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ideas of religious faith which are prevalent in these districts.
"As regards Africa, the fact is indisputable— and it is ouo which is pregnant with inferences —that the greatest movement of the population is from west to cast and from cast to west; pilgrims from the remotest regions of Western and North-Wcstem Africa traversing the entire breadth of the continent, on their way to nnd from the Caaba and the tomb of their prophet and lawgiver. And this, indeed, is the road' which has unalterably been trodden during countless ages; for it existed long before the time of Mohammed, who merely dedicated to the worship of the one true God the world-renowned fane of the idols of the Saba;ans.
"The pilgrims who frequent Mecca are almost of necessity merchants trading from place to place as the sob means of enabling them to perform their journey. And it is by the same simple means that the Mohammedan religion has attained its great development throughout Central Africa ;—not by any zealous and expensive, or indeed intentional, propagandist!!, but by the ca>ual communication between these Moslem merchant pilgrims and the rude Pagans through whoso countries their route happens to pass. The^triet outward devotional forms of the Mohammedans, and their constant mixing np of religious invocations in the ordinary pro-, cesses of life, arc no doubt mainly instrumental in bringing about these results."
The name of Mohammed has been introduced into regions wholly ignorant of his divine claims, simply by the chant of the native Pagans who towed the vessels on the Nile, caught up from the Mussulman crews.
In speaking of the sources of the Kile, Dr. Beke uses the expression in the most general sense, "as meaning all the headetrcams that take their rise at the extreme limits of the basin of that river, along the water-parting between it and the conterminous basins of other African rivers flowing towards the Bed Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean, or (as in the case of some Asiatic, American, and also other African rivers) forming separate inland hydrographical systems unconnected with the ocean." Proceeding with this understanding, our author points first to the remarkable fact that—
"For a distance of more than thirteen hundred geographical miles from the Mediterranean, into which it discharges its waters by several mouths, this mighty river, the largest of the African continent, and probably unsurpassed in length by any river in the whole world, is a single stream. Fed by the copious rains of the tropics collected by its innumerable head-streams in the south, it is able to contend with the burning sun and the scarcely less burning sands of Nubia and Egypt throughout this extent of country, without the aid of a single tributary ;— a phenbmenou presented by no other river.
"A peculiarity of the Nile scarcely less singular, is that for upwards of six hundred and fifty geographical miles above the point just men:ioned or in all full two thousand miles from its mouths, the river receives no affluent whatever on its left or western side. On its eastern side, lowever, within the same limits, it receives three :ributarics, the Atbara, the Bahr-el-Azrek or Blue River, and the. Sobnt or Telfi, having their origin in the elevated table land of Abessinia."
The first of these branches, called also the "Bahr-el-Aswad or the Llack River," from the quantity of black earth brought down by it during the rains, " is most important, because it contributes the largest amount of the slime which manures and fertilizes the land of Egypt." The third great tributary of the Nile—of which the Sobat is a feeder—known generally as the " Bahr-el-Abyad, or White River," "is of great magnitude, and is said to contribute to the river nearly a moiety of its waters." Its main stream might, however, rather, according to Dr. Beke, be called the "Ulack River," on account of the color of its filthy, stagnant, unwholesome water. The water «f the Sobat, on the other hand, is stated to be actually white. After devoting separate chapters to the description of the Black, Blue, and White Rivers, with their respective feeders, and tracing historically the knowledge we have been able to obtain respecting each of them, Dr. Beke arrives at his critical chapter entitled-" The True Xile and its Sources." At we decline taking upon ourselves the responsibility of so important a communication, we will quote the author's own words :—
"There are two rules for determining which of the various head-streams of a river is entitled to be regarded as im upper course, and consequently to bear the name borne by the united stream lower down. The dne role is theoretical or natural, the other is practical or conventional. By the former the greater length and size and the general direction of the valley or basin of the river are the main considerations. By ti.e latter it is the first acquaintance which the inhabitants or discoverers of the vnlley of the main stream may make with one of its branches (or the converse), that causes the name of the former to be carried over to the latter.
"In the case of the great river of Africa it fortunatclv happens, that through the far greater portion of its course both rules are applicable; the direct and main stream having been the first known and first explored. Ilcrodotiis and all writers anterior to Ptolemy concur in describing the Nile as coming from the v, r-t, and tho first explorers on record, namely, Nero's two centurions, passing by the mouths of the Asiolmras or Atbara, the Astapus or Abai, and the Astosobas or Sobat,—oil three affluents of the Nita on its right or eastern bank,—penetrated up the main-stream, in a direction alwnys tending towards the west, as far a« the ninth parallel of north latitude the river there still coming from tlic west or south-west. Thus far, it is manifest, theory and practice went luind in hnnd.
"From tliid point Claudius Ptolemy takes of the description of the river; and since his time the sources of the Nile in the Mountains of tho Moon, with their snows, lakes, and cannibals, liare been prominent and established features of African geography."
Here, unfortunately, facts end and conjecture alone remains. The last pages of Dr. Beke's volume are, we must say, rather disappointing to those who have been led on to that point by his somewhat too solemn
Erefatory axioms. The existence of these unar mountains is, we believe, still strenuously denied. All the learned geographer ia able to say is:—
"It is, however, of little avail to reason on insufficient data. This alone is certain,—that n'l tho head-streams of tho Kilo must be thoroughly explored before it would be in our power to finally and irrevocably to decide which among them is "entitled to the designation of the Source of the Nile. Till then we must remain content to own, with the poet—
"'Arcanum natura caput mm prodidit nlili, Nee licuit populis parvum tc, Nile, videro.'"
Whether, therefore, the "Tubiri," or the "Sobat," or any other of the feeders of the "White River" is to bo considered as representing the ultimate head-stream of the Kile,—and in what exact district, lake, or moon-mountains the " source " of the " Nile" is to be found,—remain as much as ever undecided questions, although undoubtedly Dr. Beke's volume simplifies the matter by reducing the points which have to be discussed within a definite and comparatively narrow compass, and extinguishing those claims which are entirely beside the question.
Much of the interest- of his volume consists in the subjects incidentally discussed. Among these, the possibility of turning the course of the waters of the NUe away from Egypt and discharging them into the Red Sea is one of the most curious. "In the beginning of the sixteenth century, it was a matter of popular belief in Europe that the king" of Abessinia could prevent the Nile from flowing down into Egypt, and that the ruler of the latter country had in consequence to pay him a large yearly tribute." Dr. Beke is extremely hostile throughout his volume to the celebrated traveller Bruce, whom he accuses, on the alleged authority of that traveller's own journals, of wilful misstatements and pure inventions in big published works. On the point of turning the Nile, he brands as apocryphal a story alleged by Bruce to have been told him " by Emmaha Yesus, Prince of Shoa, a young m.in between twenty-six and twenty-eight
years of age, with whom the traveller lived several months in the most intimate friendship at Gondar, and from whose mouth he received some minute and circumstantial details respecting certain works, constructed in Shoa, by Lalibala, king of Abessinia, for the purpose of turning into or towards the Indian Ocean certain head-streams of the Nile within that kingdom."
"Half a century ago, Mr. Salt was led to doubt the tale, in consequence of the assurance given him by a native scribe, who had personally known Bruce in Abessinia, that Einmnlia Yc"su» never visited Gondar during that traveller's stay there, and from the fact that no account of that prince's alleged visit is to be found in Bruce'* original memoranda, where it could hardly have failed to be recorded. Since Salt's time, tho kingdom of Shoa has been visited by several Europeans, myself among the number; and it is now known, as an historical fact, that the reign of Emmaha Ye"sus, the great-grandfather of tho late King Sihola Selassye, lasted from 1742 to 1774; so that, in the ycnr 1770, when Bruce pretends to hnve known that prince at Gondar, us a young man between twenty-six and twenty-eight years, who had brought tribute from his father as a vassal of the emperor, Emmaha Ye'sus had himself been upwards of twentyeight years seated on the throne of the independent kingdom of Shoa. It might be shown that the description so elaborately given by Bruce, on the pretended report of Emmaha Yesus, of the gigantic works constructed bv Kin^ Lalihala in the vicinity of .Luke Zuwtii in Southern Abessinia, is simply a romance. But it is needless to pursue tho subject. It is merely requisite to remark that, so intimately has Bruce's circumstantial narrative associated King Lnlibala and Lake Ziiwrfi with the traditional history, and so thoroughly have, on his authority, those two ideas become blended with the primary one, that subsequent travellers and writers have taken their connection for granted, and have treated the subject as if Bruce's fallacious commentary were an integral and essential portion of the original tradition.
"The time has however arrivedVlien the whole of these erroneous notions mav be discarded. The Astaboras, Atbara or 1'dkkazye, is the 'Nile ' of Elmazin, Cantacnzeno and Albuquerque: and the channel by which its waters might be made to pass into the Red Sea is Artemidorus"' branch' of that river, or the lower course of the Khor-ct-Gnsh.
"At the present day the plain country lying on the eastern side of the Atbara, formerly subject to the Axtimito or Ethiopian monarchs, is occupied by tribes of doubtful origin, who continue to avail themselves of the facilities afforded by tho physical character of the land, for diverting the coarse of the river flowing through it, and preventing its waters from reaching the regions lying lower down the stream; though ia this instance it is not the Atbara itself, hut the Khor-el-Gash, on which the operation is performed.
"M. Ferdinand Werne, who in 1840 accompanied the Tnrco-Egyptian army nuder Ahmed , Pasha in its campaign against Takn and tho neighboring districts, gives, in his publislied relation of the expedition, a circumstantial account of an attempt made by the pasha, nt the suggestion of Mohammed Ehle, one of the native chiefs, to dam up the Khor-cl-Gash near Kassclael-Lns, and to turn its waters into the Atbara. The attempt failed, from the works having been badly constructed; but the particulars recorded by M. Werno sufficiently prove the practicability of the undertaking under more favorable circumstances.
"But if, as it appears from M. Werne's statement and from what we otherwise know of tho extremely level character of the country, the . waters of ths Khor-el-Gosh may be turned into the Atbara by means of a mere embankment and canal, tho converse must be likewise practicable; that is to say, the waters of the Albara
might liy similar means be turned into the ted of the Khor-cl-Gosh; or to express it more di*> tinctly, they might bo discharged into tbc plain country of Takn, over which (as lias been shown in a preceding page) the waters from the Abwsinian highlands spread themselves during the rains, and from whence, at Fillik, they pass away by two different outlets, the one into the Atbarn itself lower down its coarse, and tlw other down tho valley leading towards the Rtd Sea near Snwakin; and the one of those two outlets being closed, the entire waters would of necessity pass away by the other."
From these extracts, it will be seen that to those who are interested in tracing out what we may call the natural routes of commerce, Dr. Beke has contributed a volume which .will be a welcome book of reference and a trustworthy guide.
The American people are not a polite race, not very refined in their manners, nor very congenial "in feeling with the denizens of the old world, but they are essentially, in their own phraseology, a go a-lif.ad people They always contrive to weather upon us in all that pertains to competition or " battles by land and fights by sea." If not by downright fair means yet by sonic means or other, tho Yankees always find a way to whip Johnny Bull. They taught us that 18-pound shot would not knock about a ship after the fashion of 24-pound shot; they let us into a secret (I know it is a sore subject) as regards a flat sail and a long hollow bow in yachts, they laughed at our disaster at Balaklava, and asked where were our revolvers, and told us that n body of Yankee cavalry GOO strong, if called upon to make that charge, would have fired 3,600 shots upon the enemy at a distance where missing was impossible, however they did full justice to the desperate valor of our men. They also claim for their war authorities more sagacity than our people possess, in having armed them with Colt's revolvers in the Mexican war some ten years before the commencement of the Russian war, at which time that terrible weapon was absolutely unknown in England. Again, over comes a Yankee with half a dozen American-bred race horses, and as opposed to all England, walks off with the great Newmarket Cassarewitch and Goodwood stakes, and has lately been first fa'vorite for the same operation at Goodwood. These American horses appear as cute as postums or coons. They run last at so many races that you begin to believe them to be as slow as tortoises, when, without its being at all accounted for, they run fast enough to beat all tho horses that have beaten them. Waal, I guess Jonathan whipped us with big frigates, still, mind you, with frigate against frigate, so now
he has produced a big giant, who nearly knocked and choked the life out of our small champion. Still, Tom Sayers was our pugilistic champion, and, thanks to his bull-dog propensities, is not to be choked off even by n giant; and as one frigate rates with another, so one fistic champion rates as a match for another, and thus Jonathan goes a-hcad. In the Crimea the American revolver pistol, or our improvement upon it, was denied to our men, but purchased by our officers at their own cost. We went tlirough tho East Indian rebellion with no sign of improvement in our cavalry weapons until tho eleventh hour, when at last a regiment of hussars got revolvers, and their previously^loodless victories censed, and sanguinary onslaughts were made on tho flying foe by a weapon which proved as destructive in tho hands of our men, when they got it, as in tho hands of the Americans.—Examiner.
From The Saturday Review. THE GLACIKItS OF THE ALPS.*
One of the most remarkable, as it is one of the most wholesome, peculiarities of our time is the constantly increasing recognition of the value and dignity of that body which our forefathers regarded as little better than a corrupt and humiliating drag upon the soul. Partly from the severity of the struggle for existence in which aspirants to distinction in every calling are engaged, and the consequent necessity for a close analysis of the elements of success, and partly from increased attention to the truths of physical science, the corpus sanum is rapidly vindicating its claim to be considered of at least equal importance with the mats sana. A popular and influential school of modern theologians requires muscularity as well as meekness in candidates for the Kingdom of Heaven j and in science the same manly and vigorous spirit has evoked that sect of muscular philosophers whose best-known church is the Alpine Club, and whose mightiest evangel up to the present time is assuredly the work before us. .
An ingenious speculator, indeed, might develop the parallel between the ecclesiastical and the scientific sects to a great length. The difficulties and obstacles which the Alps present to a scientific explorer are of a very similar order to those which a poaching village on the borders of the New Forest, or a parish in the Potteries, offer to a reforming rector. To reclaim tho brutalized flock, to develope the germs of moral beauty and order which lie within their rugged souls, infinite Greek, the deepest acquaintance with theology, and even the milder Christian graces are of little worth, if unaccompanied by that enduring energy and iron will whose existence is incompatible with real physical weakness and insignfieance. In like manner, the absent, meditative, sago type of philosopher would fare but ill among the mountains. Even if a crevasse did not swallow him at an early stage of bin studies, the first few hours spent among the "ponts," or amidst the promiscuous solid angles of a moraine, would strand him hopelessly winded, dizzy, and foot-sore, long before his intellect had come within reach of the facts whose significance it would fain master.
So far as we can gather from much reading and a little personal experience, 'an Alpine explorer should combine as nearly as possible the distinctive peculiarities of "Mr. Faraday and Mr. Thomas Saycrs. Quick of
* The Glacier't of the Alp». Being » Narrative of Excursions nnd Ascents ; nn Account of the Origin and Phenomena of Glaciers ; nnd nn Exposition of the Physical Principles to which they aro related. By John Tyndall. London : Sluiray. 1860.
eye and steady of limb, his body should be composed of muscular fibres (and not too many of them), with just enough bone for levers, and just enough skin to cover the bones. He should be provided with digestive organs competent to extract "the immense amount of physical force expressed by four ounces of bread and ham " so completely as to carry him all day and anywhere j he should be able to find sitting on a knife edge of rock, with a few thousand feet of precipice on either hand, rather tonic and invigorating than otherwise; and yet his mind should be stored with the latest results of physical science, of vigorous logic, fertile in tho imagination of theoretical conceptions, and subtle in devising experimental tests of their validity. To say that such a phoenix as this ever existed might be too much; but l)e Saussure, had he been a little more of an athlete, would have nearly realized our ideal, and among living men, Professor Tyndall, so far as our knowledge goes, approximates most nearly to it. Holding a place in the front rank of men of science, we imagine that • among Alpine explorers he hag a right to the belt (if there be one), no one but himself having threaded the seracs of the Glacier du Geant without a guide, or stood alone upon the summit of Monte Rosa. Much was to be expected from the work of one so qualified to speak of the glaciers of the Alps, and much will be found in it."
Professor Tyndall intimates that he at first intended to address himself to youthful readers j and, though his book is now laden with grave and weighty scientific discussions, a certain vigorous simplicity of style lightens its pages, and its boyish, sometimes (if we may be pardoned for saying so) almost heedless love of adventure—its genuine warmth of appreciation for all forms of natural beauty, from the "awful rose of dawn" to the rosy cream-and-strawberry maiden of La Cascade —appeals forcibly to all the youth that is left under the crust of one's manhood. Indeed, the first part of the work, which mainly consists of a personal narrative of the events of the various excursions in which were collected the materials for the successive memoirs wherein the author has embodied his views, is full of pleasant nnd stirring episodes. On moral grounds, we object to the evisceration of a good book, and therefore we refer those who enjoy such reading to • the book itself; but there is one story we must quote for the advantage of our numerous political readers. Professor Tyndall is trying to go to sleep:—
"Sometimes I dozed ; but always as this was about to deepen into positive sleep, it was rudely awakened by the clamor of a group of pigs
which occupied the ground-floor of our dwelling, that of a fluid. But Monseigneur Rendu The object of each individual was to secure for I while stating the fact in language which for himself the maximum amount of heat.und hence | thoroughly scientific clearness and definition the outside members were incessantly trying to nag not i,een gurpassed by any subsequent become inside ones. It was the struggle of wrfter —fully perceived and admitted the
Radical and Conservative among the pachyderms, the politics being determined by the accident of position."
Wo trust that Dr. Tyndall is incapable of slily introducing a sarcastic allegory into a
difficulty of reconciling the riverlike movement of a glacier with the known physical properties of ice. Subsequent observers, such as Agassiz and Forbes, gave a more definite numerical expression of the law of
scientific work, but really the scene might motion enunciated by Rendu, but it cannot as well be laid at Westminster as on the be said that they offered any explanation
of it. Take, for instance, the well-known "viscous theory." If ice could have been
Alps, however, is that which will attract the I shown to possess those properties which dismost attention from that considerable and, tinguish a viscous bodV from an ordinary
increasing class of readers who take a scien- " '-• ---'--- * -*- •• —v
tific interest in Alpine phenomena, and more particularly in the great problems connected with the structure and mode of motion of glaciers. In order to understand Professor Tyndall's relation to these much discussed questions, we must bring before our minds what was the state of knowledge and of opinion on glacier matters in the year 1856, wnen a chance suggestion led him to devote himself to these investigations. It had been positively ascertained that a glacier moves; that its centre moves faster than its sides; and that in many other respects the behavior of a glacier is curiously analogous to that of a fluid in motion. It was known that the ice of the middle and lower part of a glacier
presents a peculiar" veined " or " ribboned" structure, and it was certain that this "blue veined" ice was in some way produced by the modification of the white vesicular ice of the upper regions, which again proceeded from the nive, the result of the successive snowfalls in the highest parts of the mountains. Finally, what may be termed the accidents of a glacier, such as the stone tables and the "moulins," had been more or less clearly accounted for, and the so-called " dirt bands " had been to a great extent accurately described. Each of the eminent observers— Do Saussure, Rendu, Agassiz, and Forbes— by whose labors these facts had been established, had promulgated his own theoretical •views as to their significance ; but no candid and competent person will say that in the year 1850 either the mode of motion or the .structure of glaciers had been explained, if ,to the word explanation we attach its only ^legitimate meaning—the deduction of the phenomena exhibited by a body from its ascertained physical properties and the known laws of operation of the forces which act upon it.
..As Professor Tyndall clearly proves, the late Bishop of Annecy was the first to point <out the wonderful similarity which obtains between the mode of motion of a glacier and
flui(1) gucjj v;9COgjty Of lts component substance might have been adduced with justice as the property upon which the peculiar mode of motion of a glacier depended. The viscosity in short, would have " explained" the phenomena of glacier-motion. But since ice, however examined, obstinately refused to exhibit a single trace of those properties which distinguish a viscous body from a brittle solid, on the one hand, aad a fluid on the other, the assertion that the mode of motion of a glacier depends upon its viscosity involved a purely gratuitous hypothesis. In other words, the motion of the glacier was explained by assuming ice to possess a property not a trace of whose existence could be demonstrated. The viscous theory was helped out of these difficulties by various suppositions. At one time, it was suggested that a glacier is full of capillary cracks filled with water, and that the main agent in propelling it is hydrostatic pressure—at another, that its parts slide past one another, and are re-united by the conjoined effects of "time and cohesion." But the capillary fissures do not exist, and it has yet to bo shown that time and cohesion are as potent in giving firmness to a glacier as they undoubtedly are in consolidating a theory. In like manner the veined structure had been accounted for as a result of the original stratification of the nh'e. It had been ascribed to the filling of glacier fissures with water, and the subsequent freezing of that water; and finally, to the re-union, by " time and cohesion," of the opposed faces of incipient fissures, resulting from the differential motion of parts of the glacier upon one another. Bnt thd observations or experiments necessary to prove the competency of any one of these supposed causes to produce the effect assigned to it were, and are, totally wanting. Again, the "dirt bands," so well observed and described by Forbes, had" been supposed to arise from the retention of dirt throughout certain transverse zones of the glacier, in which the superficial ice presented