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the work-room before nine, eat and break a joke or two till twelve, then we repair to our own chambers and make ourselves ready, for it cannot be called dressing. At noon the great bell fetches us into a parlor, adorned with all sorts of fine arms, poisoned darts, several pairs of old boots and shoes worn by men of might, with the stirrups of King Charles I., taken from him at Edgehill,"— and there they have their dinner, after which comes dancing and supper.
As for Bath, all history went and bathed and drank there. George II. and his queen, Prince Frederick and nis court, scarce a character one can mention of the early last century, but was seen in that famous pumproom where Beau Nash presided, and his picture hung between the busts of Newton and Pope:
"This picture, placed these busts between,
Gives satire nil its strength:
I should like to have seen the Folly. It •was a splendid, embroidered, beruffled, snuffboxed, red-heeled, impertinent Folly, and knew how to make itself respected. I should like to have seen that noble old madcap Peterborough in his boots (he actually had the audacity to walk about Bath in boots!), with his blue ribbon and stars, and a cabbage under each arm, and a chicken in his hand, which he had been cheapening for his dinner. Chesterfield came there many a time and gambled for hundreds, and grinned through Bis gout. Mary Wortley was there, young and beautiful; and Mary Wortley, old, hideous, and snuffy. Miss Chudleigh came there, slipping away from one husband, and on the look-out for another. Walpolo passed many a day there; sickly, supercilious, absurdly dandified, and affected; with a brilliant wit, a delightful sensibility; and, for his friends, a most tender, generous, and faithful heart. And if you and I had been alive then, anc strolling down Milsom street — hush! we should nave taken our hats off, as an awful, long, lean, gauut figure, swathed in flannels passed by in its chair, and a livid face lookec out from the window—great fierce eyes staring from under a bushy powdered wig, a terrible frown, a terrible Roman nose — am we whisper to one another, "There he is There's the great commoner 1 There is Mr Pitt!" As we walk away, the abbey bells are set a-ringing; and we meet our testj friend Toby Smollett, on the arm of James Quin the actor, who tells us that the bells ring for Mr. Bullock, an eminent cowkccpei from Tottenham, who has just arrived to drink the waters; and Toby shakes his cane at the door of Colonel Ringworm—the Creole gen
tleman's lodgings next his own—where the oloncl's two negroes are practising on the Trench horn.
When we try to recall social England, we must fancy it playing at cards for many hours every day. The custom is wellnigh gone out among us now, but fifty years ago was general, fifty years before that, almost universal, in the country. "Gaming has become so much the fashion," writes Sevmour, the author of the Court Gamester, "that he who n company should be ignorant of the games n vogue, would be reckoned low-bred, and lardly fit for conversation." There were cards everywhere. It was considered illDred to read in company. "Books were not it articles for drawing-rooms," old ladies used to say. People were jealous, as it were, and angry with them. You will find in Hervey that George II. was always furious at the sight of books; and his queen, who loved reading, had to practise it in secret in her closet. But cards were the resource of all the world. Every night, for hours, kings and queens of England sat down and handled their majesties of spades and diamonds. In European courts, I believe, the practice still remains, not for gambling, but 5br pastime. Our ancestors generally adopted it. "Books I prithee, don't talk to me about books," said old Sarah Marlborough. "The only books I know are men and cards." "Dear old Sir Roger de Coverlcy sent all his tenants a string of hogs' puddings and a pack of cards at Christmas," says the Spectator, wishing to depict a kind landlord. One of the good old lady writers, in whose letters I have been dipping, cries out, "Sure, cards have kept us women from a great deal of scandal!" Wise old Johnson regretted that he had not learnt to play. "It is very useful in life," he says; "it generates kindness, and consolidates society." David Hume never went to bed without his whist. We have Walpole, in one of his letters, in a transport of gratitude for the cards. "I shall build an altar to Pam," says he, in his pleasant, dandified way, " for the escape of my charming Duchess of Grafton." The duchess had been playing cards at Rome, when she ought to have been at a cardinal's concert, where the floor fell in, and all the monsignors were precipitated into the cellar. Evenlhc Nonconformist clergy looked not unkindly on the practice. "I do not think," says one of them, "that honest Martin Luther committed sin by playing at backgammon for an hour or two after dinner, in order, by unbending his mind, to promote digestion." As for the High Church parsons, they all played, bishops and all. On Twelfthday, the court used to play in state. "This being Twelfth-day, his majesty, the Prince of Wales, and the Knighta Companions of the Garter, Thistle, and Bath, appeared in the collars of their respective orders. Their majesties, the Prince of Wales, and three eldest princesses, went to the Chapel Royal, preceded by the heralds. The Duke of Manchester carried the sword of State. The king and prince made offering at the altar of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, according to the annual custom. At night their majesties payed at hazard with the nobility, /or the benefit of the groom-porter; and 'twas said the king won six hundred guineas; the queen three hundred and sixty; Princess Amelia, twenty; Princess Caroline, ten; the Duke of Grafton and the Earl of Portrnore, several thousands."
Let us glance at the same chronicle, which is of the year 1731, and see how others of our forefathers were engaged. "Cork, 15th January.— This day, one Tim Croneen was, for the murder and robbery of Mr. St. Leger and his wife, sentenced to be hanged two minutes, then his head to be cut off, and his body divided in four quarters, to be placed in four cross-ways. He was servant to Mr. St. Leger, and committed the murder with the privity of the servant-maid, who was sentenced to be burned; also of the gardener, whom he knocked on the head, to deprive him of his share of the booty."
"January 3. — A postboy was shot by an Irish gentleman on the road near Stone, in Staffordshire, who died in two days, for which the gentleman was imprisoned."
"A poor man was ibund hanging in a gentleman's stables at Bungay, in Norfolk, by a person .who cut him down, and running for assistance, left his penknife behind him. The poor man recovering, cut his throat with the knife; and a river Leing nigh, jumped into it; but company coming, he was dragged out alive, and was like to remain so."
"Tho Honorable Thomas Finch, brother to the Earl of Nottingham, is appointed ambassador at the Hague, in the room of the Earl of Chesterfield, who is on his return Lome."
"William Cowper, Esq., and the Rev. Mr John Cowper, chaplain in ordinary to her majesty, and rector of Great Bcrkhainpstcad in the county of Hertford, are appointee clerks of the commissioners of bankruptcy."
"Charles Creagh, Esq., and — Macnamara Esq., between whom an old grudge of three years had subsisted, which had occasionct their being bound over about fifty times for breaking the peace, meeting in companj with Mr. Eyres, of Galloway, they dischargee their pistols, and all three were killed on the spot, — to the great joy of their peacefu neighbors, say the Irish papers."
"Wheat is 26s. to 28s., and barley 20s. to 22s. a quarter; three per cents. 92; best loaf sugar,
9 l-4c/.; Bohea, 12*. to 14*.; Pekoe, 18s., and Hyson, 35s. per pound."
"At Exon was celebrated with groat magnificence the birthday of the son of Sir W. Courtney, Bart., at which more than 1,000 id-sons were present. A bullock was roasted whole; a butt of wine and several tuns of 3eer and cyder were given to the populace. At the same time Sir William delivered to lis son, then of age, Powdram Castle, and a jreat estate."
"Charlesworth and Cox, two solicitors, convicted of forgery, stood on the pillory at the Royal Exchange. The first was severely iiandlcd by the populace, but the other was very much favored, and protected by six or seven fellows who got on the pillory to protect him from the insults of the mob."
A boy killed by falling upon iron spikes, From a lamp-post, which he climbed to see Mother Needham stand in the pillory."
"Mary Lynn was burned to ashes at the stake for being concerned in the murder of ber mistress."
"Alexander Russell, the foot soldier, who was capitally convicted for a street robbery in January sessions, was reprieved for transportation; but having an estate fallen to him, obtained a free pardon."
'The Lord John Russell married to the Lady l)iana Spencer, at Marlborough House. He has a fortune of 80.000/. down, and is to have 100,000/. at the death of the Duchess Dowager of Marlborough, his grandmother."
"March 1'being the anniversary of the queen's birthday, when her majesty entered tne forty-ninth year of her age, there was a splendid appearance of nobility at St. James's. Her majesty was magnificently dressed, and wore a flowered muslin head-edging, as did also her Royal Highness. The Lord Portmore was said to have had the richest dress; though an Italian count had twenty-four diamonds instead of buttons."
New clothes on the birthday were the fashion for all loyal people. Swift mentions the custom several times. Walpole is constantly speaking of it; laughing at the practice, but having the very finest clothes from Paris, nevertheless. If the king and queen were unpopular, there were very few new clothes at the drawing-room. In a paper in the Trite Patriot, No. 3, written to attack the Pretender, the Scotch, French, and Popery, Fielding supposes the Scotch and the Pretender in possession of London, and himself about to bo hanged for loyalty, — when, jnst as the rope is round his neck, he says: "My little girl entered my bed-chamber, and put an end to my dream by pulling open my eyes, and telling me that the tailor had just brought home my clothes for his majesty's birthday." In his Temple Beau, the beau is dunned " for a birthNo mill-horse ever went in a more constant track, or a more unchanging circle; so that by the assistance of an almanac for the day of the week, and a watch for the hour of the day, you may inform yourself fully, without any other intelligence but memory, of every transaction within the verge of the court. Walking, chaises, levees, and audiences fill the morning. At night the king plays at commerce and backgammon, and the queen at quadrille, where poor Lady Charlotte runs her usual nightly gauntlet, the queen pulling her hood, and the Princess Royal rapping her knuckles. The Duke of Grafton takes his nightly opiate of lottery, and sleeps as usual between the Princesses Amelia and Caroline. Lord Grantham strolls from one room to another (as Dry den says), like some discontented ghost that oft appears, and is forbid to speak; and stirs himself about as people stir a fire, not with any design, but in hopes to make it burn brisker. At last the king gets up; the pool finishes; and everybody has their dismission. Their majesties retire to Lady Charlotte and my Lord Lifford; my Lord Grantham, to Lady Frances and Mr. Clark; some to supper, some to bed; and thus the evening and the morning make the day."
day suit of velvet, 40/." Be sure that Mr. drive; he actually questioned the superiorityHarry Fielding was dunned too. !of our nobility, our horses,'and our roast beef"! This public days, no doubt, were splendid,' Whilst he was away from his beloved Hanobut the private court life must have been aw-; vcr, every thing remained there exactly as in fully wearisome. "I will not trouble you," | the prince's presence. There were eight bunwrites Hervey to Lady Sundon, "with any j dred horses in the stables, there was all the account of our occupations at Hampton Court, apparatus of chamberlains, court-marshals, garden theatre, with linden and box for: would go off to his Walmoden and talk of her. screen, and grass for a carpet, where the Pla-' On the 2oth of October, 1760,'he being then tens had danced to George and his father, the in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and
The king's fondness for Hanover occasioned all sorts of rough jokes among his English subjects, to whom sauer-lcraut and sausages have ever been ridiculous objects. When our present Prince Consort came among us, the people bawled out songs in the streets indicative of the absurdity of Germany in general. The sausage-shops produced enormous sausages which wo might suppose were the daily food and delight of German princes. 1 remember (he caricatures at the marriage of Prince Leopold with the Princess Charlotte The bridegroom was drawn in rags. George HI.'s wife was called by the people a beggarly German duchess; the British idea being that all princes except British princes were beggarly. King George paid us back. Ho though! there were no manners out of Germany Sarah Marlborough once coming to visit the princess, whilst her royal highness was whipping one of the roaring royal children, " Ah!' says George, who was standing by, "you have no good manners in England, because you are not properly brought up when yoi are young." Ho insisted that no Englisl cooks could roast, no English coachman coul
and equerries; and court assemblies were held every Saturday, where all the nobility of Hanover assembled at what I can't but think a fine and touching ceremony. An arm-chair was placed in the assembly-room, and on it lie king's portrait The nobility advanced, nd made a bow to the arm-chair, and to the mage which Nebuchadnezzar the king had et up; and spoke under their voices before he august picture, just as they would have lone had the King Churfurst been present limself.
Ho was always going back to Hanover, the year 1729, he went for two whole rears, during which Caroline reigned for him n England, and he was not in the least missed >y his British subjects. He went again in 3~5 and '3G; and between the years 1740 and . 755 was no less than eight times on the Coninent, which amusement he was obliged to pve up at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War. Here every day's amusement was the ame. "Our life is as uniform as that of a monastery," writes a courtier whom Vehso quotes. 'Every morning at eleven, and every evening at six, we drive in the heat to Herren;iausen, through an enormous linden avenue; and twice a day cover our coats and coaches with dust. In the king's society there never s the least change. At table, and At cards, lie sees always the same faces, and at the end of the game retires into his chamber. Twice a week there is a French Theatre; the other days there is play in the gallery. In this way, were the king always to stop in Hanover, one could make a ten years' calendar of his proceedings; and settle beforehand what his time of business, meals, and pleasure would be."
The old pagan kept his promise to his dying wife. Lady Yarmouth was now in full favor, and treated with profound respect by the Hanover society, though it appears rather neglected in England when she came among us. In 1740, a couple of the king's daughters went to sec him at Hanover; Anna, the Princess of Orange (about whom, and whose husband and marriage-day, Walpole and Hcrvcy have left us the most ludicrous descriptions), and Maria of Hesse Casscl, with their respective lords. This made the Haiiover court very brilliant. In honor of his high guests, the king gave several fetes; among others, a magnificent masked ball, in the green theatre at Hcnrcnhauscn, — the late sultan. The stage and a great part of the garden were illuminated with colored lamps. Almost iho whole court appeared in white dominoes, "like," says the describer of the scene, " like spirits in the Elysian fields." At night, supper was served in the gallery with three great tables, and the king was very merry. After supper dancing was resumed, and I did not get home till five o'clock by full daylight to Hanover. Some days afterwards we had in the opera-house at Ilanover, a great assembly. The king appeared in a Turkish dress; his turban wasornamented with a magnificent agraffe of diamonds; the Lady Yarmouth was dressed as a sultana; nobody was more beautiful than the Princess of Hesse." So, while poor Caroline was resting in her coffin, dapper little George, with his red face and his white eyebrows and goggle-eyes, at sixty years of age, is dancing a pretty dance with Madame Walmoden, and capering about dressed up like a Turk 1 For twenty years more, that little old Bajazet went on in this Turkish fashion, until the fit came which choked the old man, when he ordered the side of his coffin to be taken out, as well as that of poor Caroline's, who had preceded him, so that his sinful old bones and ashes might mingle with those of the faithful creature. O strutting Turkey-cock of Herrcnhausen! O naughty little Mahomet, in what Turkish paradise arc you now, and where be your painted houris? So Countess Yarmouth appeared as a sultana, and his Majesty in a Turkish dress wore an agraffe of diamonds, and was very merry, was he? Friends! he was your fathers' king as well as mine —let us drop a respectful tear over his grave.
He said of his wife that he never knew a woman who was worthy to buckle her shoo: he would sit alone weeping before her portrait, and, when he had dried his eyes, he
the thirty-fourth of his reign, his page went to take him his royal chocolate, and behold! the most religious and gracious king was lying dead on the floor. They went and fetched Walmoden; but Walmoden could not wake him. The sacred Majesty was but a lifeless corpse. The king was dead; God save the king! But, of course, poets and clergymen decorously bewailed the late one. Here arc some artless verses, in which an English divine deplored the famous departed hero, and over which you may cry or you may laugh, exactly as your humor suits: —
"While at his feet expiring Faction lay,
No fun her blessing could on earth be given — Tlie next degree of happiness was—heaven!"
If he had been good, if he had been just, if he had been pure in life, and wise in council, could the poet have said much more? It was a parson who came and wept over this grave, with Walmoden sitting on it, and claimed heaven for the poor old man slumbering below. Here was one who had neither dignity, learning, morals, nor wit — who tainted n great society by a bad example; who in youth, manhood, old age, was gross, low, and sensual; and Mr. Portcus, afterwards my Lord Bishop Portcus, says the earth was not good enough for him, and that his only place was heaven! Bravo, Mr. Porteus! The divine who wept these tears over George the Second's memory wore George the Third's lawn. I don't know whether people still admire his poetry or his sermons.
Pope And Hogarth.—Some time since, if I remember rightly, some remr.rks appeared in "N. & Q. "on the curious fact (lint no allusion to Shakspearc is to be found in the writings of his illustrious contemporary Lord Bacon, while to judge from what ho has written Bacon himself knew nothing of Shakspeare. I have just been looking through the writings of Pope, in hopes
of fimling some reference to his celebrated contemporary Hogarth, hut have failed in doing so. Can it he ]>ossiblc that the Bard of Twickenham has never once alluded to the great English painter, or have I overlooked the allusion? If so, reference to any passage in Pope in which Hogarth is mentioned will greatly oblige. —Aoto and Queries. P. A. H.
From The Colonization Hcrnlcl. DESTINY OF THK COLORED RACK.* The free blacks, in every part of the United States, and from the commencement of their existence as a separate class, have occupied a position every way peculiar, and certainly not favorable to their general progress. Still, however, while that position has exposed them to many vices and much suffering, and h:is held out to them most inadequate inducements to high or sustained efforts, it has been attended with certain advantages, which have greatly exceeded those enjoyed during the same period by the bulk of the human race. They have lived by the side and under the shadow of a highly civilized and most energetic race. They have been protected by the freest institution in the world, and have seen the power and value of that which they have not been allowed to enjoy fully. They have received, as a race, through successive generations, a training by which they have been educated in the great duty and art of sustained toil, •which, while it is the elemental curse of humanity, is also the elemental point of all its progress; and they have acquired, to a certain degree, all the arts and trades which flourish around them, as the incidents of a high state of social development. They have possessed themselves, to a certain extent, of that which, in a higher sense, we call knowledge; and it would not be true to say of them, as a race, that they are wholly uneducated. The manners, the habits, the wants, and the attainments of a civilization—low as compared with ours, respectable as compared with the average of the human race, and exalted as compared with the bulk of their own race—have been attained by them. And to crown all, the almost universal belief, and to a considerable extent the practice of the Christian religion has become their heritage, in the house of their bitter pilgrimage. Christ and his gospel are in their midst, far more really and substantially than in the midst of many nations we call Christian. If we will consider these things fairly, we cannot doubt that these people arc in a condition, if they were but placed in circumstances favoring such a result, to assume a very different position from any they have hitherto occupied. It was a conclusion eminently reasonable and natural, from such premises, that such a race might be colonized, with the utmost certainty of a great and beneficent influence thereby, upon themselves.
The experiment has been made, and has produced, in this sense, more than was prom
* Part of a Discourse delivered before the Kentucky Colonization Society, by Rev. Robert J. Brcckinridge, D.D.
ised — perhaps more than was expected. Similar experiments have been made with. every considerable race into which the human family is divided, and every part of the earth has been the theatre of these experiments. I think no record exists of any more decidedly successful, or, at a similar stage of it, more hopeful. I believe no instance has occurred in which results more cheering, and apparently more pregnant with further and immense results, have been produced under so many discouragements, with such limited means, and in so short a time; and certainly the progress of no single experiment has been more eminently free from great disasters. Wo have colonized this race—such as it was—with all the odium which its enemies could accumulate upon its head, and without any attempt on the part of its friends to vindicate or defend it. Silently accepting the character given to it, or, perhaps, too often ourselves testifying too unreservedly to its degradation, our great conclusion has been—let us remove it. We have done so, in sufficient numbers, and for a sufficient length of time, to exhibit clearly the nature of the fruits that will be borne. We have sent ten thousand of them some four thousand miles off, across the ocean. Thirty years have been occupied in doing this. We have done it, almost entirely with our individual resources. We have planted them in their new homes. We have committed to their own hands the administration of their own affairs—the organization of their own social state—the making of their own laws —the establishment of their own forms of government. With the deepest anxiety— yet without the slightest effort to control the result, except by reason—we have watched the progress of our work, as we patiently and steadily urged it forward.
Now we turn to our country, and confidently—might I not almost say proudly ?— surely I may say gratefully—invite her to look upon it. There are those people—a free and Christian commonwealth, far off on the verge of human civilization; a small, but an enlightened and well regulated state. Industry prospers amongst them j the arts of common life flourish to a degree; commerce is regularly pursued j trade adopts its established laws; agriculture is establishing its conquests. All the social institutions which adorn and bless life, exist on the model they learned from us. Political institutions like our own are established with a cordial and unanimous consent, and administered with firmness, regularity, and justice. Schools are established, and the young are educated. Churches are erected to the living God, and Christ's gospel is preached to a believing people. Just, brave, and prosperous in peace