Page images

must be prepared to give a reverent consideration to the prophecies it contains. The belief in the inspiration of these prophecies in a necessary consequence of a belief in the truth of the Bible. There is no middle course —a prophecy must either be authoritative or an imposture.

In consequence of the uncritical mode in which prophecy has been studied, this branch of Biblical inquiry has been neglected by many who have not felt any doubt as to the authenticity of the Scriptures, and others have adopted views of the nature of sacred | prophecy in some degree tending to lower its dignity, and to weaken the evidence of its Divine origin. Thus Professor Stanley, avoiding the rocks on which Keith ran his vessel, steers into very doubtful shallows. He thus writes in the preface to his Sinai and Palatine:

"Those who visit or describe the scenes of wcrcd history, expressly for the sake of finding confirmations of Scripture, are often tempted to mislead themselves and others by involuntary exaggeration or invention. But this danger ought not to prevent us from thankfully welcoming any such evidences as can truly be found to the faithfulness of the sacred records.

One such aid is sometimes sought in the supposed fulfilment of ancient prophecies by_tho appearance which some of the sites of Syrian or Arabian cities present to the modern traveller. But, as a general rule, these attempts are only mischievous to the cause which they intend to uphold. The present aspect of these sites may rather, for the most part, be hailed as a convincing proof that the spirit of prophecy is not so to be bound down. The continuous existence of Damascus and Sidon, the existing ruins of Ascalon, Petra, and Tyre, showing the revival of those cities long after the extinction of the powers which they once represented, are standing monuments of a most important truth, namely, that the warnings delivered by ' holy men of old,' were aimed not against stocks and stones, but then, os always, against living souls and sins, whether of men or of nations."—P. xvi.

The principle put forth in this passage would, I think, reduce all seemingly literal prophecy to a tropical sense. The obvious answer is, How could men's souls be punished if their bodies did not suffer? how could nations be punished except by the wasting of their fields and cities? Professor Stanley's reply is a citation of the restoration of certain cities, some yet standing, which were once denounced as to be utterly destroyed. The prophecies, however, either did not speak of their final ruin, or else did not declare the impending calamities to be the last that should fell upon them. Ascalon, Petra, and Tyre, if not at once destroyed, certainly virtually perished many centuries ago. Jerusalem is Will a city; but where has prophecy been more literally fulfilled than in the oblitera

tion of her old monuments in the time of desolation that followed the capture by Titus? The cases of Damascus and Sidon are, I frankly acknowledge, more difficult of explanation. Yet if we admit the veracity of what sacred history relates as to the fall of the one, and profane history as to that of the other, there seems to be a sufficient answer to the requirements of the case. Very often the dissociation of people and city might be reasonably supposed to relieve the latter from the curse that fell on it for the punishment of its inhabitants. Damascus, be it remembered, was Syrian, nnd for centuries has been Arab. Who rebuilt it we know not, after the Assyrians had destroyed it; but in St. Paul's time it was ruled by an Arab prince; and from the earlier days of Mohammedanism it has been a seat of Arab power. The case of Petra is well worth looking into. There the full measure of punishment came surely, if it tarried long. First the Idumzans were driven into their rocky fastnesses, there for a while to resist the power of Greece and Rome. Even then, however, the dominant race, that of the Nabathttans, appears to have been not Edomite but Arab. But for centuries past, probably for full eighteen hundred years, the Edomite race has disappeared, and the only population of its mountain and valley has been a colony descended from its hereditary enemies. Some have cavilled at there being now a scanty peasant-population of the valley of Petra. But these very peasants are called "the children of Israel," Bcnee-Israeel, and I find in their existence a confirmation of the truth of the Bible-narrative which relates the settling of a band of Simeonites, in Hezekiah's time, in Mount Stir (1 Chron. iv. 42, 43), no less than a fulfilment of the prophecy that Israelites, apparently the most southern, should hold "the Mount of Esau." (Obadiah 19.

I think that here we have witnesses enough to justify our maintaining those rules of interpretation which a long series of great divines has upheld. Let Egypt supply a fresh test, Egypt of which each site has been well explored, and of which the post-biblical history presents few gaps. As I travelled through the country I was very much struck by the utter ruin of some cities and towns, and the long continuance of others, when all the advantages of position and nncient importance have been in favor of the former. I have unriddled this difficulty by the prophecies relating to them. For instance, it is said of Memphis, "Noph shall be waste and desolate, without an inhabitant" (Jer. xlvi. 19); and " Thus saith the Lord God, I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause [their] images to cease out of Noph." (Ezek. xxx. 13.) Except Sals, Memphis, the greatest city of Egypt, is alone unmarked by the ruins of temples. The remains are utterly insignificant, although the tombs are great and extensive enough to show the size and wealth of the city. So, too, of Thebes it is prophesied, "No shall be rent asunder" (Ezck. xxx. 1C), which may merely refer to the distress of its people; but when we stand amid its ruins, torn by a great earthquake, of which Eusebius has preserved the record, we incline to the literal interpretation. Nowhere else in Egypt has the solid masonry of the temples been thus destroyed. Still more distinct are the prophecies of the drying of the Red Sea, which has taken place since the latest date to which perverted ingenuity has endeavored to bring down the prophetic writings. "The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea." (Isaiah xi. 15.) "The waters shall fail from the sea." (Isaiah xix. 5.) In the last two thousand years the head of the Gulf of Suez has retired some twenty miles. Who can look at that dried-up bed and doubt "the sure word of prophecy?" So is the failure of the Nile foretold (Isaiah xix. 5), and, apparently, also the destruction of its seven streams (xi. 15), although the latter passage may mean not that the Egyptian river should be smitten in "the seven streams," but that "the river," that is Euphrates,

should be smitten " into seven streams." la any case, the Nile in the Delta has so failed, that now the only navigable branches arc the two that were formerly artificial canals, so that the seven streams are fordablc. Not 1 less definite are the prophecies of the failure of the papyrus and other reeds, and the flax, the destruction of the fisheries, and the consequent ruin of the main branches of Egyptian industry. (Isaiah xix.) Not less remarkable is the exact fulfilment of these predictions. The papyrus is unknown in Egypt, the reeds are no longer a feature of its vegetation, English cotton is sold in its streets in the place of its once famous fine linen, and its fisheries can scarcely support the half-savage population of a small district. In the political history, the one prophecy that " There shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt" (Ezck. xxx. 13), has been literally fulfilled in the stranger rule that has been the curse of the country since the second Persian conquest, more than two thousand years ago.

Egyptian archaeology has had the reputation of being a narrow and fruitless pursuit. I have endeavored to show that, if rightly prosecuted, it has the highest human interest. In these days of contest, so important a province should not be left to those who are indifferent or hostile to the best purpose of honest and earnest inquiry.

Chopsey's View On The Hudson. Oncof the most beautiful pictures of the season is notiu the exhibition of the Royal Academy. It is a largo landscape painting, by Jasper Cropscy, representing a view on the Hudson river, from the heights above one of the small towns upon its banks. Tho spectator stands high up, and somewhat back, upon a wooded hill with an opening before him, through which is a broad view of the river; the land descending from the foreground to the nearest bank, which is, however, quite in the distance. The time is autumn, and the foliage of the tall trees and tangled underwood, intermingles a brilliant green with colors of red and yellow that Tie in richness and intensity with the hue of flowers. Every ono who has visited America knows how glowing is the scenery, — how it altogether surpasses the experience of Europe, and would seem to those who have seen no more than the picture exaggerated. In the painting before us, however, it i is generally agreed that the painter has rather subdued these brillianttoncs than otherwise. The country is seen under a vivid sun.

Tlio subject is treated with j*reat skill. With a sharp eye and a firm hand, Mr. Cropsey is enabled to seize the precise forms of organic life, or tho broken ground, in nil their variety and force; and the effect of air is conveyed by tho movement in the atmosphere above, by the Einoko

which goes dancing from the steamer's funnel, and by tlie endless change of tint which pre vadcs the entire scene. Still, as in nature, the varying forms and countless tints of innumerable glancing shadows viewed under one sun by one pair of eyes, are blended into a harmonious whole. There is complete life and thorough repose.

One little trait will illustrate the completeness with which the work is done; it is a test which we have often applied to pictures, and very seldom found them answer to it. In nature, tho forms of tho foliage, the position of the treetrunks, the leaves and the flower-stems, will be found to present an endless variety of direction. The landscape painter too often suffers bis hnnd to fall into a pattern: if any variety be introduced, tho variations nro repeated at certain intervals; and an inorganic mechanism may be detected i\t a glance. There is nothing of tho kind in Mr. Cropsey's picture. It is this, as well as the force and freedom of the coloring, which makes you feel that placed before the canvas, yon stand upon the wooded height, looking over tho vast expanse of tho Hudson valley, breaththe very air of that magnificent region. The painter s magic makes the room wall open, and the possessor of the picture becomes owner of one of the loveliest and grandest estates ill which eyo can revel.—Spectator.


Cast her forth in her shame;

She is no daughter of mine;
Wo had an honest name,

All of our house and line;
And she has brought us to shame.

What are you whispering there,

Parleying with sin at the door? I have no blessing for her;

Sho is dcnd to mo evermore :— Dead! would to God that she were I

Dead! and the grass o'er her head!

There is no shame in dying: They were wholesome tears wo shed

Where nil her little sisters nre lying; And the lovo of them is not dead.

I did not curse her, did I'

I meant not that, O Lord! Wo are cursed enough already;

Let her go with never a word :— I have blessed her often already.

You are the mother that bore her,

I do not blame you for weeping; They had all gone before her,

And she had our hearts a-keeping; And oh the lore that we bore her 1

I thought that she was like yon;

I thought that the light in her face Was the youth and the morning dew,

And the winsome look of grace: But she was never like you.

Is the niuli: dark and wild?

Dark is the way of sin— The way of an erring child,

Dark without and within.— And tell me not she was beguiled.

What should beguile her, truly?

Did we not bless them both? There was gold between them dnly,

And we blessed their plighted troth; Though I never liked him truly.

Let us read a word trom the Book;

I think that my eyes grow dim j— Sho used to sit in the nook

There by the side of him, And hand mo the holy Book.

I wot not what ails me to-night;

I cannot lay hold on a text. 0 Jesus 1 guide me aright,

For my soul is sore perplexed,
And the Cook seems dark as the night.

And the night is stormy and dork .

And dark is the way of sin; And the stream will bo swollen too; and hark,

How the water roars in tho Lynn I—
It's >n ngly ford in tho dark.

What did you say t To-night
Might the sleep in her little bed 1

Her bed so pure and white! .

How often I've thought and said They were both so pure and white!

Bat that was a lie—for she

Was a whited sepulchre; Yet oh ! she was white to me,

And I've buried my heart in her; And it's dead wherever she bo.

Nay, she never ronld lay her head

Again in tho little white room Where all her little sistors were Inid;

She would see them still in the gloom, All chaste and pure—but dead.

Wo will go altogether,

She, and you, and I; There's the black peat-hag 'mong the heather,

Where we could nil of us lie, And bury our shame together.

Any foul place will do

For a grave to us now in our shame :— Sho may lie with me and yon,

But she shall not sleep with them,
And tho dust of my fathers too.

Is it sin, you say, I have spoken'
I know not; my head feels strange;

And something in me is broken;
Lord, is it the coming change?

Forgive the word I have spoken.

I scarce know what I have said;

Was I hard on her for her full?
That was wrong; but tho rest were dead.

And I loved her more than them nil—
For she hcired all the lovo of tho dead.

One by one as they died,

Tho love that was owing to them Centred on her at my side;

And then she brought us to shame, And broko the crown of my pride. Lord, pardon mine erring child 1

Do we not all of us err? Dark was my heart and wild;

Oh, might I hut look on her
Once more, my lost loved child!

For I thought, not long ago,
That I was in Abraham's bosom,

And she lifted n face of woo,
Like some pale, withered blossom,

Out of tho depths below.

Do not say, when I am gone,

That she brought my gray hairs to the grave Women do that; but let her alone;

She'll have sorrow enough to brave; That would turn her heart into stone.

Is that her hand in mine 1

Now, give me thine, sweet wife:
I thank thec, Lord, for this grace of thine,

And light, and peace, and life; And she is thine and mine. —Macmillan'i Magazine, Obwell.

From The Press. METAPHYSICS.

We are frequently told that we live in a very materialistic afje, which, where it is not wholly absorbed in pleasure and amusement, only cares about intellectual exertion in its bearing on political objects or the pursuit of wealth. Our ears, it is said, are stuffed with cotton, and thereby dead to the "voices of the Infinite," and regardless of all the great problems of the soul and the universe. In spite of all this, however, metaphysics continue to flourish and abound, and as they excite controversy, we conclude that they find readers. Those who are inclined to take a gloomy view of the fortunes of abstract thought, may be re-assured when they see the number of works devoted to it which are constantly appearing. The circles made by Mr. Hansel's plunge into that "Parson's Pleasure," the "Limits of Religious Thought," arc still spreading. To Mr. Maurice has succeeded as a critic of that work Dr. John Young, who takes the field in a book entitled "The Province of Reason." Mr. Hansel's article on "Metaphysics," in the Encpclopcedia Britannica, is also about to appear in a separate form. The Bamptou lecturer's metaphysical opinions are also the subject of a chapter in Dr. Whewcll's "Philosophy of Discovery," which forms the concluding portion of his great work on the Inductive Sciences in general. The Master of Trinity has also nearly ready a second volume of his "Platonic Dialogues for English Headers "—and Oxford adds her quota to the appreciation of the academic sage through Mr. Poste, of Oriel, who has lately published a translation of the Philebtts. Scotland is represented by Dr. M'Cosh, who has brought out a large volume of the " Intuitions of the Mind." Mr. Bains' Psychology forms the subject of an article in the new number of the National Review. Mr. Craik appears with an enlarged and revised edition of his Introduction to Bacon (our

interest about whom is at the present day purely of a speculative kind); and the University of Dublin, seldom behindhand in matters of pure philosophy, is to be represented by the Rev. J. Macmahon's "Treatise on Metaphysics, chiefly in connection with Revealed Religion."—What degree of interest on the part of the general public this metaphysic crop really represents, it is difficult to say, because readers are now so numerous, and the quantity of books published so far beyond any one's power to keep up with, that there has come to be a special public for every thing. The question, however, is likely to be tested by Mr. Herbert Spencer, who has issued proposals for publishing, by subscription, a connected series of philosophical works, to form a complete system. London readers would not expect such a project to succeed, but they are perhaps unaware what a considerable following Mr. Spencer has in the provinces. At Bradford, for instance, as we hear, he is a sort of Pope—enjoying a reputation like Voltaire's at the time when that potentate's influence was greatest. No thinker, except perhaps Mr. Mill, is considered worthy of being placed anywhere near him; and even the latter philosopher's views are now, probably, not so palatable as formerly to the thorough-going advocates of universal suffrage and redistribution of landed property. While we are on the subject of metaphysics, we will take an opportunity of suggesting a reprint in this line to some (in both senses) speculative publisher. Mr. Bohn has issued a translation of Kant's Kritih, but readers often require some additional help besides a translator's notes. We wonder that no one has thought of rcpublishing in a separate volume Mr. Wirgman's articles on Kant, which appeared many years since in the Encyclopaedia Londinensis. They form the easiest introduction to the German philosopher with which we are acquainted.

Arsenic In AonicDLTDnAL Plants.—Dr. E. W. Davy lias detected arsenic in peas, cabbages, and Swedish turnips, which had been manured with superphosphate) of lime. This fertilizer is very extensively manufactured in England, especially for uso on tho turnip crop, from various phosphatic minerals, and from bones, by tho help of arsenical oil of vitriol.

Tho arsenic, being thus proved to enter vegetation, may very easily and naturally pass into animals, and bo retained in their organism. This is another striking, presumptive proof of the worthlessncss of that toxological evidence which hangs a man on the strength of minute traces of arsenic being found in working up-several pounds of flesh uud viscera.

From The Constitutional Press Magazine. THE KOOLAGH: OR, SNOWSTORM AT


It was in the month of December, 1843, that I left Trebizond for Erzroom, on my way to Bokhara for the second time, the object now being to ascertain the fate of Colonel Stoddart and Captain Conolly. I was going thither in the character of an English dervish—a holy man, whom even the most barbarous eastern tribes were likely to respect, and allow to pass unmolested; and therefore my dress consisted of a clergyman's preaching gown, a doctor's hood, and shovel hat. Our small party included only three souls, viz., an excellent Tartar, who was sent with me by the pacha of Trebizond; his servant Michalovitch, who was a Russian; and myself. The distance betwixt Trebizond and Erzroom is about one hundred and fifteen milt's; and in summer the journey may be performed in four days; in the depth of winter, however, it is very different; and we were more or less wading, from the 1st to the 10th of December, up to our necks in snow, before we reached our place of destination.

On our way we lodged, at night, in the abodes of the poor mountaineers, in huts and occasional small villages. Some of these people being Turks, and some Armenians, who received us very kindly in their meagre, but not uncomfortable, homes; where, fatigued with travelling on horseback, which never suited me, and almost frozen to death, I was thankful to lie down and rest, and have the provisions wc had brought with us cooked in their simple way.

During the journey, we passed through the Armenian town of Goomish-khanah, where there are silver mines; and the bishop hospitably entertained us there; and another time wc rested at the house of an Armenian merchant, who enlivened our evening with the timbrel and dance. We also halted at Bayboot, where the reception was not so friendly; for an Armenian, recently come from Jerusalem where the English bishopric had just been established, spread a suspicion that this had been done with a view to uproot the Armenian Church there. On reaching Erzroom, I was received with open arms in the houses of my English friends, Mr. Brandt the consul, Colonels Williams* and Farrant, Mr. and Mrs. Redhouse, and the Hon. Robert Curzon; and the last named gentleman being very ill at this time, I visited him, and administered the Holy Communion to him.

* Now Sir William Fenwick Williams, of Kars, Bart.

The city of Erzroom, with about forty thousand inhabitants, stands on level ground about six thousand feet :;bovc the sea. It is situated at the foot of Mount Ararat, surrounded by a mountainous range, and is approached by narrow passes, often with precipices at the side, into which, when the frozen snow lies deep, the traveller and his mule by a single false step disappear forever. The climate of Erzroom experiences the two extremes of heat and cold; and the temperature in winter freezes the breath of the traveller into icicles, which rattle on his beard and moustache.

In addition to the kindness which I received from my countrymen at Erzroom, the Pasha Al-Haj-Khaleel-Kamelee called on me, and said he should not allow me to spend one farthing in travelling through the province; and so my Christmas was most agreeably passed, and I intended to resume my journey towards Persia in the beginning or January. But on the day of my intended departure, before I set out—very early in the morning—a caravan of Persian merchants, with sixty mules laden with goods, and accompanied by a French physician who was employed in the Turkish service, and was on his way to Bayazeed, started on their road, whilst I was to follow them about noon, when the weather, which had been threatening, was expected to have cleared up. According to this advice and arrangement of my friends, I deferred my leavetaking for a few hours, and was then accompanied to the outskirts of the town by a cavalcade, for we were all on horseback, which consisted of Colonels Williams and Farrant, Messrs. Brandt and Redhouse, and Zobrab, Mr. Brandt's dragoman, who had assembled to witness my departure, and cheer me on the road. But now, let- us pause a moment at this spot outside of Erzroom, and survey the scene before us. In front was the lofty Ararat, rising to more than seventeen thousand feet (called Agra-Dagh by the Turks), which was split and broken by chasms and precipices on every side; and from its highest points mighty avalanches were falling, and dealing destruction on all below. It is very remarkable in this region, that so long as the skies are covered with mist, and the air blows mildly, the traveller may proceed on his way in safety; but woe to that wretched man who is caught in the midst of the mountains, when a chilling wind portends the coming storm. Soon and suddenly shrieks are heard from all sides, koolagh, koolagh, koolagh! which may be translated "snowspout," and which is more sudden in its arrival, and far more dangerous in its course, than all the sammooms that ever swept the

« PreviousContinue »