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wards tlic Greek quarter especially—you are sure to find a comb-shop, a little place about as large as four parrots' cages, -where an old ragged Turk and a dirty toy are at work, straightening crooked bullocks' hotns by heat, eawing them into slices, chopping them thinner and thinner, and cutting out the coarse teeth. The workman, powdered with yellow horn dust, perhaps stops now and then to drink from the red earth jug that is by his side, or deals with a mahabiji, or street sweetseller, for that delicious sort of rice blancmange he sells—yellow all through, powdered •with white sugar, and eaten with a brass spoon of delightfully antique shape; or, he is discussing a shovelful of burnt chesnuts; or, a bead of maze boiled to a flowery pulp, eaten •with a ring of bread, and washed down with a draught from the nearest fountain ; or he is stopping, the patriarch master being away, to listen to the strains of an itinerant Nubian, •who stands under a mosque wall yonder, with a curious banjo slung round his black neck, the handle a big knotted reed, the body large as a groom's sieve and of the same shape. Some black female servants are near, also listening, and I can tell from what African province they are by the scars of the three gashes that, as they think, adorn their left cheeks. Close to where they stand, perhaps, is a shop full of fleas and pigeons, the latter always hustling about and cooing, and evidently on sale.
But shall I forget the tobacco shops that are incessant, that are everywhere; upon the hills and down by the water, round St. Sophia and close even to the Sublime Porte itself? In England, I have always from a boy envied two tradesmen, the one the cabinet-maker, the other the ivory-turner; the one, dealing with such a dainty material; the other, so dexterous and refined in its manipulations. In Turkey I always longed to be either a jeweller or a tobacco merchant, the one with a stock so portable and costly, the other with a trade so much patronized yet requiring so little apparatus. The tailor fags his eyes out, but the tobacco merchant buys his skinfuls of tobacco, or his leathern bagfuls of the Syrian jibili, the patient hammal throws it down in his shop, he buys a tobacco-cutter, a pair of scales, a brass tiara of a tray to nile the show samples up in, and there he sits and smokes till a purchaser come. No heart-breaking change, no docks to trudge to, no any thing. Nothing but to drag up brimming handfuls of the saffron thread and to sell it by the oke, trebling the price, of course, to an accursed Frank. What did the Turks do (I often thought) before smoking was invented 'i Did they play at chess, cut off Christians' heads perpetually, or murder their wives like Bluebeard, that vulgar typo of the Turk?
What did they do before coffee, on which they now seem to live, sipping it all day, hot, and black, and thick, tossing off grounds and all.
What is this shop, larger, wealthier, and more European-looking than its fellows, into which are now entering those three whiteveiled, nun-like Turkish ladies, who drew up their rich silks of violet and canary color quite above their yellow shapeless Iwots V They go in and sit down like so many chit dren, on the low four-legged rush-bottomed stools, so full of mirth and mischief, that they agitate and distress and delight the quiet Turkish sweetmeat-seller and his black servant, who is steeping little oval shelly pistachio nuts in a tin of melting sugar and oil. The walls of the shop are hung with long walking-sticks (cudgels, shall I say ?) of that precious and fragrant sweetmeat known in Iiareems as " rahat li koum," or " lumps of delight," which is a glutinous sort of jelly of a pale lemon or rose color, floured with sugar, and knotted and veined with the whitest and curdiest of almonds. It is a delicious, paradisaical, gluey, business, and horribly indigestible.
Those fair English friends of mine who nibble at a fowl, and sip hesitatingly at a jelly, wishing to be thought mere fragile angels who drink the essence of flowers and live upon invalid spoonfuls of the most refined delicacies, might derive benefit from seeing Zobeide, Scheherazade, and the fair Persian wives of that renowned pasha, Dowdy Pasha, consume yards — yes, positively yards — of those sweetmeat walking-sticks, washing down the bane of digestion with plentiful draughts of red-currant sherbet, raspberry sherbet, and fresh-made lemonade duly iced.
Then, with a zeal worthy of a better cause, forgetful of this morning's handfuls of rice and fowl, and long greasy shreds torn with their own fair fingers from a lamb roasted whole, how they fall to on piles of sweetcakcs, ending with a few spadefuls of comfits, laughing and talking all the time, and making light of the whole affair! I wish I could here burst forth with some scraps of Ilnfiz or Fcrdusi, and tell how warm and dark their antelope eyes were, and how the lucid tinge of a summer daybreak lit their cheeks. But, to tell truth, Zobeide was a whale of a woman, and was ruddled, not merely painted, with rouge; the fair Persian had Indian ink eyebrows, joining architecturally over her nose; and Scheherazade was white as a wall with smears of paint that marred her once pretty nose and dimpling mouth. As soon as they were trotted off in their little pea-green and gilt carriage, guardian negrcss and all, I went into the shop, about which I had all this time been loafingly prowling, and called, clapping my
hands, for some violet sherbet; because Mus- tance, hundreds did — as I was very well atsulman tradition distinctly tells us that that sured — without any reluctance at all, under great Arab epicure and sensualist, Mohamed, , the protection and shelter of a European's called this his favorite beverage. And now ' roof. They feel the prohibition is absurd; do I greatly desire to tell my readers all they know the Sultan has bartered his very about the flavor and fragrance of that well throne for a champagne flask, as his father and euphoniously named drink; only one did before him; so secretly they drink and thing prevents me, and that is, that my Turk are drunken. Indeed, I was told that the did not sell it, and no one else that I could more philosophical Turks consider champagne find out ever did, so I did not taste it, and merely a sort of heavenly bottled beer: in cannot compare it to all sorts of things as I ' the first place, because its froths, which Eastshould otherwise decidedly have done. 'ern wine docs not; secondly, because it is of Wine and spirits would not be sold at all a dull yellow color, when their wine is red. in Stamboul — at least openly — but that Besides, as long as nations choose the wisest, British subjects claim that privilege of sale, and bravest, and best of their nation for Raki, a sort of fiery oily anisette, peculiarly monarch, must they not follow his example, deleterious, is drunk with great relish by the and (saving the Prophet) get wisely, bravely, Greeks, and by those Turks who are lax in and in the best and most secret way possible, their religious observance, whenever they drunk from pure loyalty? can get it unobserved. I am afraid that tying j People have often laughed at Chataubridown poor human nature with unnecessary and's French dancing-master giving soirees restraints makes sad hypocrites of man, who ; to the Dog-rib Indians, and a better subject find it difficult enough to keep even the great for a farce could scarcely be conceived; but laws, and are always inventing some excuse all incongruous things are ridiculous, when to slip off Nature's handcuffs. I remember they are not on the one hand, also hateful, «r particularly one fresh bright morning that I, on the other, when they do not exile our was on the deck of a Turkish steamer that pity. So, apropos of raki, and the Turkish was ploughing through the Sea of Marmora, rak'es who drink it, I must describe the small and just sighting the. Seven Towers, beyond ! English tavern that I stumbled into just outwhich the cypresses and minarets were rising side the Arsenal walls. It was kept by a in a great watchful army, guarding the cres- Greek, and was in the Greek manner; but I cented domes of the still sleeping city. The found it was specially patronized by the Bngdeck was strewn with Albanians in their j lish mechanics whom thu Sultan keeps to liairy capotes, with slavish-looking thievish superintend the government manufactories. Greeks, and with Turks grave and cross- j These intensely English men, of course desleggcd on their prayer carpets. Here and pising sherbcrt, which they profanely and althcre, seated on the benches, were two or most insultingly called " pig's-wash," and dethrec half Europeanizcd Turks, attempting j testing raki because it was the secret bevercumbrously to imitate the ribald case of their ] age of " them precious villains of Turks," Greek friends. Threading the still half- j resorted to this grimy hostelrie, dirtier than sleeping groups, stepped the cafegee of the (tlie meanest village inn in "dear old Enboat with thimble cups of smoking black cof- gland," to wash the steel filings from their fee (half grounds as the Turks drink it) on throats and the sawdust from their lips, with his dirty trays. A Greek, in crimson jacket real expensive,oily,bilious,"old Jamaikcy?" and black worsted lace broidery all over it, — so old that the red and preen labels on suddenly produces an old medicine-bottle full; the bottles were brown and fly blown — and of raki, and passes it round. His Greek • with "Hollands," in square, black-green, friends drink and look religiously thankful, high-shouldered Ostade bottles. It was de~ for the autumn .morning is raw. Three ligntful to see the brave, cross-grained, grumtirnes — nay, four times — he smiles, and of- blingfellows lamenting English climate and fers it to the Turk, who looks away over the English taxes, cursing the Turks, and wishboat-side cpqucttishly. There is a curious ' ing they were in Wessex and Double Glouconstraint in the way he pushes the bottle coster again, "with all their hearts;" to sec from him: so Caesar pushed the crown, ac- them turning up their sleeves, and hammercording to the envious Cafsius; so Cromwell ings on the table for more grapes, and more did not push aside the bottle, if Cavalier rum, and to hear them shouting out, " It's mv gquibs be true. There is a thoughtful, spuri- delight, on a shiny night," and " Don't rob ons look about his eye, changing, with the ra-| a poor man of his beer," and discussing, pidity of a juggler's trick, to a quiet look of i with absurd eagerness, six-months-old English content and triumph, as he suddenly accepts news — reforms long since become law, and
the bottle, and slipping behind a fat Greek, takes an exhaustive slope of its contents. V,'!:;.i this man did with hypocritic reluc
treaties long since broken.
I have heard, indeed, that in the days of Mahmoud (the stern father of Abdul Medjid,
"the faindant)," that despotic Turk who destroyed the Janissaries, and introduced European reforms into Turkey, these bibulous friends of mine had rather a risky and troublesome time of it, for they stood upon their dignity as Britons, got feverish British beer into their brave, wrong-headed brains, and •were once or twice " pulled up " and nearly decapitated in a row tor not salaaming, " and all that rubbish."
And, now, while I am in this tavern den, trying to cat some horseflesh stew, there stands before me a ragged Greek vagabond, crafty as Ulysses, voluble as tho wingedfTvordcd Pericles, who, in hopes of a stray '•piastre, harangues mo and the engineers on A certain English pasha to whom he was once right-hand man. His gestures alone would be eloquence, for he beats his chest, and rends his dirty merino waistcoat.
"He (English pasha) keep white horse, black horse, red horse, blue horse, every sort horse; and I drive him, whip him, saddle him, break him, 'cos he (English pasha) Sultan great friend— every day at palace. I too at palace. I eat lamb, pistachio-nut. I eat kibob (very nice kibob) ; I drink shirab and champagne wine. I wear scarlet jacket and fustanella —white fustanclla—servant under me — horse under me — money—drink— all right — all good. All at once come wicked man to English sultan, whisper car — say, 'Take care, Anastase bad man, rogue-man.' English sultan call me, tell me, flog me—drive out faithful Anastase — take away horses — every ting. Now, Anastase dirtv man, poor man, thief man (laughs ironically), no raki, no kibob, no drink, no cat. Go 'bout ask good rich Englishman for little money. Thank, sir (smiles), drink health I"
I Chose next to wander by Betblchem Hospital; partly because it lay on my road round to Westminster; partly because 1 had a nightfancy in my head which could bo best pursued within sight of its walls and dome. And the fancy was this: Are not the sane nnd insane equal nt night as the sano lie ft dreaming? Are Dot all of us outside this hospital, who dream, more or less in the condition of those inside it, every night of our lives? Are wo not nightly persuaded as they daily are, that wo associate preposterously with kings nnd queens, emperors and empresses, and notabilities of nil sorts? Do we not nightly jumble events and personages and times and places, ns these do daily? Are we not sometimes troubled by our own sleeping inconsistencies, and do wo not vexcdly try to account for them or excuse them, just as these do sometimes in respect of their waking delusions? Said Mi afflicted man to me, when I was last in a hospital like this, " Sir I can frequently fly." I was half ashamed to reflect that so could j— by night. Said a woman to me on the same occasion, " Queen Victoria frequently comes to dino with me, and her majesty and I dino off peaches nnd macearoni in our night-gowns, and his Royal Highness the Prince Consort does us the honor to make ft third on horseback in a field-marshal's uniform." Could I refrain from rcddenning with consciousness when I remembered the amazing royal parties I myself had given (at night), the unaccountable viands I had put on table, and my extraordinary manner of conducting myself on those distinguished occasions? I wonder that tho great master who knew every thing, when he called sleep the death of each day's life, did not call dreams the insanity of each day's sanity.—All the Year Round.
"High Life Below Stairs."—The last editionofthe Bioyraphia Dramatics (1812),which Mr. Wylio does not seem to have consulted, at
tributes this farce to Townley, with the following remarks :—
"This piece has been often ascribed to Mr. Garrick ; but, as we now know, without foundation. BIr. Dibdin, who professes some particular knowledge as to this subject, says that Dr. 1 loudly had a hand in it; and there were other persons who were in the secret, but who conceived tho subject to bo rather ticklish.
"Wo believe that we have now, however, duly assigned the authorship of this piece absolutely to Mr. Townley; of which fact tho Into Mr. Murphy became satisfied before his death, from tho testimonials of James Townley, Esq., of Itamsgatc and Doctors' Commons, the author's son; and it was Mr. M.'s intention to have corrected tho fact, in a second edition of his Lift
Possibly some of your correspondents maybe able to afford information as to the nature of ilio testimony given by Mr. Townley, Juu., in support of his father's claim. W. H. Husk.
— Notes and Queries.
Tnu Fkuit Of Tub Forbidden Tree PoiSonous.—Could any of your readers inform me as to the originator of this opinion' In a work, recently published, on Metaphysics (by the Rev. John II. Mac Mahon),, tho author, whose note (p. 2.) on the above point displays considerable research, tells us that he has been nnablo to discover the name of any particular theologian espousing it, though the opinion itself is mentioned by Joscphus, Theophilus, and several of the Fathers, Eugubinus Steuchus,Lo Clerc.and others. Even Ludovicus Vivcs—a man well versed in sucli questions—acknowledges bis ignorance in this matter, as appears from a quotation, given in the note referred to, taken from his Commentary on St. Augustine's De Cintatt Dei.—Nota and Queries. Aiciriinon.
PANAMA HATS. | kept up. The bombonaxa is then bleached
BEHIND the principal chain of the Andes for two or three days. The straw thus preextends, on the banks of the Ucayale and the j pared is dispatched to all the places where Maranon, an immense plain inclined to the : the inhabitants occupy themselves with plaiteast, traversed by mountain ranges, and ing hats ; and the Indians of Peru employ the •which is called in Peru the Montana Real, i straw not only for hats, but also in making Under a rainy sky, which is often disturbed those delicious little cigar cases, which are by thunder-storms, the eternal verdure of the j often sold for $5 or $10 each, primordial forests charms the eye of the trav- j The Indians of Moyamba, evidently sprung eller, whilst the inundations, the marshes, the : from the Mongolian race, have large flat enormous serpents, the innumerable insects, j faces. Their eyes are placed obliquely, so arrest his hesitating march. This region, ' that the grand angle descends towards the through -which the communications are diffi- nose. The cheek bones are prominent; the cult, is called Lower Peru. brow is low and flattened ; the hair is black,
There grow in all the luxuriance of a lim- smooth, and glossy; their skin is of a brownited vegetation the most beautiful and gi-I ish red color; their figure ia tolerably good gantic plants, the loveliest and most odor- and regular. They live in groups and in litous flowers, the most useful shrubs, the herbs tie tribes, hidden in the virgin forests, or disthe richest, both as to production and value ! seminated over the vast pampas of Lower many of which are unknown in Europe, j Peru. It is to this race, which is in the highthough eminently appreciated in the country j est degree indolent, lazy, and selfish, that the itself. In Lower Peru grows the bombonaxa, world owes the bombonaxa hats. or hat straw, resembling as to form a tuft of When an Indian has made a dozen or so marsh reeds. The color is a delicate green, of these hats, besets out for the residence of a The hats called Panama hats, and made from dealer in the article, and generally arrives in the bombonaxa, have received the name they j the evening. Nothingis more curious than to bear from having first been imported from see the cunning Indian, his merchandise hid
Panama into the United States. In truth, however, the bombonaxa hats are exported from nearly the whole South American coast. Certain classes of Indians devote themselves
under the folds of his poncho, advancing toward the house of the supposed purchaser, waiting without stirring, and looking at the door in silence. When the dealer examines
exclusively to the making of these hats. The j a hat which the Indian has shown him, the process is a very long one, and this is one i latter asks an enormous price, which is in reason why the price of these hats is so high, j general three times the value of the article; The minute, delicate labor is longer or shorter j and when, after long discussion, heat last according to the quality; for whilst common j decides on concluding a bargain, one sees him articles demand scarcely more than two or examining with distrust the money which he
three days, those of the best description require entire months of care and attention. The plaiting of these hats occupies the
has received, and rubbing it in order to try whether it is good. If the sellers of the hats are to the number of two or three, he who
whole of the Indian colony of Moyobamba, j has concluded the bargain passes to the others on the banks of the Amazon, to the north of; the sum paid, in order that they also may see
Lower Peru. In this village men and women, children and old men, are equally busy. The inhabitants are all seen seated before their cottages plaiting hats and smoking cigarettes. The straw is plaited on a thick piece of wood, which the workman holds between his knees. The centre is begun first, and the work continued outward to the rim. The time the most favorable for this kind of work is the morning or rainy days, when the atmosphere is saturated wiui moisture. At noon, or when the weather is clear and dry, the straw is apt to break, and these breakings appear in the form of knots when the •work is ended.
The leaves of the bombonaxa, to be fit to
whether it is honest money. If the money pleases them the first man draws from his inexhaustible poncho a second, a third, a twentieth hat, as a conjuror draws every variety of article from a hat, and to fiach of the "Panamas" the same scene of distrust is renewed for the verifications of the money.
We can easily understand the slowness which results from this mode of sale. It is difficult to buy more than twenty hats a day, even in giving the best price. Thus, in order to collect two thousand hats representing a value of £1,000, a sojourn of three or four months in the country is required ; and as transactions with savages such as those in Lower Peru are difficult, dealers are obliged
be used, are gathered before their complete I to carry about with them both the money development. They are steeped in hotwater j and the merchandise. Notwithstanding these till they become white. When this operation j difficulties, the trade in hats is one of the suris terminated, each plant is separately dried est and most lucrative in the land, in a chamber where a high temperature is Moyobamba exports every year ten or
eleven thousand hats. The province of Pannamy produces much more than Peru. It is supposed that not less than sixty or eighty thousand hats are annually exported from the province of Pannamy. If the average price of a hat is reckoned at two piastres, their exportation will represent a value of about £40,000. The greater part of the hats are exported from Lima, but of late years the exportation has likewise taken place by v. ;i y of the Amazon.
Hitherto, the high price of the Panama hats has hindered their importation into Europe, but as the average price of a hat has fallen to alx'iii L' 1. they are now within the reach of nearly every one. The Panamas are distinguished from all other hats in being in a single piece, marvellously light, and of incomparable elasticity. They can be rolled and put in the pocket without any danger of being broken. In rainy weather they be
come black, but they recover their natural color when steeped in soapy water.
What constitutes and maintains the reputation of the Panama hats is, that neither heat nor insects which devour every thing under the torrid sun of the equator, can effect the bombonaxa straw. In the long run, nothing but humidity can destroy them. They last eight times as long as a Leghorn hat. They are easily carried about. They can be folded and rolled by the dozen, like the commonest merchandise. In short, the trade in Panama hats is the very best in South America, and it would be easy to establish it in Algeria, in the West Indies, and in Guiana.
There has been an importation into France of Panama hats not more than two years. The importation into England has just begun ; but it is sure greatly to extend.—London Illtutrated A. <••.-.
J. G. LOCKHART ON DR. MAGINN.
Walton-on-Thames, August, 1842. Here, early to bed, lies kind William Maginn, Who, with genius, wit, learning, life's trophies
Had neither great Lord, nor rich cit of his kin,
Lynn, lie turned author, cro yet there was beard on
And whoever was out, or whoever was in,
•pin; Who received prose and rhyme with a promising
grin, "Go ahead, yon queer fish, and more power to
But to save from starvation stirred never a pin. Light for long was his heart, though his breeches
Else his acting, for certain, was equal to Quin. But at lust ho was beat, and sought help of the
(All the fume to the doctor from claret to gin), Which led swiftly to gaol, with consumption
therein. It was much, wucro the bones rattled loose in
He got leave to die here, out of Babylon's din. Barring drink, and the girls, I ne'er heard of a
Many worse, better few, than bright, broken Ma* ginn.
Whejj a church clock strikes, on houseless ears in the dead of the night, it may be at first mistaken for company and hnilcd as such. But, as the spreading circles of vibration, which yon may perceive at such a time with great clearness, go opening out, forever and ever afterwards widening perhaps (as the philosopher has suggested) in eternal space, the mistake is rectified and the sense of loneliness is profonnder. Once—it was after leaving the Abbey and taming my face north—I came to the great steps of Saint Martin's church as the clock was striking three. Suddenly, n thing that in a moment more I should have trodden upon without seeing, rose up at my feet with a cry of loneliness and housclessness, struck out of it by the bell, the like of which I never heard. We then stood face to face looking at one another, frightened by one another. The creature was like a beetlebrowed, hair-lipped youth of twenty, and it had a loose bundle of rags on, which it held together with one of its hands. It shivered from head to foot, and its tectli chattered, and as it stared at me — persecutor, devil, ghost, whatever it thought me—it made with its whining mouth as if it were snapping nt me, like a worried dog. Intending to give this ngly object, money, I put out my hand to stny it—for it recoiled as it whined and snapped—and laid my hand upon its shoulder. Instantly, it twisted out of its garment, like the young" man in the New Testament, and left pic standing alone with its rags in my hand.—All the Year Sound.