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sensibility to the graceful and refined in woman, in a common allegiance to the domestic affections, in a genial relish for the humorous in character, and a kindred appreciation of the pathetic. The close sympathy between Leslie and many of the literary men of his day was indeed not surprising, for his art was in itself eminently literary. His pictures were mostly taken Irom books; nud his vocation as a painter seems specially to have been to translate into a kindred art the great works of the English classics. Shakspeare was to him a mine of wealth. "Henry VIH.," the " Merry Wives of Windsor," the "Twelfth Night," and the " Winter's Tale," received from his graphic pencil repeated illustration. Addison, too, like Irving,—who has been sometimes called the Addison of America,—was a writer by refinement and quiet humor specially after Leslie's heart. "Roger de Coverley going to Church" was one of the earliest works which brought the painter into notice. From this point his progress seems to have been rapid, and his success came as the sure reward of conscientious striving and untiring industry. Within the circuit of his comprehensive art he embraced wellnigh the entire field of modern literature. Shakspeare he made, as we have seen, his own. "Sir Roger" was the affection of his youth, and the veneration of his maturer age. "Uncle Toby," " The Widow Wadman," and "Tristram Shandy" seem to have freely walked in and out of his studydoor, ever and again sitting for their portraits. Then going further from home he made acquaintance with " Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme," " Le Malade Imaginaire," " Don Quixote " in the Sierra Morena, and " Sancho Fanza " as he Bat in the apartment of the Duchess. Keeping with such good company in his pictures, it was likely that in his home and'daily walk he should group around him interesting characters from among the living. His autobiography is in fact a, gallery of cabinet paintings, in which his most illustrious friends are sketched with that point, humor, and kindly charity which adorn his painted works. We laugh as we read, and yet nothing has been set down in malice; \re enjoy the joke, and part company from his friends with hearty shake of hands, hoping to meet again. The anecdotes which abound in these pleasant volumes are always pointed and telling,—touched off with that neatness of the hand which shows an artist's skill. The following may be taken as a fair example of the fun and satire with which these pages sparkle. Coleridge had been lecturing on Shakspenre — had been spouting as usual on things in general; and having latterly written a tragedy which met
with some success, was seated in a coffeeroom, when the following scene ensues:—
He heard his name coupled with a coroner's inquest, by a gentleman who was rending a newspaper to n friend. He nsked to see ttie paper, which was handed to him with the remark that 'it was very extraordinary that Coleridge the poet should nave handed himself just after the success of his plav; but lip was always n strange mad fellow.' 'Indeed, sir,' said Coleridge,' it is a most extraordinary thing that he should hare hanged himself, be the subject of an inquest, and yet that he should be at this moment speaking to you.' The astonished stranger hoped that he had ' said nothing to hurt his feelings,' and was made easy on that point. The newspaper related that a gentleman in black had been cut down from a tree in Hyde-park, without money or papers in his pockets, his- shirt being marked 'S. T. Coleridge;' and Coleridge was at no loss to understand how this might have happened, since he seldom travelled without losing a shirt or two."
As a writer Leslie is known favorably by the life of his friend Constable, and by -his lectures published under the modest title "Handbook for Young Painters." His written works, as his pictures, show an humble aim and the disadvantage of a circumscribed education. He had never entered Italy, and the grand frescoes of the great masters were by him unappreciated and unknown. Art was for him an elegance, a refinement, and enjoyment, but scarcely, as in olden times, an elevation and a worship. He attained to what he sought; his pictures happily reflect the simplicity and the beauty of his own nature, add to the innocent delight of the family and the home, and, to adopt the words of Addison, by their " cheerfulness keep up a kind of day-light in the mind, and fill it with a steady and perpetual serenity." Many a private collection in England is enriched by these elegant and pleasing works, and our readers will be glad to remember that South Kensington, in the Vernon and Sheepshanks bequests, can above all other galleries boast of the choicest and most numerous examples. When a public man departs it is some consolation to find that so much of his genius remains as a legacy to his country. As a closing tribute to so true an artist and so good a man we would adopt the words of Mr. Tom Taylor, and say,—" Leslie's name must stand honored, for the prevailing presence in his works of good taste, truth, character, humor, grace, and kindliness, and for the entire absence of that vulgarity, bravado, self-seeking, trick and excess, which are by no means inseparable from great attainments in painting, and which the conditions of modern art are but too apt to engender and to foster."
From The Saturday Review. GENTLEMANLY PROFESSIONS. We are all of us sufferers under the tyrfflmy of gentility. From the moment we begin to dress in the morning till we retire again at night, we never escape from its sway. It haunts us as we eat and as we walk —it peers into our dressing-rooms and spies out all our daily habits. It puts chimneypots on our heads, and coats of quaint and uncouth cut on our backs, ranks omnibuses as unholy things, and sets before us as the object of1 our ambition the glory of being served by powdered louts arrayed in gay court dresses. But, being a patient people, we suffer all these little tyrannies gladly, especially as they give us the pleasure of an occasional laugh at our neighbors when they fail to come up to the required standard. But when gentility steps out of its small domain and attempts to govern the greater things of life, the society of the nineteenth century resists. It used to force a man who had been insulted to stand up and be shot at by the man who had insulted him. For some time past the English world has abandoned this medieval absurdity to the enlightened and advanced democracy of the West. Time was whefi it insisted that marriages should be a sort of heraldic partnership, in which each side was to bring an equal number of inches of pedigree into the common stock, and a mesalliance was looked upon as something considerably more dishonorable than an adultery. But in recent times the common sense of the community—except, of course, in the agricultural counties, where that faculty is languid—has adopted the more sordid view that the comfort and happiness of the persons immediately concerned .ought to be principally consulted. But there is one department of human action over which gentility still exercises a pernicious remnant of of its old usurped dominion. There are still such things as gentlemanly professions; and by an inevitable consequence, there is a great and growing mass of gentlemanly poverty. There is a large section of the educated portion of the community with whom the precepts of gentility are a religious obligation —a few of the Modes and Persians which altereth not. They are marked off by no distinct line of rank, or property, or manner, or refinement, or even of political opinion —for many advanced Whigs will be found among their number. Intellect seems to be the only quality incompatible with their faith. Like some of the Hindoo sects, they worship a Goddess of Evil, whose name is Mrs. Grundy, and strive to propitiate her by ascetic and self-torturing observances of the convenances and the bieiiseances. They live in this world in constant fear of losing caste,
and look forward to the next •with some apprehension lest the society should be mixed. It is one of the fundamental precepts of their goddess that their sons shall be brought up as " gentlemen ; " which elastic word is further limited by the gloss that they shall serve no one except the queen or the Church, or, if they are to receive payment for work done from anybody else—a practice at which the strictest professors of the sect look askance —it must be as barristers or doctors. If any one of them steps beyond this line, and becomes a merchant, or a farmer, or a clerk in any but a government office, he is held to have degraded himself, and incurs the full
Eenalty denounced by their religion against ackshders—a penalty so awful that none of them can ever be induced particularly to describe it, but which appears to consist principally in being looked down upon by the sect. This was all very well in the good old days of jobbing, when there was a berth for everybody and everybody for his berth. In those days, the magic circle of gentility was very limited, and the condition of the law and of the government made the horizon of genteel prospects very wide. Every thing went by favor, ai\d therefore every thing was got by begging. To push your son was a polite euphemism which meant to beg for him. But there were plums in those days—real plums —which were worth a good deal of begging and a good deal of dirt-eating, and which satisfied the hungriest when they were shaken down at last. Unhappily, the evil days have come upon us since then. The magic circle has infinitely widened—the spoils provided for the sustenance of those whom it includes have become infinitely scantier. The "gentlemanly professions" are in a great measure occupied by aspirants pressing in from without, who argue that because the " caste" frequent them, therefore they wilfconstitute an admission to the " caste "—an object which people value just as they value ugly green china, because it is not in everybody s power to. possess it. The result is, that gentility is beginning to be sorely pressed to satisfy the vulgar necessity of living. The gentlemanly labor-market is glutted. The supply of welldressed young gentlemen looking for work is constantly in excess of the demand for their valuable services, and the artificial stimulus prevents the inequality from rectifying itself. Gentlemanly employments are becoming more and more overstocked, and less and less remunerative; Gloomier and gloomier is the prospect that rises before the needy English hidalgo with five promising sons to dispose of. England indeed is growing incalculably richer j but her wealth is due to manufactures, and cr Ionics, and commerce, and it is in these that they who would share in it must work. Very little of that wealth reaches the devout believer in gentlemanly professions. All his pasture grounds arc drying up year by year. Success in the law is \>oth rarer and less lucrative than it was, and what remains of it is reserved as a marriage portion for the sons-in-law of attorneys. -The newspapers are filled with the •wails of tho starving clergy, unable to live •without help, and forbidden by law to help themselves. There are still prizes in the Church, no doubt; but there is no system of promotion by which a man without personal or party interest can even hope to attain a competence. There is nothing in this world so desolate as the prospects of a curate who has neither party leader nor rich patron to befriend him—in other words, of at least one-half of those who yearly resort 'to the church as a means of livelihood. They begin at eighty pounds a year; and an advertisement for a curate on this salary will bring in a score of applications. Then their usual course is to marry and beget nine children; and the ultimate goal of their ambition is a Peel district of a hundred and fifty pounds a year. The daughters become the drudge governesses at ten shillings a week —the sons would probably be onl£ too thankful for the clerkship which their father disdained as a loss of caste. We do not of course speak of the minority, who take orders from a higher motive than self-maintenance. This class of minds would probably look upon the wife and nine children as unnecessary adjuncts until they could support them. The navy is scarcely a more cheerful prospect for the poor wretch who has not interest to push him on. A station in the Bight of Benin, a broken constitution, and a lieutenant's halt-pay is the reward to which hundreds have been conducted by the boyish desire of wearing epaulets. Of course, the navy has more to offer in time of war. A lucky captain may make a small fortune out of prizes ; and if he fails, he may at least comfort himself with such solace as patriotic reflections can aCbrd. But the orokehhearted, threadbare, half-pay officer, who may be met with in almost every country town in England, has known very little of •war. The army is wholly beside the question, because it is now admitted to be a pastime for the rich and a sustenance for the poor. It is notorious that a man cannot live upon his pay, and if he could, he must buy the privilege of doing so at a price larger than the pay is worth. If a man has only £6000 he had ftr better invest it in Rupee five per cent than in buying the steps up to a .colonelcy. Of diplomacy it is also needless to say much. It is only the higher
grades that are tolerably paid; and -while in some embassies, such as St. Petersburg, it is a well-understood thing that the salary is not adequate to the expenses, in others a minister can only save by exposing himself to constant disparagement for inhospitality and stinginess.
The government and the church are not to blame for the scanty pittances with which they secure for their service the best talents and energy of the country. Like prudent employers, they refuse to give higher pay than the state of the labor market exacts. So long as there are hundreds of foolish young men willing to enter upon a desolate life and a hopeless career, and to esteem themselves adequately paid by that arbitrary seal of respectability which costs nothing to the giver and in no way benefits the receiver, so long they would be equally foolish if they offered higher terms. But the system is far from •working well, though they cannot be held responsible for its defects. Compelled by the phantom of gentility, the men endure to go on with all tho miseries of a career which promises them nothing; but they are not contented. The patriarchal but starving curate, the despairing lieutenant in an unwholesome station, the gray-headed government clerk who has risen by gradual promotion to the pinnacle of three hundred pounds a year, have all Jiad early friends who were less trammelled by gentility, and who, in colonial or commercial life, have grown fat upon their freedom. They forget that their pay has been according to contract, supplemented with the rations of gentility for which they bargained, for their early illusions as to its value have probably been modified ; and they vfnt their wrath at the disheartening contrast in bitter maledictions against the ingratitude of their country. These grumblers do not make efficient servants. They arc apt to look on their engagement as a Shylock's covenant, and not to give a drop of service beyond what is written in the bond; and the cleverer and the more ambitious they are, the bitterer their discontent at finding that what they call their devotion to their country has distanced them in the race of life. It is one of the evils of the> new system of competition, that this class of sullen malcontents is likely to increase rather than diminish. The dulness that used to reign in government offices was thickskinned and complacent, and penetrated to the last with a thankful conviction of its own intense respectability. With so much of conscious dignity to reward them, the older race of clerks were patient of scanty salaries; but this delusion is not likely to prevail with the sharper wits whom the competitive examinations are bringing into the offices. The gentility superstition will drive even clever lads into the dismal career of a government clerkship; but it will hardly, when they are middle-aged men, comfort them for what they have done. Of course all this discontent would be removed if a healthier feeling prevailed as to the choice of an occupation. If professions were selected without any regard to the caste they
| would confer, no one would be satisfied •with • government pay as it is now/either in the civil or military services. It would no doubt be an acute suffering to Mr. Gladstone to i)e obliged to raise his estimates; but the nation would be the gainer. The exchequer might suffer for a time from the necessity of greater liberality, but a heartier and- more genuine service would more than make up the loss.
Queen Victoria And President BuChanan.— President Buchanan to Queen Victoria.—To her Majesty Queen Victoria,—I have learned from the public journals that the Prince of Wales is about to visit your Majesty's North American dominions. Should it be tho intention of his Royal Highness to extend his visit to the United States I need not say how happy I should be (o give him a cordial welcome to Washington. You may be well assured that everywhere in this country he will be greeted by the American people in such a manner as cannot fail to prove gratifying to your Majesty. In this they will manifest their deep sense of your domestic virtues, as well as their convictions of your merits as a wise, patriotic, anil constitutional sovereign.—Your Majesty's most obedient servant, James Buchanan.
Washington, June 4, 1860.
Queen Victoria To President Buchanan. Buckingham Palace, June 22, 1860.
My Good Friend,—I have hecn much gratified at the feelings which prompted you to write to me, inviting the Prince of Wales to come to Washington. He intends to return from Canada through the United States; and it will afford him great pleasure to have an opportunity of testifying to you "in person that these feelings are fully reciprocated by him. He will thus be able, at the same time, to mark the respect which he entertains for tho chief magistrate of a great and friendly state and kindred nation.
The Prince of Wales will drop nil royal state on leaving my dominions, and travel under the name of Lord Renfrew, as he has done when travelling on the continent of Europe.
The Prince Consort wishes to be kindly remembered to you.
I remain, ever your good friend,
Chateaubriand's sister, the Countess de Marigny, whoso one hundredth birthday was noticed some weeks ago as having made a sensation at Dinan, died at that place July 17.
Mind And Hatter.—Isaac Taylor, in his Physical Theory of Another Life (ed. Bell and Daldy, 1857), p. 17, says :—
"The doctrine of tho materialist, if it were followed out to its extreme consequences, and consistently held, is plainly atheistic, and is therefore incompatible with any and with every form of religious belief. It is so because, in affirming thatmi'nrf is nothing more than the product of animal organization, it excludes tho belief of a pure and uncreated mind—the cause of nil things; for if there be a supreme mind, absolutely independent of matter, then, unquestionably, there may be created minds, also independent'"
To this it may bo added, that a person who asserts that mind is the secretion of tho brain, mav be placed on the same level as a man who declares that one of Beethoven's Sonatas is the secretion of the piano.
John Pavin Phillips. —Notes and Queries.
Messrs. W. and G. Young, of Lcith, sent out in some of their vessels engaged in the Greenland whale fishery, harpoons poisoned with prussic acid. This was so arranged that as the line was drawn tight, the poison was injected into the wound made by the harpoon. One ship so provided met with a fine whale. The harpoon was deeply and skilfully buried in its body; tho leviathan immediately " sounded," or dived perpendicularly downwards, but in a very short time the rope relaxed, and the whale rose to the surface quite dead; but the men were so appalled by the terrific effect of tho poisoned harpoon that they declined to use any more of them.
Roman Catholics seem to consider that variety in the form of worship of the blessed Virgin is a test of devotion; she is our "Lady of Charity," our " Lady of Victories," and a thousand other names, and now it is announced that anew mode of devotion is invented under the style of our " Lady of the Legion of Honor."
From The Economist.
The Sources of ihe Nile: being a General Surrey of the Basin of that River, and of its Ifead-Streams; with the History of Nilotic Discovery. By Charles T. Beke, Fh.D. James Madden. The volume before us is based on an essay "On the Nile and its Tributaries," contributed by Dr. Beke to the Royal Geographical Society at the close of the year 1846, and on various subsequent papers •which bring down the history of these geographical investigations to the present time. The last few years, as Dr. Beke points out, have been marked rather by an intelligent end consistent reconstruction of the map of the district in accordance with ascertained information than by any great accession of geographical facts. Tho result has been the establishment of what Dr. Beke claims as a special theory of his own. "The principal mountain system of Africa," he observes, '" is now found to extend from north to south, .in proximity to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, instead of running across the continent from cact to west, as shown in all maps, both ancient and modern, excepting only those recently constructed, in which the 'Mountains of the Moon' are laid down in accordance with my views." A more important result from this theory was pointed out to her majesty's government by Dr. Bckc as long ago as 1852. The vast continent of Africa has hitherto " remained, as it were, a sealed book" to civilized Europe, and this has been attributed to its " arid and inhospitable character, its want of navigable rivers, and the barbarism of its inhabitants. But, active as all these causes may have been, and still continue to be, recent discoveries have shown that they are far from being true to the extent generally attributed to them; for it is now demonstrated that Africa possesses fertile and genial regions, large rivers and lakes, and an immense population, which, if not civilized, is yet to a considerable extent endowed with kindly manners, humane dispositions, and industrious habito."
"The fundamental cause," Dr. Beke proceeds to say, " of the erroneous notions prevalent respecting Africa, in that Europeans have always approached that continent in n wrong direction Towards the north, tho districts skirting the Mediterranean Sea are cut off from tho other portions of the continents by tbo rainless sands of the great Desert; towards the west, tho cli mate truly exercises those baneful influences on European constitutions which have stampcc their mark on the rest of the continent; towards tho south, tho forms of the peninsula, wjiich there runs almost to a point; prevents ready ac cess to tho vast internal regiqns further to the
north. On all these sides, however, have we during centuries persisted in our endeavors to >cnetvutc iuwards, while the cast coast has been inatteraptcd and remained almost totally unknown. And yet it is in this direction that the .ntcrior of intcttropical Africa is approachable with the greatest facility.
"Of the physical character and climate of Eastern Africa a general outline is given in my 'Essay on the Nile and its Tributaries;' and I cannot do better than repeat, on the present occasion, the concluding remarks there made on the subject: 'This survey of the physical character or the plateau of Eastern Africa cannot be concluded without special attention being directed to a most important practical result wnich it affords. It is, that the eastern coast of that continent presents facilities for the exploration of the interior very superior to those possessed by tho western coast. For, when the narrow belt of low land along the shores of the Indian Ocean—which, from its general dryncss, arising from the absence of large rivers, is far from unhealthy at most seasons of tho year—is once passed, and tho eastern edge of the elevated table land is attained, a climate is met with which is not merely congenial to European constitutions, but is absolutely more healthy than that of most countries. I speak fjpm the experience of upwards of two years passed on the high land under circumstances any thing but favorable. Here,—that is to say, on tho edge of tho elevated plateau, and not in the low desert country along the sea coast,—settlers might take up their permanent residence, without apprehensions as to the effects of tlie climate at any period of the year; while travellers might wait in safety, and oven with advantage to their health, till suitable opportunities should present themselves for penetrating westward into the interior; and, in the event of their having to retrace their steps, they would only return upon a .healthy and delightful country, where they, might remain till the proper season should arrive for their journey down to tho coast. On the other hand, the climate of the western coast, even fur inland, is notoriously such, that few can long withstand its baneful influences; while a traveller is necessitated to press forwards, whatever may bo tho time of the year, whatever the condition of the country, whatever even his state of health. And should ho from sickness or any other unforeseen circumstance, be compelled tonbandon his journey, ho must do so with the puinful knowledge, that the further ho retrogrades the more unhealthy are the districts which he has to traverse, and the less likelihood there is of his ever reaching the coast, more fatal thun all the rest.'"
The ancients, as Dr. Beke, following the steps of Heeren, points out, were well acquainted with the fact now only beginning to be recognized by the modem world. Commerce has left the footprints of her former achievements in " a chain of ruins extending from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean." And with commerce have been introduced te a considerable extent the