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From Chambers's Journal. defences, and rendered the harbor safe and THE MAUSOLEUM MARBLES.
commodious. The latter was in the shape ENGLAND seems destined to become the of a horseshoe; from the water's edge, the depository of the relics of the grandeur of town rose in terraces, presenting the appearthe departed empires of the world. Already ance of a vast amphitheatre flanked by yolexceedingly rich in the possession of the art- canic hills, from which the walls descended istic glories of Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome, to the sea. Upon a rocky eminence stood Xanthus, and Carthage, our national mu- the magnificent palace of the king, commandseum could boast a finer collection of anti- ing a view of the forum, haven, and the enquities than the rest of Europe combined. tire circuit of fortifications. The labors of Elgin, Fellowes, Davis, and In this palace, in the year 353, after a Layard have now been crowned by Mr. New- prosperous reign of twenty-four years, Mauton, who has succeeded in bringing safe to solus died, and Artemesiа, his sister-wife, London the invaluable remains of that fa- reigned in his stead. Her first care was to mous wonder of the world which lived but in celebrate the obsequies of her husband with a name, that celebrated embodiment of a great ceremonies and solemnities. Poetical wife's love and a queen's pride, the Mauso- and rhetorical contests took place, in which leum of Halicarnassus, which, after an exist- Theodectes obtained the crown for his traence of centuries, had succumbed to some gedy of Mausolus, and Theopompus carried unknown power, and apparently “left not a off the oratorical prize from his great master rack behind.”
Isocrates. Having buried Mausolus, ArteBefore entering upon a rehearsal of the mesia resolved to honor his memory by the results of the successful excavations at Bu- erection of a monument such as the world drum, by which these treasures of ancient art had never seen. have been acquired, a brief history of the cir Pythius--probably the architect of the cumstances in which the Mausoleum origin- Temple of Minerva at Priene—seems to have ated may not prove uninteresting. been the artist selected to carry out the
Caria, a Dorian colony on the south coast queen's design, assisted by Scopas—the reof Asia Minor, after succumbing to Cresus puted sculptor of the Venus of Milo-Brythe Lydian, became, on his defeat by Cyrus axis, Timotheus, and Leochares, whose colosthe Great, a dependency of the Persian em- sal statue of Mars stood in the Hallicarnassian pire, although still governed by its own laws, temple of that deity. Artemisia did not see and ruled by its native princes. When Mau- the completion of her husband's monument, solus, the eldest son of Hecatomus, ascended for she survived him but two years. Her the throne, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes were successor, apparently, did not care to procontending for predominance in Greece, and ceed with it, as we are assured that the artpreparing the way for Macedonian suprem- ists finished their stupendous work out of acy; Persia was struggling with revolted love, looking upon its completion as necesEgypt, and youthful Rome resisting the as- sary for their own fame and the honor of saults of Volscians, Etruscans, and Gauls. their art. Comparatively free from the disturbing in Nearly four hundred years afterwards, fluences of war, the kingdoms and republics Pliny saw it in all its glory. According to of Asia Minor grew in wealth and impor- him, the circumference of the building was tance. The new monarch of Caria was am- 411 feet; its breadth from north to south, 63 bitious of founding a powerful maritime state. feet; its height, 25 cubits. It was ornaIn person, tall and handsome, Mausolus was mented with six-and-thirty columns. Above
as daring in battle as he was astute in his the pteron (colonnade) stood a pyramid equal policy, and unscrupulous in carrying it out. in height to the lower building, and formed of
He forced the Lydians to pay him tribute, twenty-four steps, gradually tapering towards conquered a portion of lonia, and compelled the summit, which was crowned by a chariot Rhodes to acknowledge his superior power. and four horses, executed by Pythius, makHe took part in the conspiracy of the satraps ing the total height of the work no less than against Artaxerxes, and assisted the enemies 140 feet. This gigantic monumental tomb of Athens in the Social War with ual im- was 80 solidly constructed, as to defy for punity
centuries the destroying band of time. Vi. Mylasa, an inland city, was the capital of truvius speaks of it as one of the marvels of ithe Kingdom; but struck with the natural the world ; Martial alludes to its peculiar advantages possessed by the birthplace of construction ; Lucian extols the beauty of Herodotus, Mausolus transferred the seat of the marble, and the life with which the government to Halicarnassus, and concen- sculptors had endued it. In the second centrated all his energies upon making it wor- tury, Pausanias declares how greatly the Roathy its destiny. He rebuilt the half-ruined mans admired it; in the fourth, it is mencity, crowned the surrounding heights with tioned by Gregory, bishop of Nazianzus ; in
the tenth, Constantinus Porphyrogennetus ered leading through an ante-chamber into speaks of it as still exciting wonder and laud- a noble apartment, in which stood a saration; and in the twelfth century, Eusta- cophagus with its white marble vase. For thius declares emphatically, “It was and is want of time they did not stay to uncover it, a marvel.” The precise period at which the but returned for that purpose next morning, Mausoleum fell into ruin is uncertain. The when they found the place strewed with probability is, that some time in the two pieces of golden cloth and fragments of orhundred years after Eustathius, it was over- naments. Some of the corsairs ever hoverthrown by one of those violent earthquakes ing round the place had been before them, prevalent in Asia Minor, although the Hali- and carried off every thing of value. Thus carnassian peninsula had for two thousand the shrine immortalized by the love and years enjoyed an immunity from the dread- pride of Artemisia was desecrated by the ful visitations which made such havoc among petty robbers of the isles, and the regal its neighbors.
relics of the Carian dynasty scattered to the After the downfall of the Roman empire, winds, after remaining undisturbed for eighmisfortune after misfortune befell the once teen centuries. proud city of the waters, until its very name Solymon expelled the Knights of St. John' was forgotten, and its site occupied by a from "Rhodes, and finally from Asia altosmall village called Mesy, depending on the gether. The Turks built Budrum on the mercy of the pirates roving the neighboring remains of the Carian city; the sea cast its sea. When the Knights of St. John of Je- sands on the shore; and the rain washed rusalem retreated to Rhodes in the year down the earth from the hills, obliterating 1404, they were struck with the military ad- one by one the ancient landmarks, till the vantages of the place, and took possession very site of the Mausoleum was a subject of of it, and, under the directions of their Great mystery and dispute. Bailli, Henry Schlegelholt, they constructed Thevenot, who visited Budrum in the mida citadel or castle out of the ruins around dle of the seventeenth century, noticed some them. In 1472, the Dalmatian Cepio who lions' heads and sculptured marble slabs inaccompanied the Venetian expedition under serted in the walls of the citadel, of which Pietro Mocenigo, discerned the remains of Dalton, a hundred years later, made drawthe tomb of the Carian king. Eight years ings. They also attracted the attention of afterwards, the castle was repaired at their Gouffier, Moult, Beaufort, Von Osten, and expense; but the threatened attack of Sul- Hamilton, but the jealous fears of the Turks tan Solyman in 1522 on the stronghold of seldom allowed any traveller to enter the inthe order, was the signal for the utter deterior of the castle. The Prussian professor, struction of the Mausoleum. Sensible that Ross, after seeing them in 1844, solicited it was a struggle for life or death, and well his government to obtain possession of the aware of the importance of the position, a slabs, as undoubted relics of the tomb of detachment of knights repaired to Mesy to Mausolus ; but our own archæologists had place it in a state of defence. Finding no anticipated him, and by their representabetter stones for burning lime than some tions, induced Lord Palmerston to forward marble steps rising in a field near the har- such instructions to Sir Stratford Canning, bor, they broke them up. In searching for that that ambassador procured a firman from more, they discovered that the building ex- the porte authorizing the removal of the bastended wider and deeper, and drew from it reliefs, which were accordingly deposited in not only stones for the kiln, but sufficient the British Museum in 1846, together with for building their fortifications. Having un- a cast from a similar slab discovered by Macovered the greater portion of the edifice, dame Schaffhausen, in the pavilion of the they one afternoon hit upon an opening, Villi Negroni, Genoa. The interest excited down which they scrambled till they found by these marbles revived the question as to themselves in a beautiful hall, decorated with the position of the Mausoleum. Ross was marble columns, with capitals, bases, archi- of opinion that it stood on a platform just traves, cornices, and friezes in bas-relief. north of the harbor, between the two hills The interstices between the columns were once crowned by the ancient citadels ; while cased with veneers of various-colored mar- Captain Spratt, after a careful examination bles-a Carian invention during the reign of the neighborhood, decided in favor of a of Mausolus-ornamented in harmony with lower position, due north from the castle, the other parts of the hall, the walls being and east of the harbor. Neither of thona covered with historical sculptures. After sites was exactly reconcilable with thental these artistic treasures had been duly ad-counts of Pliny and Vitruvius ; a superb mired, they shared the fate of the marble Charles Newton-who had neverondrous steps. Another entrance was then discov- Budrum-clinging to their veracit pyramid
steer, rising nd towering
the decisions both of Ross and Spratt, and the western side was found a staircase of in a paper in the Classical Museum for 1848, twelve steps, cut out of the rock, leading fixed upon a spot the surroundings of which from the l'heatre hill to the Mausoleum. had been so filled up by alluvial deposits | Between these stairs and the side of the that no traces of a terrace or platform were quadrangle, among terra-cotta fragments and discernible. So the matter rested until 1856, the bones of sacrificial oxen, lay several large when Mr. Newton was appointed vice-con- and beautiful alabaster ointment jars, the sul at Mitylene, and authorized to carry out finest bearing two inscriptions, one in the excavations on a large scale at Budrum, cuneiform character, the other in hieroglyphthree of her majesty's ships being placed at ics, rendered by Sir H. Rawlinson into his service, and every facility afforded him “Xerxes the Great King" a memorial, may for bringing his labors to a successful issue. be, of Artemisia's having saved that mon
The first results of Mr. Newton's opera- arch's children after the disaster of Salamis. tions were interesting, although not bearing | In front of the spot on which this vase lay, upon their grand object; they consisted of the tomb was closed by a large stone weighan immense number of terracota figures and ing at least ten tons, grooved at the sides, red unglazed Roman lamps, apparently as- and fixed into its place by bronze bolts insorted as for sale, a block of stone with a serted in sockets of the same metal, let into dedicatory inscription to Demeter and Per- marble slabs. It must have been into this sephone, a nearly perfect mosaic pavement apartment that the knights penetrated in of Roman and Grecian tiles, and the torso 1522. of a life-size statue of a dancing girl in rapid On the eastern side were dug up the torso of motion, more remarkable for boldness than a seated female, a portion of another colossal grace, resembling the figures on the Harpa- female, and four slabs of a frieze delineating gian monument among the Xanthian mar- Greeks and Amazons in conflict, but much bles. Prevented by the covetousness of the superior in style and execution to those preTurkish proprietors from proceeding with viously discovered, which, combined with the the excavation of Ross' platform, Mr. New- situation in which they lay, supplies reason ton turned his attention to another quarter, for attributing them to Scopas. The figures and after two days' digging discovered, on have not the slimness noticeable in the betthe very spot pointed out by him ten years ter known slabs, while the action is less before, portions of a frieze, a number of theatrical, and the subjects treated with architectural ornaments, the forepart of a great boldness and originality.
There is one horse, and part of a colossal lion, exactly splendid group. A Greek is attacking an like those taken from the castle walls. There Amazon, who bends backward, preparatory could be little doubt that the long lost site to dealing a tremendous blow with her batwas found, and proceeding with the work, he tle-axe; her tunic has slipped, and leaves came upon pieces of Ionic columns, and the bosom, neck, and thighs uncovered. Inbody of a colossal sitting figure. Close to deed, the clever management of the drapery this lay the remains of an equestrian statue, is a characteristic of all the Mausoleum a noble specimen of Greek colossal sculpture. sculptures. The horse is rearing. Its treatment exhib These treasures, valuable as they are, sink its great anatomical knowledge; the lower into insignificance by the side of the wonders portion only of the rider's body is preserved; brought to light in excavating to the north he is clad in Persian trousers ; the hand with of the Mausoleum. Beyond the apparent which he pulls back the animal is coarse, boundary of the building, a wall of white distinct, and bony, with every vein marked. marble ran parallel to it; beyond this wall, The body of a dog in high relief, and vari- under a mass of broken marble. was discorous fragments of lions, were the next acqui- ered a colossal horse in two pieces, (since, sitions; some of the latter have, after a sev- however, ascertained to be portions of two erance of four hundred years, been reunited separate animals,) exceeding in size any to the bodies which had done duty in the cit- Greek sculpture known. The bronze bit is adel.
still between the teeth. These are two of The foundations of the building were soon the four horses belonging to the chariot, reached, and the area discovered to be a the work of Pythius, and worthy of the best parallelogram measuring one hundred by one period of Grecian art, the treatment being hundred and twenty-six feet, cut out of the broad, natural, and masterly. Beside the natural rock; the interstices occasioned by horses lay a colossal lion, with the tongue the deficiencies in the rock being filled with chiselled to represent the prickly surface. oblong blocks of stone fixed with iron clamps, Mr. Newton was now on rich ground: within and the whole quadrangle paved with green- a space of fifty feet by twenty, lay piled upon stone. Under an accumulation of soil on one another, as they had fallen centuries ago,
the finest sculptures of this wonder of the the lesser flanges, so placed that one joint world. The two most important among never fell above another: the stones were them were mere fragments of marble ; but fastened together with strong copper clamps. every splinter was carefully collected, and We have enumerated all the more imporby the skill of Mr. Westmacott and his as- tant results of these interesting researches. sistants, they have been reconstructed—the Of the thirty-six Ionic columns mentioned statue of Mausolus himself from no less than by Pliny, the capitals of three only have been seventy-two pieces! This now only wants recovered in a perfect state ; but fragments the back of the head, the arms, and one foot. of every member of the order of the MausoThe whole conception is simple, yet grand. leum have come to light, by which their diThe Carian king stands in a dignified atti- mensions have been fixed, and the veracity tude; he wears a tunic and cloak, the for- of the ancient writers, as usual, vindicated. mer falling in continuous folds to the right As bearing on the much debated question hip; the heavy cloak descending from the respecting coloring statues, we may mention left shoulder, down the back, to the right that all the architectural and sculptural decohip, crosses the chest, and is gathered under rations of the Mausoleum were painted ; but the left arm, forming a study in drapery the action of the atmosphere soon removed from which the greatest living artists may the evidences of the Greek practice of marlearn something. The face is handsome and ble coloring. Beyond certain initials on intelligent; the hair rises from the middle some of the lions, not a solitary inscription of the low forehead, falling in long curls over was found on any remains belonging to the the ears; the moustache is full, and the beard monument. short. This, the oldest Greek portrait Lieutenant Smith, who accompanied Mr. statue extant, exhibits a skilful combination Newton, has made elaborate calculations, of the real and ideal, and is a most noble from which the dimensions of the various work. Its female companion is worthy of parts of the building may be pretty accuit; unfortunately, the head is missing. She rately deduced. The statue of Mausolus is 9 is represented standing completely draped, feet 9 inches in height; from the tread of the with the exception of the arms and right chariot—allowing for the marble block on foot; her right arm bends down towards her which the chariot stood—to the summit of the thigh, the raised left supporting her cloak, supporting pyramid was 4 1-2 feet; the towhich covers the greater portion of the fig- tal height of colossal group being, therefore, ure, the under-dress being visible over the 14 1-4 feet; while the platform on which it bosom and round the ankles. More than stood could not have measured less than 24 150 feet distant from the chariot-horse, Mr. feet by 18. The length of the pyramid would Newton discovered half the nave, a piece of be 108, its width, 86, and its height, 23 1-2 a spoke, and part of the outer circle of one feet-making just 3 inches in excess of the of ihe chariot-wheels, from which the force elevation given by Pliny for the quadriga with which the quadriga was thrown from and pyramid united. He states that the its proud pre-eminence may be judged. pteron or colonnade was of the same height; Among the treasures found near the statute the remains of its columns corroborate him, of Mausolus were a colossal leopard, evi- so that but 65 feet of his total of 140 remain dently originally joined to some other figure, unappropriated. There can be little quesa beautiful colossal female head, a male head, tion, from the example of the Mylasa monuand some more lions. Here also lay the ment, that the pteron stood upon a high and squared marble blocks forming the steps of solid marble basement, that of the Mausothe pyramid on which the chariot stood. leum being decorated with one, and in all They are of a uniform depth of 11 3-4 inches, likelihood two rows of bas-reliefs. The 2 and 3 feet in breadth, and of various spaces between the thirty-six columns would lengths, but averaging 4 feet. One part supply appropriate positions for the various of the upper side is polished, that which colossal figures ; but by what means the would be covered by the step above, only enormous dead-weight of the novel pyramid rough cut; the upper side of each block has was safely upheld on the pteron must ever one flange about six inches broad at the back, remain a mystery-an unsolvable riddle for running the whole length of the stone, and sculptors and architects, who have rejected two smaller ones at right angles to it along Lieutenant Smith's idea of a pointed supthe ends; each of the latter has one side cut porting vault as untenable. flush with the end of the stone, presenting a The effect of this splendid monumental section similar to half of a Gothic arch, form- mass, with its solid basement, its superb ing a sort of roof to protect the joints from friezes, its graceful columns, its wondrous rain. The large fange fitted into a longi- statues, with its white marble pyramid tudinal groove on the
under side of the step crowned with the majestic charioteer, rising above, a smaller transverse groove receiving from the rock-built terrace, and towering
over the beautiful city, with the blue sky,cribbed, cabined, and confined. The Natuoverhead, and the volcanic hills for a back- ral History collection is too crowded to be ground, must have been something approach- examined with any profit; the prints are, to ing the sublime: even now we cannot but all practical intents and purposes, buried; regret that she, to whose affection it owed mineralogical specimens hidden away in its birth, was denied the sight of its com- drawers, while the cellars are overflowing pleted beauty.
with antiquities. Unless it is to degenerate It is much to be desired that these price into a gigantic curiosity-shop, it is high time less relics of antiquity were more fittingly something was done to remedy the evil, and housed than in the ugly glass-sheds which we rejoice to hear that the trustees are about at present shelter them. Scarcely ten years to bestir themselves energetically in the mathave elapsed since the British Museum was ter, and trust they may be enabled before completed, and already there is not a single long to render justice to the treasures of our department, save Mr. Panizzi's, that is not national museum.
BUNNY.-Can you inform me whether any with his feet foremost. He was a likely man to etymology has ever been attempted of that in- look at, in the prime of life, well to do, as clever fantine word for the rabbit “ Bunny?” Many as he needed to be, and popular among many of these juvenile expressions are difficult enough friends. He was suitably married, and had to trace up to their roots. M. FODDER. healthy and pretty children. But, like some
[The original name is Bun. In the Scotch fair-looking houses or fair-looking ships, he took language bun is equivalent to fud (a tail); and the Dry Rot. The first strong external revelait is said of a "maukin," or hare, that she tion of the Dry Rot in men, is a tendency to “cocks her bun," i.e. cocks her tail. Hence lurk and lounge; to be at street-corners without “Bun-rabbit,” “Bun,” and the “Bunnie" or intelligible reason : to be going anywhere when “ Bunny;" all equivalents, except that the last met; to be about many places rather than at is a diminutive, and all referring to the animal's any; to do nothing tangible, but to have an intail. Much in the same way a part was some- tention of performing a variety of intangible da. times put for the whole, in the use of our old ties to-morrow or the day after. When this English provincial word scut. Scut was prop- manifestation of the disease is observed, the ob erly the tail of a laro or rabbit; but was also server will usually connect it with a vague imemployed to signify the hare itself.1-Notes and pression once formed or received, that the patient Queries.
was living a litile too hard. He will scarcely
have had leisure to turn it over in his mind and MotToES OF RegimENTS.—"Nec aspera ter- form the terrible suspicion “Dry Rot,” when he rent” is the motto of that noble regiment the will notice a change for the worse in the patient's 3d (or King's Own) light dragoons. They have, appearance; a certain slovenliness and deterio or had, it upon every thing; standards, plate, ration, which is not poverty, nor dirt, nor intoxitable-linen; even upon the wine decanters, and cation, nor ill-health, but simply Dry Rot. To I well remember, many years ago, dining at
this succeeds a smell as of strong waters in the their mess, where an ancient gentleman, a guest, morning; to that a looseness respecting money; asked Captain Gubbins (a noble fellow, killed to that a stronger smell of strong waters, at all shortly after at Waterloo, in the 13th Dragoons) :imes; to that, a looseness respecting every very gravely, “Pray, Captain Gubbins, what thing; to that, a trembling in the limbs, somnomeans this inotto on your glass ?” “It means, lency, misery, and crumbling to pieces. As it sir,” said Gubbins, with equal gravity, “Never is in wood, so it is in men. ”Dry Rot advances mind how rough the port is." This was before at a compound usury quite incalculable. A the mess-days of champagne and claret, which, plank is found infected with it, and the whole amongst other regimental follies, liave created a
structure is devoted. Thus it had been with the scarcity of cornets.- Noles and Queries.
unhappy Horace Kinch, lately buried by a small subscription. Those who know him had not
nigh dono saying, “So well off, so comfortably A very curious disease tho Dry Rot in men, established, with such hope before him-and and difficult to detect the beginning of. It bad yet, it is feared, with a slight touch of the Dry carried Horace Kinch inside the wall of the old Rot!” when lo! the man was all Dry Rot and King's Bench prison, and it had carried him out | dust.-All The Year Round.