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No. 850.—15 September, 1860.
1. The Ireland Forgeries, Fraser's Magazine, 643
2. Travels and Adventures of Dr. Wolff, . . Saturday lieview, 652
3. Lord Macaulay and Dundee Blackwood's Magazine, 656
4. "Little Mrs. Haynes," National Magazine, 669
5. The Informer, Dublin University Magazine, 673
6. A Visit to Charles Dickens, . . . . Bentley's Miscellany, 692
7. Syria, Past and Present, Press, 696
8. Kohl's Travels in Canada, New York, and Penn
sylvania, Athenaeum, 698
9. Salmon Fishing in Canada, . . . . Press, 702
Poetry.—The Volunteer on July 14th, 642. Ozone, 642. Unfinished Poem, 703. The River Path, 703. Flora, 704. Grow, 704.
At Night, 703. The Where the Greenwoods
Short Articles.—Ride v. Drive, 651. Lines on a Pigeon, 651. A Curious Jewish
Custom, 655. The Atlantic Cable, 655. A Novel Weather Indicator, 672. Junius,
Boyd, and Lord Macaulay, 691. Lord Hailes, 691. Mottoes on Sun-Dials, 695. Apollo Belvedere Statuette, 695.
Nemesis. By Marion Harland. Author of "Alone," etc. "The mills of the gods grind slowly." Derby and Jackson, Now York.
PUBLISHED EVEKY SATURDAY BY LITTELL, S O N, & C O., BO S T ON.
For Six Dollars a year, in advance, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually for> warded free of postage.
Complete m-t* of the First Peries, in thirty-fix volume*, and of the Second Paries, in twenty volume*, handsomely bound, parked in neat boxes, and delivered In all the principal cities, free of expense of freight, are for sale at two dollars a volume.
Ant Volumi: may bo had separately, at two dollar", bound, or a dollar and n half in numbers.
Ant M.TMBER may be hud for 13 cents; and it U well worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete any/ broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly enhance their value.
THE VOLUNTEEtt OX .JULY 14th.
Yon must wako ami cull mo early, when the early birds appear,
To-morrow will be u glorious day for each London volunteer:
For eacli London volunteer by far the hottest, heaviest day—
For we'ro to sham fight at Chisclhurst, four thousand strong, they say.
There's many a crack, crack corps I know, bat none so crack as mine,
There's the queen's and artillery company, almost equal to the line,
But none can boat our local corps, whether red, or green, or gray,
And so wa shall prove'at Chiselhurst in to-morrow's tremendous fray.
I sleep so sound after evening drill, that I shall never wake,
If the maid doesn't knock extremely loud when my boots she comes to take;
And you'll have to cut mo sorno sandwiches,— and cut them substantial, pray—
We shall all have desperate appetites at Chiselhurst, I dare say.
As I came up to our private parade, whom think
ye I should see, But that ass, Smivens—a coming it as cheeky
as could be: He gave a look at my uniform, as if ho meant
to say: "How can you make such a guy of yourself,
old chap, at your lime of day?"
Ho thought I should bo offended, but I guess I
sold him quite; For I passed, and no more gave him a look than
if he'd been out of sight; You may tell me it's snobbish to cut a man, but
this is what I say; That the chap who don't join a volunteer corps
has thrown his mauiiood away. They say we shall fire thirty rounds, I don't
know how that may be; I've not fired more than ten rounds yet, and that
was enough for me. For what with biting tlie cartridges, and what
with blazing away, I'd a taste in my mouth, and a buzz in my ears,
for all the rest of the day.
Lord Banelagh as Commauder-in-Cliief to-morrow will ba seen. And as his uniform is gray, let us hope he wont
turn out green; I trust he'll remember which is attack, anil
which is defence, in the fray, Or we certainly shall have a difficulty about who
is to give way. The war office has issued no end of rounds and
caps; I hope there'll be surgeons enough on tho ground,
in case of little mishaps. For novices have a habit—at least so veterans
sav— When they (jet a little excited, of firing their
ramrods away. Detachments through the streets and squares to
their firing practice pass,
And in Hegent's Park and on Putney Heath spent cartridges dot the grass:
And there's « sulphury, choky smell of gunpowder hangs nil day
In the suburbs, that quite overpowers the breath of the new-mown hay.
And tlien when we've done our fighting, onr
empty stomachs to till, There's to be Grant's cooking wagon, to find
dinner for all who will: And the moderate sum of two shillings is all
one will have to pay, Which, considering what we're likely to e«t, if
a trifle, I must say.
So you must wake and call me early, when the early birds appear,
To-morrow's to be a glorious day for each London volunteer:
For each London volunteer about the hottest, heaviest day—
For we've to fight nt Chisclhnrst, four thousand strong, they say!
OZONE. The summer is come — with dire comets,
And sky-painted sunsets of wonderful tone; And whoever is wise (and has cash enough) dips
his Tired limbs in the sea and inhales the ozone.
Ozone? Why there's none wherein Westminster Palace
Debates to a terrible nuisance have grown; If old Father Thames comes ashore with a chalice, Ho fills it with any thing else bat ozone.
John Russell's Reform Bill, a triumph of crassitude, Mr. Gladstone's rash Budget, the silliest e'er
Conld scarce have existed, except for the lassitude Produced by an atmosphere void of ozone.
The want of it carried stoat White down at
Made Collier a sour oratorical drone; But old Palmcrston surely, whom nothing can
frighten, Ho found out the secret of pocket ozone.
Soon Commons and Lords will wear border
apparel, Nor in dull dens at Westminster grumble and
groan; For August will come with the good double
Hurrah for the moors and the grouse and ozone 1
The political air will next session grow purer;
May the T >ries get power, and the air get ozo.:c.
—The Press, 21 July.
From Fraser's Magazine.
Of course everybody has heard of the Ireland forgeries. But it may be suspected that, with the exception of the few who have looked into the matter, those who have heard know very little more about them than that they were connected with an attempt to pass off some dramatic writings as the production of Shakspere.* The particulars of the case have almost perish-jd in oblivion. An attempt to resuscitate them now cannot assuredly be made with a view of pandering to our literary vanity. Were such a case to occur in the present day, in the existing state of intercourse with the continent, it would make us the laughing-stock of Europe. But recent discussions relative to some other supposed fabrications connected with Shakspere, have re-invested this subject with an interest which it appeared to have lost. At any rate, it is an accomplished fact, as our French neighbors say, and cannot be banished from the history of our literature. So we must even make the best of it; and perhaps may hope that pur said neighbors will accept this narrative in the propitiatory light M' a national humiliation.
It is curious to observe how one literary forgery breeds another. The affair of Macpherson was hardly out of Horace Walpole's bands, when that of poor Chatterton was thrown upon them. It was not many years after that unhappy boy had been consigned to his pauper grave, and while the controversy as to the genuineness of the Rowley poems was yet sub judice, that the Ireland forgeries first saw the light. There can be no doubt indeed as to the connecting chain between the two last-mentioned impostures. There was some resemblance between the two dramas; but there was also the most striking difference. Chatterton's was a tragedy; sublime in its working up j terrible in its catastrophe. Ireland's afterpiece was the broadest of burlesques. Looking back at both through the interval of years, one cannot peruse the one without a shudder, nor the other without laughter. "We proceed to detail the plot of the latter.
Samuel Ireland was originally a weaver in Spitalficlds; but in process of time he became a dealer in old books and curiosities, having a house in Norfolk-street, Strand. What his family consisted of is not exactly known; but he had at least two sons and two daughters. The eldest of the former named Samuel, after his father, died young. The other, William Henry, is the hero ol
* Thus it appear', on the best evidence, the name of the dramatist should be spelt.—Madden'* Okm-aliont on an Autograph of SlioAtptre. London. 1638.
our entertainment.* Mr. Ireland, ptre, proessed to honor William Shakspere with almost idolatrous admiration. In his opinion, 1 the bard of Avon was a god among men." He would frequently of an evening read one of his plays aloud, to the edification of his delighted family. While his son was still a mere lad, he took him as his companion on a .our, for the purpose of collecting materials 'or a work upon the "Warwickshire Avon." 3f course, they visited and passed some lime at Stratford, where Mr. Ireland was most diligent, as others have bsen before and after him, in searching for information concerning what his son, in his peculiar stylo, termed "the sublunary career of our dramatic lord." The search does not appear to have been very successful; and Mr. Ireland seems to have been considerably hoaxed by a gentleman farmer, the tenant of Cloptonbouse, named Williams—but no relation to the celebrated " divine "—who informed him that only a fortnight before he had burnt several basketfuls of letters and papers, bundles of which had the name of Shakspere written on them! After having made a large purchase of indubitable Shakspere relics, the Irelands returned to town. It is not very clear whether it was before or after this journey that young Ireland was articled to a conveyancer, at whose chambers, however, he had little or nothing to do. And we all know, from the traditions of our copy-books of what idleness is the root. Young Hopeful employed much of his leisure in learning to copy old handwritings, in which he attained great facility.* According to his own showing, one of the earliest uses to which ho put this talent was to forgo a letter as from the author of a religious tract dedicated to
* In n copy of W. H. Ireland's Authentic Account of the 'Shalapenrinn JUamitcriptt (179G), in the library of the British Museum, is a MS. note, which states that William Henry was a natural son ; that, as the writer hud heiird. his baptism was repstered at St. Clement Danes, under the name of William Henry Jrvyn, and that his mother was a married woman who had separated from her husband, and living with Mr. Ireland. The accnracy of this note teems very doubtful. There is certainly no such entry in the register of St. Clement Danes, nor any relating to the family of Ireland, at leafet between the vears 1772 nnd 1779 inclusive; and in 1794 or 1795, W. II. Ireland was eighteen. There are those still living who knew him, and say they never heard any such minor from friend or foe. His father alwa'vs called him Sum, after his brother, who hod died ; and in the account he first published of the discovery of the papers, spoke of him as his son Samuel William Iknry. These are apparently trifling matters; but trifles concerning great mcn'become important, t The anonymous and apocryphal commentator before referred to eavs he had been told that this faculty was not confined to old handwriting, but that it was also extended to copying orders of admission to the theatre by modern actors.
Q. Elizabeth. This letter, a sort of presentation epistle to the queen, he thrust between the cover of the booK and the paper, where he pretended to find it. He had written it originally on a piece of old paper in common ink weakened with water; but the journeyman of a bookseller to whom he had shown it, gave him a mixture which much better resembled old ink; so with this he again wrote out the dedicatory letter, which he presented with the book to his father. The old gentleman was gulled and gratified; and the amiable son, who, as he says, only made the experiment to see how far he could mystify his parent, appears to have had no scruples of conscience as to the result.
On another occasion he palmed off on his father a bas-relief portrait of Cromwell, in terra cotta, the work of a modern artist lately deceased, as an antique, having affixed to the back a label, intimating that the head had been a present from Cromwell to his friend Bradshaw. The conoscentia of the day were taken in, and the head was pronounced the undoubted production of the sculptor Simon, the contemporary of the Protector.
Mr. Ireland appears to have been so constantly insisting on the probability that some day or other some MS. of Shakspere's would turn up, and on the inestimable value of such a treasure, that his affectionate offspring determined to extend the sphere of parental gratification. He had found that his father's pleasure in being cheated was quite as great as his own in cheating him. So one evening he laid before him a deed written in the law hand of the time of James I., purporting to be a lease to one Michael Fraser and his wife, dated 1610, and bearing the signature of William Shakspeare as one of the lessors. This" scene as recorded by W. H. Ireland, is one of the gravest comedy, and readily moulds itself into a dramatic form, with elaborate stage-directions, after the fashion of the German Theatre, or "The Rovers," in the Anti-Jacobin:—
Scene:—Old Ireland's Library. Old Ireland and Younq Ireland discovered.
Young Ireland (drawing a deed from his bosom and presenting it to Old IreLand). There, sir! what do you think of that?
Old Ireland (liaving opened Hie parchment, regarded it for a length of time with the strictest scrutiny, examined the seals, and folded up the instrument, presenting it to Young Ireland). I certainly believe it to bo a genuine deed of the time.
Young Ireland (returning it immediately into Old Ireland's hand). If you think it so, I beg your acceptance of it.
Old Ireland (taking the keys of his library from his pocket, and presenting them
to Young Ireland). It is impossible for me to express the pleasure you have given me by the presentation of this deed. There are the keys of my bookcase: go and take from it whatever you please; I shall refuse you nothing.
Younq Ireland (instantly returning ike keys into Old Ireland's hand). I thank you, Sir, but I shall accept of nothing-.
Old Ireland rises from his chair, selects from his books a scarce tract with engraved plates, catted "Stokes, the Vaulting Master" which he peremptorily insists on Youxo LexLand's accepting.*
The family are summoned to supper.
Such at least, we may surmise, vras the termination of this touching domestic scene.
Sir Frederick Eden, a great authority in such matters at that time, was summoned next day to inspect the deed. He gave it as his decided opinion that it was genuine; and moreover that the impression on the seal affixed under Shakspcre's signature was the representation of a Quintain,^ which he supposed to bear, in the language of heraldry, a canting reference to the dramatist's name. J Other learned Thebans pronounced for the authenticity of the deed. It was a great success. How it came to be so strikes us now-a-days as rather strange. The writing of the document itself may have been a very good imitation of the law writing of the time; and Shakspere's signature was certainly not ill done. But the deed was horribly stuffed with covenants that were unnecessary and, in the language of Chancery, "impertinent;" and the premises demised were described as "abutting close to the Globe theatre by Blackfryers London"!— the Globe, we may remind the reader, being situate in Southwark!§ These two points
* See W. H. Ireland's Confessions.
t There is a curious circumstance connected with this seal. In the Miscellaneous Pajicn published by S. Ireland, nfac-timile is given of tha signature and seal affixed to the deed. Another fac-timile of them is given as the frontispiece to VV. H. Irelund's Cmfeintau. The two signatures hnve a general but by no menus an accurate resemblance: but the seals are as unlike as two seals can well be.
j As some readers mav not be sufficiently versed in antiquities to understand this allusion, it may be ns well to state, the quintain was a pole set upright in the ground, generally with H transverse beam turning on a pivot, and having a broad plunk at one end aud a sand-bag at the other, at which persons used to tilt on horseback with n lance or ipear. "Hee that hit not the brand end of the quinten," says old Stowc, " w:i« of all men laughed to sconic; mid he that hit it full, if lie rid not the faster, had a sound blow in his neckc with a bagge full of sand hanged on the other end."
§ Chalmers, in his Apolvyy fur the fivlifws In the Shakspere papers, had the curious audacity to contend that this was not a misdescription of did not escape the perspicuity of Malone j but what, curiously enough, did escape him •was. the fact that this fabricated deed was in the main copied from a genuine mortgage, by lease and release, from Shakspere and others > which had been printed by Malone himself.* This circumstance accounts for the insertion of the covenants that were quite "insensible," to borrow another law-term, in the fabricated lease. It is remarkable, too, that in the genuine mortgage mention is made of a William Ireland, which cireum
tlic site of the Globe; for, he said, and truly enough, that the word by meant near (a; and the Glube was on the Banktiue, in Southwark, which was not far from Jilackfriars; the exact site of the theatre, in fact, "atmttiny close to Blackfryers-bridge," that bridge not having been begun till one hundred and fifty years alter the diito of the deed!
* See Var. Ed., vol. i. p. 149. The history of this deed is rather remarkable. It is dated nth March, 1612. In 1708, Mr. Albany Wallis, a solicitor (of whom, by the way, not very honorable mention will be made hereafter), found it among the title-deeds of the Rev. Mr. Fetherstonhaugh, of Oxted, Co. Surrey, and he presented it to Garrick. In 1790, it was in the possession of Garrick's widow, where Malone saw it. He transcribed the deed and made a fac-timile of the signature, both of which he published. In 1796 lie again wished to consult the deed, having some doubts of the accuracy of Ins fac-simile, and for that purpose again applied to Sirs. IJHrrick; but the deea, after a diligent search, was nowhere to be found; but just at the same time, Mr. Wallis found among the papers of Mr. Fetherstonlmugli the counterpart of the deed, dnted the 10th March, 1612, bearing the dramatist's signature, of which Malone published nfac-ttmile. In May, 1841, Mr. Troward, the son of a gentleman who had been in partnership with Mr. Wnllis, produced the deed to Sir Frederic Madden, the keeper of the MSS. in the Brilish Museum, together with the letter from Mr. Wallis presenting the deed to Garrick. Mr. Troward, who had inherited the deed from his father, left it to his nieco by the mother's side, who had married Mr. Fillcul, and in March, 1858, this gentleman ngain brought the deed for the inspection of Sir Frederic Madden. On the 14th June, in the same year, it was sold by auction at Sotheby's, and purchased for £330 15»., for the British Museum, where it now remains, together with various documents illustrative of its history.
The counterpart, of the 10th March, 1612, had been previously sold, in May, 1841, at Kvans' auction room?, to Mr. Klkins, for £162 15»., and in May, 1843, it was resold at the same rooms, when It was purchased for j£14o by the corporation of London.
There are undoubtedly some very strange circumstances in this account. The loss of the first deed—the simultaneous discovery of the counterpart in Mr. Wallis' possession—and the fact of the first deed, together with the presentation letter to Garrick, having afterwards found their way back, as it were, into the possession of Mr. Wallis' partner;—these would, in a court of law, throw great suspicion on the custody from which the documents were produced. "But notwithstanding nil this, no doubt, we believe, has ever been entertained bv competent judges as to the genuineness of both deeds.
stance probably gave rise to the interesting discoveries that were afterwards made relating to a William Henry Irdand, who had played the dolphin to our Anon and saved him from drowning. But this is anticipating.
Inquiries were of course made as to where the deed came from. The first account bruited abroad was, that young Ireland having casually met a gentleman at a coffeehouse, and the conversation having turned upon old papers and autographs, the latter had invited the former to come some morning to his chambers in the Temple and rummage among his old deeds, where he would find autographs enough: and that in this rummage the deed was discovered. Afterwards, however, when papers of more importance were produced from the officina, this account was not deemed of sufficient circumstance; and the story then ran thus: That " the Gentleman," who was a man of fortune, had given the manuscripts to young Ireland in consideration of his having found among the old papers a deed establishing the donor's right to a contested estate; but that for reasons of his own he especially wished his name to be concealed, and indeed had exacted a solemn promise from the young man never to divulge it. In fact, this " Gentleman's" identity never proceeded further than an initial: he was never any thing more substantial than "Mr. H."
As it appears the first deed was forged for the mere gratification of Mr. Ireland, senior, so it would seem that there would have been an end of the matter, but for the constant reiteration of an opinion that other papers of Shakspere's might be found by referring to the same source whence the deed had been drawn. And true enough, the source was referred to, and the^/ind-was prodigious. Other papers and documents poured in thick and fast. There were more deeds, and there were agreements, and love-verses and loveletters to Anne Hathaway, one enclosing a lock of "Willy's" hair; and papers relating to " William Henry Ireland" above-mentioned; and a Profession of Faith; and letters from Q. Elizabeth and Lord Southampton; and to crown all a manuscript, nearly perfect, of King Lear, and another of a portion of Hamlet. Merciful Powers! how the most thinking public were taken in! Mr. Ireland's house in Norfolk Street was in a state of siege.
Notwithstanding the most ludicrous blunders in orthography, the most palpable errors in dates, and the most striking instances of fabrication in some of the signatures, the mass of the public would believe in the papers; and of course they had a right to do