitution. His books reflect his experience of the world in the most charitable and generous spirit; and his public life carries out the promise of his books with honesty and consistency. Long and deep study has supplied him with general principles, which in- has not disdained to fill out, and corroborate by a careful induction of particulars. His speeches are full of facts, and his arguments, where necessary, are based on figures. Because he is one of our finest orators, he is not, therefore, one of our least practical statesmen. He has shown that he possesses high administrative ability as well as senatorial eloquence. And whatever be his future career, he stands before us at the present moment a solitary specimen of a combination as rare as it is ad

mirable. Disraeli left literature for politics. Macaulay left politics for literature. Bulwer Lytton yet retains his grasp of both; and is at once an ornament of the House of Commons and, through his works, a cherished guest at the fireside. Long may he continue to charm us in his twofold capacity; to enliven the wearisome statistics of modem debate by his bursts of eloquence, and to supply the antidote to much that is pernicious in the stream of contemporary fiction.


Hebe's a stunning set of us,

Fast young ladies;
Here's a flashy set of ns,

Fast young ladies;
Nowise shy or timorous,
Up to all that men discuss.
Never mind how scandalous,

Fast young ladies.

\Vide-awakes our heads adorn.

Fast young ladies; Feathers in our hats are worn,

Fast young ladies;

Skirts hitched Op on spreading frame,
Petticoats as bright as flame,
Dandy high-heeled boots, proclaim

Fast young ladies.

Biding habits are the go,

Fast young ladies,
When wo prance in Rotten Row,

Fast young ladies,
Where we're never at a loss
On the theme of " that 'ere 'oss,"
Which, as yet, wo do not cross,

Fust young ladies.

There we scan as bold as brass,

Fast young ladies,
Other panics as they pass,

Fast young ladies;
Parties whom our parents slow,
Tell us we ought not to know;
Shouldn't we, indeed! Why so,

Fast young ladies?

On the turf we show our face,

Fast young ladies; Know the odds of every race,

Fast young ladies; Talk, as sharp as any knife, Betting slang—we read Belt's Life: That's the ticket for a wife,

Fast young ladies!

We are not to be hooked in,

Fast young ladies;
I require a chap with tin,

Fast young ladies.
Love is humbug; cash the chief
Article in my belief:
All poor matches come to grief,

Fast young ladies.

Not to marry is my plan,

Fast young ladies,
Any but a wealthy man,

Fast young ladies.
Bother that romance aud stuff!
We are better up to snuff,
She who likes it is a muff;

Fast young ladies.

Give mo but my quiet weed.

Fast young ladies,
Bitter ale and ample feed.

Fast young ladies;
Pny my bills, porte-raonnaie store,'
Wardrobe stock—I ask no more.
Sentiment we vote a bore,

Fast young ladies.


A Short Portrait Of Queen Anne.—She was a dull woman, with a dull husband. They had little to say for themselves; their great pleasures were in eating and driuking. The queen was absurdly fond of etiquette; and as there was nothing to startle decorum in the court morals, the mistress in King William's time had given something of a livelier stir to the gossip. Swift describes Anne in a circle of twenty visitors as sitting with her fan in her mouth, saying about three words once a minute to some 'that were near her, and then, upon hearing that dinner was ready, going out. In the evening she played at cards, which, long before, and afterwards, was the usual court pustime ut that hour. She.does not appear to have been fond of music, or pictures, or books, or any thing but what administered to the commonest animal satisfactions.



To the Editors of the Evening Post:

I Have recently been very much interested in a visit to Oil Creek, and believing that your readers would be edified with a brief account of the wonderful developments there to be witnessed, I have concluded to jot down a few of my observations:—

Titusville, Crawford County, Pennsylvania, is the emporium of the oil regions, and from a quiet little farming community has suddenly become a bustling, thriving town, having within five or six months doubled its buildings and trebled, if not quadrupled, its population. A newspaper has been successfully started; an oil refinery is in full blast, and a steam cooperage is turning out iron-hooped barrels at the rate of some two hundred per day. A Boston company has secured a site for a large hotel, which is very much needed, and will soon be built, and a railroad is surveyed to Union Mills, some twenty-two miles distant, which is to be immediately constructed. In fact, the crowd of spectators and of miners in search of employment, as well as visitors from curiosity, so throhg the place as to make it more like a juvenile San Francisco than the quiet place it was a few months since.

From the surface indications of oil which have long been known to exist in this region, it was inferred that fountains might be found underneath, and a Mr. Drake was the first man to conceive the plan of an artesian well in search of it. It was only last September that he commenced boring, and not before February or March were the results realized •which wellnigh turned the heads of most of the inhabitants. He obtained a well which yielded, by pumping, some fifty barrels of oil per day, worth in the crude state thirty cents per gallon. Speculation at once commenced in lands. Some refused to sell at any price, while others received four or five times the amount that they valued their farms at a few weeks before, and these were resold again at large advances, or leased out in small parcels for a bonus in money and a large portion of the oil to be obtained. Other wells were immediately commenced, and have been starting with great rapidity ever since, until now it is estimated that at least two thousand are in progress, with flattering prospects, while some two hundred are either pumping or have found oil, and are awaiting the necessary pump and engine to work them.

The wells are all after one model, the artesian, varying in depth from seventy-five

to four hundred feet, an iron pipe of five-inch bore being inserted in each and driven to the rock, usually some thirty-five or forty feet below the surface. A pump is inserted through this, opening with tubing sufficient to carry it to the proper oil opening, and by means of a flaxseed bag the waters from above the oil are shut off, and the oil thus prevented from rising outside the pump. The pump is then worked by a steam-engine, and discharges a mixture of oil and salt water into a large vat standing near, where the oil immediately separating, runs off at an aperture in the top into a smaller vat, and the water is drawn off by a suitable opening in the side. From this second vat the oil is drawn immediately into barrels and, is ready for market. The expense ef running a pump is said to be not over six dollars per dav. Each barrel holds forty-two gallons, and you can readily calculate what profit there is in the business when the well yields from twelve to seventy-five barrels per day. Such is the value of the oil, that from the commencement the demand has been in advance of the supply, and it is sought with avidity by men ready to pay cash at the wells for every gallon. There are men there who have already made their fifteen or twenty thousand dollars in the last five months from their single wells, and many landholders who have realized a like sum from their leases, which are daily becoming more numerous and prolific.

I visited the Crossby well, which at first yielded seventy-five barrels per day. Owing to the filling in of the shaft with sediment it was at Ihat time yielding but twelve. Mr. Crossby was sinking another shaft near by, and as soon aa it was ready he intended to shift his pump, and by rimming out the old well had no doubt of obtaining the former supply. We next visited the Barnsdale well, which also commenced pumping last March. This well had steadily yielded from the first some fifteen barrels per day, but had recently increased, and was now Dumping eighteen. A few rods from this was the Williams well, which, at the time we were there, was the great and exciting topic of interest and conversation. The oil in this well came to the top with no admixture of water, and ran over. In order to save it a large plug was driven into the five-inch pipe, and a hole being bored through the centre of that, a three-eighth lead pipe was inserted, and being slightly curved, the oil was led<ffirectly into the bung of a barrel, and thus steadily day and night had it been running at the rate of twelve barrels per day for several days.

We wero Introduced to the owner, who sat whittling upon a log near bv. He was as happy as a young father with his first bairn. He had formerly been in the mercantile business in Warren, Pa., and having failed, had now gone in pursuit of oil, in hopes of retrieving his fortune. His first well in another locality was unsuccessful, and he abandoned it almost discouraged, and with scarcely a cent left. With the help of friends, however, he secured another site, and after patient drilling for a few weeks had met with what every one deemed great success. He asked me if I was from New York. I told him that I was. He then inquired if I knew various firms"in New York. 1 told him that I did. "Well," said he, "when you see them, tell them that Williams, of Wan-en, is all right; that he has 'struck oil,' and they will soon hear from him." I congratulated him upon his success. "Well," he said, "he could call but one-sixth of it his own, having been obliged to pledge all the rest for means to carry it through." "But," said he "I shall take that arrangement up, and put in the drill again; I am not satisfied with that, and mean to have a thirty-barrel well yet." We laughed at his enthusiasm, and tnought he had better let well enough alone. We left him, however; and, about two weeks later—as soon as he had replenished his pockets—as good as his word, he opened his pipe, put in the drill again, and, after drilling about two feet and a-half, opened a perfect rivor of oil, which was forced by the gas over the top of the tube at the rate of ten barrels per hour for about twenty hours, when the gas having blown oft', the oil subsided and settled to a level within sight of the top of the tube. A pump has since been inserted, and the daily yield is now from seventy-five to one hundred barrels. Another well was opened last week within a few miles of this, with similar results, the oil discharging in such quantities for more than a day as to make it impossible to secure it, and it is supposed that not less than fifty barrels ran oft' into the creek and was lost. You will perceive by these facts that this is a growing affair, of which we have as yet but a faint conception; and it is safe to venture the assertion that no mining in the world pays better for the labor bestowed, or with greater certainty, than this rock oil. This region, too, is within twentyfour hours of the city, and offers an abundant opening for the poor laborer as well as for the man of means seeking an investment.

But what are the uses of this oil? We will name a few of them:—

1st. In medicine it has long been used under the name of Seneca oil, and is a valuable liniment, possessing nearly all the rirtues of arnica, etc.

2d. As a solvent of gums, gutta percha, India rubber, etc., it is said to oe preferable to any otber article.

3d. In the manufacture of gas it is said to be cheaper and better than the best fish oil.

4th. It is now used to a certain extent for lubricating purposes, but experiments are in

Erogress which justify the belief that it can e made one of the best lubricators in the world.

5th. For export it is worth all it costs, and is already extensively shipped to foreign markets. But— ,

6th. As an illuminating oil it excels every thing yet produced. It is already adopted to a great extent by the various railroad lines, and government has just closed a large contract for it to supply the lighthouses upon our coast. In fact, it possesses twentyfive per cent more illuminating power than the best coal oil, and from the fact that it does not chill in the cold is far superior to the best sperm oil. In fact, Messrs. Editors, coal oil no longer pavs for making, and soou the poor whale will be followed only for his bones.

Similar oil has been found in Canada, in Kentucky, in Ohio,* and in Kansas, as well as in other countries of the globe, but this of Oil Creek is said to be equal, if not superior, to the best ever yet discovered, and it certainly is a source of wealth of which Pennsylvania may justly be proud.

There are many speculations as to the origin of this oil. Dr. Deck, of this city, has recently visited the region, and will no doubt soon enlighten the public as to his researches, but with no pretensions to scientific knowledge. I will give my guess, that, geologically speaking, this oil is all found below the bituminous coal beds, and I have little doubt but that it is the drainage from those beds. This is a crude theory, but, whether correct or not, it may provoke a better one from some scientific or practical geologist, and thus I shall gain a point, at least.

I should have stated in the proper place that this oil comes from the earth of a dirtybrown opaque color, and, on account of a large admixture of gas, readily takes fire. Several accidents have taken place in consequence of the use of lights about the wells and vats; barrels, oil and all have been clean burnt off in the conflagration. Upon refining it, however, it parts with all these offensive properties, losing from fifteen to twenty per cent, only in bulk, and yielding a fluid as pure and limpid as the best spring water, as free from explosive qualities as the best sperm oil, and worth seventy-five to eighty cents the gallon. So far nearly all the wells have been quietly monopolized by a large and enterprising drug house in New York, and the business will soon be of such magnitude as to defy monopoly, and then there will be an abundance of light.

Yours, W.

Your communication the other day did not give the latest and most astounding information from the oil regions of Pennsylvania. The centre of the excitement is now at a place called Tidioute, about seven miles above the mouth of Oil Creek, on the Alleghany. Boring for oil has been progressing there with little success for some months, but about ten days ago a monster vein of pure oil was struck, which flows over the top of the five-inch pipe like a fountain, discharging oil at the rate of a barrel per minute. It has been plugged up the same as was the Williams well at Tetorville, and a half-inch pipe inserted through the plug, by which the oil is conducted to tanks near by, holding fifteen barrels each, and it will fill one of these every half-hour. The farmer named Cobcll, who owns about one hundred and thirty acres of land where the discovery was made, can now take $200,000 for his farm, which six mqnths ago he would have readily sold for $5,000. Already some seventy wells are in progress, and several others have found oil in moderate quantities. People are rushing into Tidioute, and the place is crowded already with many more than the dwellings can accommodate. Speculation is raging in lands, especially in the valleys of Pine and Oil Creeks and along the Alleghany, as well as in leases, and wells

already commenced and with more or less signs of oil. Very few wells have been yet abandoned for want of encouragement, as the oil is found at depths varying from seventy-five to four hundred feet. The monster we]! above spoken of is but one hundred and twenty-four feetdeep. So far the oil is said to net the producers twenty-four cents per gallon. But the same oil is intrinsically worth fifty cents a gallon for refining, as it readily brings seventy-five cents in the pure state. The latest report from the Tidioute well, August 21st, says it was still regularly discharging at the rate of thirty barrels per hour. This well is certainly one of the wonders of the world.

The Rev. Howard Malcolm, D.D., late president of the university of Lewisburg, Pa., and formerly a missionary to Burmah, in a recent communication states that the Burmese Retrotician wells are about two and a-half miles from the Irrawady, and about three hundred miles from its mouth. There are four hundred of them in a space of twelve square miles. They are two and a half feet in diameter and three hundred feet deep, and have been worked for ages, without failing in any respect. Each well yields about four hundred pounds of'oil per day, besides large quantities of water. The temperature of the oil, as received in the buckets, is ninety degrees. It has been shipped so largely to England as to treble the price of it within a few years.

With such encouragement, you may well predict a "good time coming for whales." Yours, W.

The Envelops Business.—This has now become ono«f the most important branches of business, and a large capital is invested in it in various places. Envelopes were not introduced into Great Britain until tlio year 1839, and it was mnny years after that before they became generally used there. In this country it was not until the year 1845 that they were adopted, but in 1850 it is said 100 out of 112 letters were protected by an envelope, and since that time they have almost universally been employed. Fo'r some time envelopes were cut out and folded by hand, but the increasing demand soon led to the iuvciuiuii of machines for this purpose. In this country Mr. Gerald Sickles of Now York was the.iirst to perfect a machine, which answered a very gooil purpose for a while, but it is now superseded by others of a much better order, and

at the present time Messrs. Trumbull, Waters & Co., of this city, are supposed to own the patent of the best machine for tho manufacture of envelopes which is used. It is tho invention of Dr. R. L. Hawes, of this city, who is the originator of the envelope business here. The present firm of Trumbull, Waters & Co. have in use seventeen of theso machines, tho capacity of each being 10,000 per day. They employ steam power and produce about 60,000,000 envelopes annually, which are valued at Si 75 a thousand on an average, and which.find a market in all parts of tho country, they being sold to jobbers in every principal city of the Union. The largest shipment in any ono lot was seven tons sent to one jobber to fill an order. They manufacture 250 varieties and sizes, and of all styles, and employ seventy-five persons in the business.— Worcester Times.

« PreviousContinue »