Page images

desert. For from these the traveller can protect himself, by lying down; but not so, if overtaken by the dreadful koolagh. This terrific foe is no common snow-shower from the clouds, but it comes when no cloud is to be seen. The air blows intensely cold, freezing your fingers as you hold the mule's bridle, and your feet in the stirrup: and, almost instantaneously, the beast which carries you may be floundering body deep in Hiiow, whose sharp particles, dashed against your face, cut the skin and blind the eyes; and in the next moment you may fall over a precipice and be lost.

The koolagh is thus caused. A great circulation of wind immediately follows upon the withdrawal of the clouds; and rushing in draughts from all sides through the clefts of the mountains, it sweeps the snow from every crevice and corner, and forming a kind of whirlwind, it carries up the frozen snow from the ground in a column, which falls and buries every thing beneath. Such is the koolagh, or snow-spout—the most dreadful enemy which the traveller in these parts has to encounter. When it breaks forth death stares him in the face on every side; the fearful coldness of the wind is such that he realizes Dante's idea of the death by cold in hell—that overpowering cold which destroyed an army of five hundred thousand men in Russia. The snow, congealed together, comes down upon him on all sides. He is rendered powerless in his frozen body, hands, and feet; whilst the maddened animal ho rides on, rushes down the snow-filled chasm, and neither rider nor horse are ever seen again. Happier is he who is at once crushed by the mighty avalanche.

With the best hopes that I should escape any danger on my way, Colonel Williams would nevertheless not allow me to depart from Erzroom, without more protection against the inclement weather, than the clerical dress in which I had been travelling afforded. He therefore enveloped me in huge trousers, and a loose coat lined with wolfs skin: a woollen shawl was tied round my waist, and my legs were thrust into Jackboots, with fur inside that rose to my hips; and in this unmanageable dress—which I eventually discarded as soon as I was out of sight of my friends, and fairly set off on my journey—I was now sitting on horseback with the rest, whilst Colonel Williams ex

claimed, "I will give you a toast, in Tcnedos wine, which we will drink with three times three—Wolff's health! and a happy journey, and safe return to him from Bokhara!" The colonel then filled his glass, and began "Hip! hip!"—but before the word was thrice repeated, the sky broke out clear, the chilling wind burst forth, and shrieks from the town, from the adjoining houses, and from the escort of soldiers, "koolagh! koolayh! koolagh!" announced the presence of the dreadful visitant.

All of us had but one instant allowed for slipping into shelter, before the "snowspout" had arrived with all its desolating strength. The whole town was at once so completely buried in snow, that when, in a few minutes, I sought to regain my lodgings which were close at hand, I could not reach them till after a struggle of two hours through the frozen mass, which filled the streets. Three days after this occurrence, the dead bodies of the merchants and the French physician who had gone out of the town in the morning of the day on which I intended to start, were brought back; but very little of their merchandize could be recovered.

In a few days I proceeded on my journey, divested of my snow dress, and arrived safely at the monastery of Kara-Kleesia, near which one hundred and twenty four thousand Armenians were baptized by the great Gregory Lusawritsh, who founded both that, and the monastery of Etsh-Miazin. And thanks be to thee, good Gregory Lusawritsh—justly called Lusawritsh, which means "the Enlightener,"—for thou didst enlighten King Tirtat, and thy nation with the light of the gospel! Yes, again, I thank thee, thou founder and builder of the monastery of Kara-Kleesia, for what could I have done in my journey, when I arrived at the spot, where thy house of pious hospitality stands, if this monument of thy love had not been at hand to receive me: for there again—the second time—I heard the shrieks, "Koolayh! koolagh!" and had only just time to reach the homestead of the worthy monks, who recognized and welcomed their old friend Joseph Wolff.

Traveller, remember, and be on your guard at Sultaniah; nor venture to travel there, as I did, during December and January, lest you hear the shriek—the fatal shriek, "Koolagh!"

GOD'S HOROLOGE. Hark! God's horologe is striking—

In yon vaulted dome above; Myriad, myriad orbs triumphant Mnrcli majestic to the rhant,

Hymning God's exhaustlcss love.

Hark! God's horologe is striking—
Earth's " orbed maiden " hears the call,

Throws off her dew-besprinkled hood,

And steps in loving servitude,
To scatter light and peace o'er all.

Hark! God's horologe is striking—
Wild ocean rolls in ceaseless sweep,

By vaster higher influence bound,

In ebb and flow still circling round,
His waves the measured- cadence keep.

Hark! God's horologe is striking—
From lowly nest the lark up-springing,

Soars boldly to God's throne on high,

Pouring his lavish minstrelsy

To shame our feeble earthly singing.

Hark! God's horologe is striking—

Each tiny form of loveliness,
Each insect frail, each perfumed flower,
Starts into life to bless the Power
That willed its being for an hour,

And dies in quiet thankfulness.

Hark! God's horologe is striking,

Shall man alone refuse to hear? Still grovel in life's miry ways, Forget his little share of praise,

Nor track a Father's footsteps near?

God's horologe will strike once more;
It may be in the dead of night,
When conscience lias put out her light,

And loving beacon-fires are o'er.

God's horologe will strike for theo!

Canst thou look up in his pure eyes? Hop'st thou to heur his cry, "Well done?" Is thy bright crown of victory won,

That waits thce now in Paradise? —Englishwoman's Journal. E. G. H.



Around this soft, though lonely scene,
Twilight breathes thoughtfulncss serene.
It is the holiest hour of day.
Then hearts are touched by every ray
Which welcome dearer, surer wins,
Than joy's high noon of glaring light,
Or flaming morn, when youth begins
To gnzo with hope's entrancing sight.
The picture saddens, yet inspires
Eve's pensive tears, the glowing fires
Reflected from the hidden sun
Have hero commingled victory won,
Which the subdued, calm spirit owns.
While, to its ear revealing tone>,

Seem all the sky, the river still,
The purple hills, the nir to fill;
And Memory, startled in her bower,
Obeys the music of the hour,
Happy the skill which thus can make
Colors, like tones, the heart awake.
Not hues of gold and emerald blended,
Where sky to earth has softly bowed,
With deep, empurpled haze attended,
Not the bright bars of crimson cloud,
That cross the highest sky, and shine
As if with their own light, combine
With waving hills and leaves that glow,
Each like a trembling, glancing star;
And waters that in silence flow,
And gleam through deepening shades afar
Not all these hues, and light, and shade,
With which the landscape is arrayed,
Combine so deeply to impress
The soul with Nature's loneliness.
And splendor, as they prove the power,
To give to thought her genial dower,
And to sincere emotion sway;
For, this soft close of beauteous day,
Though in the distant wilderness,
Which human footsteps seldom press,
Where is no sign of human life
Or human care or human strife,
Is full of gentlest sympathy,
And glows with sweet humanity.
It speaks and sings, and breathes of love,
Which earth like heavenly vesture wears,
The priceless gift of skies above;
And every heart that gift which shares,
With nature gleaming in the smiles
Of the sun's radiance, as ho springs,
Or reigns at noonday, or beguiles
With plaintive light his setting brings,
Shall feel the tenderness conveyed
By brightness softening thus to shade,
And shall derive a blessing fair
From every ray that glances there.
Though sadness be the undertone
From this sweet harp of colors thrown,
Yet gladness strikes, in turn, the chords,
And tempered joyfulness affords
The kind transitions, gentle changes
Of feelings sombre, cheerful ranges,
When smiles and tears, in harmony,
Obey alternate melody.
This benison the picture shows,
While parting day in bcanty glows,
That memory has a force divine,
To make life 8 sombre scenes to shine
With light whose blended rnys shall give
Power in the joyful past to live,
And that hope, also, can bestow
A grace fulfilment cannot know.
So, " Twilight in the Wilderness"
Shall on the heart the lesson press
Of patience, glorifying sorrow,
And waiting for a blissful morrow.

W. G. D. —N. Y. Evening Post.


Of the Right Honorable Henry Lord Brougham, etc., etc., Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh. Delivered on the 18th May, 1860. With Notes.

Great as is the pleasure of meeting you on this occasion—great beyond my power of expression—there are unavoidably mingled ■with these feelings others of a painful nature. All that surrounds us recalls the memory of those whom we have lost—the teachers of other days: Dalzcll, whose learned [ and useful labors contributed so much to revive the taste for Greek literature, which he was wont, in somewhat irreverent terms, to charge the Solemn League and Covenant with having extinguished, at least with having banished prosody from the native country of Buchanan; Dunbar, who most ably and effectually improved upon his master; Playfair, deeply imbued with mathematical and physical science, possessing in the highest degree the talent so often wanting in its cultivators, of conveying instruction to others ; Robison, master of the same science in all its branches, teaching it by his invaluable writings, and whose errors on subjects into which he made digressions, those who most differed with him were prone to excuse, almost to admire, from his perfect sincerity and purity of purpose; Stewart, illustrating the great geometrician's name which he inherited with his genius, by a delicacy of taste and a bewitching eloquence so rarely found in alliance with such severe studies, and enabling him powerfully to inculcate the truths of the moral and political science which he bore so ample a part in founding. While the voice of these men seems yet to fill my ear, the form of one yet more illustrious rises beforo me in all the grace of his venerable aspect, the Father of Modern Chemistry, to whom we owe our acquaintance with the nature of the bodies that compose our planet nearly as much as from Newton we derive our knowledge of its relations to the universe. Yes! within these walls I en joyed the happiness of sitting with his numerous class in breathless silence, and riveted attention, while Black recounted the history of his immortal discoveries, and with his own hands performed the experiments by which they had been made, perhaps with the instruments he had used, acting over again before our eyes the same part which had changed

tho face of science, laying the deep and broad foundations of his imperishable renown.

But there are other sad recollections that now force themselves on the mind—recollections of the fellow-students who, under the same masters, gained those accomplishments which made themselves the ornaments of society, tho solid learning and practical knowledge which made them its benefactors, ministering at the altars of their country, administering her laws, amending her institutions, improving her literature, and taking their station among the best friends of mankind, the fearless, the consistent apostles of piety, humanity, and freedom—and all have now passed away, leaving their memory for our comfort, their example for our encouragement j the Duncans,1 Lunclics,2 Gillespies,3 Thompsons,4 Birbeck,* Reeve,0 Campbell,7 Leyden,8 Graham,0 Mackenzie,10 Scott,11 Cranstoun,12 Moncreiff,13 Erskinc,14 Reddie,13 Kinnaird,10 Ward,17 Seymour,18 Grant,19 Cockburn,20 Brown,21 Horner," Jeffrey,13 and latest, not least of our losses, Murray,-4

I Rev. II. Dancan, to whom we owe savings banks.

* Rev. H. Lundie, a sound divine and eloquent preacher.

8 Rev. W. Gillespie, well known for his poems, especially " Consolation."

* Itev.'A. Thompson, celebrated for his eloquence in tho pulpit and tho Church Courts.

* Dr. G. Birbeck, founder cf Mechanics' Institutes in England, and of Lectures to Working Men at Glasgow.

* Dr. II. Reeve, an eminent physician at Norwich, and allied by marriage to the celebrated family of tho Taylors.

7 T. Campbell, author of the "Pleasures of Hope," and the finest lyrical poems cf late times.

* J. Leyden, author of sonnets, much admired. ° J. Graham, author of the " Sabbath " and other


10 J. n. Mackenzie, afterwards Lord Mackenzie, an eminent judge.

II \V. Scott, afterwards Sir Walter.

12 G. Cranstoun, afterwards Lord Corehouso, a great lawyer, advocate, and judge.

]* James Moncreiff, afterwards Lord M., one of tho greatest lawyers and judges in modern times.

n W. Erskinc,*known by his able works, especially on East Indian affairs.

11 J. Reddie, a great lawyer, whoso early retirement to a provincial judicial office nlune prevented him from rising to tho highest pinco on tlie bench.

1° C. Kinnaird, afterwards Lord Kinnaird, distinguished in Parliament.

"J. W. Ward, nfterwards Lord Dudley, and Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

18 Lord Webb Sevmour, eminent for his great learning, especially in physical science.

13 IS. Grant, afterwards Sir R., Governor of Bombay, distinguished in parliament and by his literary talents ; brother of Lord Glcnelg.

20 II. Cockburn, afterwards Lord Cockburn, eminent as an advocate and judge.

"Chtudite jam Parcoe, nhnium rcscr.ita sepul


Claaditc! plus jasto jam domns ista patct 1" — Ovid. Cons.

I can dwell no longer in the retrospect. It is our duty, instead of indulging in unavailing regrets over the past, to cast our eye forwards, and bestir ourselves that we may become the worthy successors of those who have gone before us. My reverend kinsman, our great principal (Robertson), the last time the silver tones of that voice were heard on a public occasion, when the foundation of the new building was laid, justly extolled the University as attracting students, not only from all parts of the British dominions, but from almost every country in Europe, and from every State in America. Long may this intercourse continue, so advantageous to all parties! While we gather hints for our improvement from others, we greatly benefit them; and the interests, the blessed interests, of peace are promoted, not only by the interchange of benefits, but by the natural tendency of men's feelings to look back with satisfaction, even with tenderness, upon the residence of their early years, and to cherish the remembrance of the lessons then taught. Thus, upon the memory of our nearest neighbors in Europe, there will remain impressed the great truth that popular rights can exist, and be respected without the tyranny of the populace; that liberty does not necessarily degenerate into licentiousness; and that abject slavery is not the only refuge from anarchy. Our kinsfolk of the new world may, in after life, recollect having known a community, in which a church is established without the existence of a single civil disqualification attached to religious belief, a community in which the most enlightened and respectable citizens do not abstain from taking their share in public proceedings, in which the interference of the multitude with the administration of justice is a thing unheard of, nay, regarded as incredible, and in which the irresponsible mob-tyrant, the instant that one of his manyheads appears, is at once put down by the

21 T.'Drawn, afterwards Professor of Moral Philosophy, ami known by Ills metaphysical writings.

— F. llorncr, eminent in Parliament and for his writings on political economy.

23 F. Jeffrey, afterwards Lord Jeffrey, founder ol the "Edinburgh llevicw," and a great advocate anil judge.

S1.1. A. Murray, afterwards Lord Hurray, an em inent judge arid man of letters.

ordinary action of the law. Above all, our American friends may reflect with satisfac;ion upon having been educated in a city "amed for being the first to declare, by its judges, the great law, that a slave's fetters fall from him the moment he touches British ground. [Notel.] The natives of southern Europe, Sicily, Naples—but none such will be suffered by their despot to resort hither, and they must learn without our instruction, if experience has not already taught them, the nature of a tyrant—"Non idlum manstrum necftedius, nee tetrius, ncque dis kominibusque magis invixum terra genuit; qui quanquam formd hominis tamen immanitaie montm vastissimas vincit bcllita*."—Cic. de Repub.

But even our English neighbors may profit not only by our teaching, but by the principles upon which our system is founded. The subject of extramural instruction (on which, however, I entirely agree with our Lord Rector) may bo left untouched; and the vexed question between the tutorial and the professorial method, may also be put on one side; it is subject, however, to an observation, which, whoever considers the matter without the exclusive partiality arising from local prejudice, is pretty sure to make, that the blending together of the two methods is preferable to the adoption of either alone. But the great benefits that attend our plan of home instead of college residence can hardly be doubted; and it should always be kept in mind that the English plan originated entirely in the accidental circumstance of Oxford and Cambridge being mere villages when the universities were founded [Note 2], and all the pupils being strangers come from remote districts. It can hardly be doubted that had cither been founded in a great town, that plan would not have been followed. In a small place good reasons may certainly be given for it j but in such cities as Edinburgh and Glasgow, the residence of students under the paternal roof is a great benefit accessible to, at least, the whole inhabitants. When the London University was established (now called University College), this important consideration entered into our views quite as much as the bringing the advantages of an academical education within the reach of those who could not afford the expense of the old universities.

« PreviousContinue »