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principle that man may conquer godhood by Force of his own exertions and the .practice of certain virtues. In Thibet the Delai Lauia is chosen -when a child; in Italy the Pope is selected in mature age; but in both cases the infallibility, which is the essence of the office, is attained by the transmission of some not easily denned virtue, supposed to be inherited from the founder of the religion.
A far more striking and exact parallel is found in the segregation of the clergy from the laity, and the institution of the monastic orders, which formed so important a part of the arrangements of the Middle Ages, and has done so in all times in Buddhist countries. Practically, the two institutions are absolutely identical;— established for the same purposes, governed by the same laws, exercising the same powers, and developing the same results. In both institutions, all parties joining them give up all worldly possessions, have all things m common, take vows of celibacy, and live apart from the rest of men. Poverty and absolute dependence on alms have always been the rule in Buddhist countries, as they were with the mendicant friars of the West, and were more or less professed, if not practised, by all orders of monks. The establishment of a hierarchy of priors, abbots, bishops, and cardinals, and of the corresponding offices in the East, is perhaps a necessary consequence of the organization of any large body of men among whom it is indispensable that discipline must be maintained; and is common to the two institutions as a consequence of the segregation of so large a body of individuals into a separate class, rather than as a preordained part of the institution.
Canonization is another remarkable institution common to these two religions, and to these only. It has frequently been attempted to draw a parallel between the demigods of Greece or Rome and the institution of saints in the mediaeval church; but the argument has always broken down, as in fact there is no essential similarity between the two. The minor gods of the heathen Pantheon, though remarkable for their power or virtues, were all more or less connected by birth or marriage with the great Olympic family, and owed their rank rather to their descent than to their virtues. It is true that, in later times, the deification of Roman emperors, and others of that class, which the abject flattery of a corrupt age introduced, was a nearer approach to the usage of Buddhism which was then flourishing in the East. But, when the custom is adopted in its purity, the attainment of Buddhahood, or ot saintship is owing neither to birth nor to office, but to the practice of the ascetic virtues in the church, or
of piety or charity towards the church on the part of those outfcide its pale.
If we turn from the hierarchy to the material forms of worship, we find the same novelties and the same striking resemblances. As is now perfectly well known, the principal object of worship in all Buddhist countries is and always was the veneration paid to relics. As early as the time of Clemens of Alexandria it was known in the west that the followers of Buddha worshipped a pyramid, which was supposed to contain a bone, a relic of their god. The true old Tartar form of this was the homage paid to the bodies of the dead; but the Buddhists have refined on the primitive practice. No bodies are venerated but those of persons who have attained Buddhahood in some shape or other, and then it never is the body as buried that is reverenced, but some bone or utensil, or some spot rendered sacred by the presence of a saint, or where some miracle was performed by some holy person. The worship of holy places and holy things rose in the Middle Ages to be the most prominent of all forms of devotion, but did not exist before, and has died out to a great extent since, though, while thousands flock' to see a holy coat at Troves, or tho blood of St. Januarius at Naples, or to worship at Lorctto or Compostella, it cannnot bo said that this Buddhist formula is yet extinct in modern Europe.
The similarities of tho liturgies may to some extent be accidental, and have no doubt been caused by the similarity of institutions; but it can hardly be considered an accident that the great act of devotion in one church should be the endless repetition of " Ave Marias" and " Paternosters," and in the other a still more continuous utterance of " Om man! Padmi Horn," or such-like formulas; though it must be confessed that in no ago did the Romish Church carry this so far as is done in Buddhist countries through the invention of the praying-wheel, by which median-ieal means are employed to say the prayers of those who are too lazy to perform that office themselves.
It would bo tedious to dwell on the many minor points of resemblance between the forms of the two religions. It must be already clear that the Reformation in tho sixteenth century was only a rebellion of the Arian races of Europe against the Buddhism which tho Celtic races had superinduced upon the Cristianity of the Bible; and that all the corruptions which the reformers attacked were (with the single exception of transubstantiation) Buddhist doctrines or formulas, such as popery, monachism, relic-worship, etc. After that great struggle it was found that all the Teutonic races of Europe—who never had been genuine Buddhists —had thrown off the Buddhist institutions and forms; but that no Celtic race had become Protestant, but " held their old faith and old feelings fast" So it remains at the present day. Europe is Protestant in the exact ratio of the purity of the Arian blood in any race, and Romish in proportion as the people in any country are Celtic. The inference seems to be inevitable that the Celts were Buddhists before their conversion to Christianity. The Tentons were not, nor did they ever heartily adhere to the unfamiliar forms that had been forced upon them. The Buddhism which crept into the mediseval church did not come by any of the usual routes of travel or of trade. No Buddhist missions were established in Asia Minor, or Palestine, or Egypt, whence, by their preaching, their doctrines were spread into the Roman Empire, and thence communicated to the nations who were gradually converted to Christianity. The very contrary, indeed, seems to be the fact. The Greek Church, although in immediate contact with Buddhist countries, has infinitely less of Buddhism in its formulae or faith than tUe Romish, and there is no trace of Buddhism having passed tnrough it to the west. Nor can we trace it as proceeding from Rome itself, but, on the contrary, we find all the peculiarities we have enumerated springing up gradually among the barbarians who overwhelmed the Roman empire, and it was by them forced on the Church at Rome by the pressure of circumstances. Nor is it difficult to sec how this arose. The policy of the Roman Church, as set forth in Pope Gregory's celebrated letter to Bishop Mellitus, was to get the barbarians to allow themselves to be baptized, and to acknowledge Christ in any form. Even although the first converts were allowed to retain the worship of "trees and stones," the missionaries hoped that many would be weaned from their idolatries, and at all events that their children would forsake the Kirk, and take to the Ecclesia. This policy was to a certain extent unsuccessful, for the simple reason that the barbarians outnumbered the Romans as a thousand to one that they were too illiterate to comprehend the arguments on which the new faith rested and too rude to see its beauty, or to appreciate the doctrines of peace and love which it inculcated. If a few were truly converted, the mass still adhered to their old superstitions; and as the Roman clement died out the old faith came again more prominent!) to the surface, and was mixed up with the higher and holier faith, which it leavened but neither destroyed nor superseded.
Them are few chapters in the history of
.u'iis jjiu; i oifico a
he world at present so dark as that which reals of the doings of the Celtic races of Britain before the advent of the Saxons, and none to which the light of the new science of ethnography is likely to be of more value. All, however, which concerns us at present, s to know that Buddhism, in some shape or other, and under some name that may be lost, lid exist in Britain before the conversion of its inhabitants to Christianity. If this has been made clear, a great step has been gained in the elucidation of the antiquities of this illiterate people. If we may venture to turn the lamp of Indian Buddhism on these hitherto mysterious monuments, we sec, at once, what was meant by the inner choir at Stonebenge, by comparing it with the numerous examples of choirs in all Buddhist churches. We understand its enclosing circle by comparing it with that at Sanchee and elsewhere. We are no longer puzzled by the small granite monoliths, standing unsymmetrically between the two original groups, and inside the principal, for we can, at once, assume them to be the "danams" of succeeding votaries, offered after the temple was finished; and we can easily see how it came to be a cenotaph, or memorial church, dedicated to those who died and were buried at Ambresbury. It would explain to us why Silbury Hill, erected on a Roman road, should not cover the remains of the dead, but be the attempt of a letterless race to perpetuate the memory of some event, which nothing but a written record could really communicate to future ages. We might surmise that the circle at Rolldrich enclosed a holy spot, and know that the stones of Stennis were really the buryingplaco of some chief. There is, in fact, no winding in the labyrinth through which this thread might not conduct us in safety, and nothing so mysterious that we might not hope by this means to understand it. But to effect this end, explorations must be made afresh, and researches set about in a purpose-like manner, not aimless gropings in the dark, such as alone have yet been undertaken. A more systematic inquiry would repay the exertions of the earnest historical student, for it is the sole method by which we can expect to throw any light on this branch of our national antiquities. What is even more important, it is the only clue that is now likely to be afforded us for unravelling the mysterious wanderings of the races who peopled Europe and overthrew the Roman Empire, whose blood still flows in our veins, and whose feelings still influence every act, public or private, that takes place in the great European family of nations.
No.-848.—l September, 1860.
1. Darwin's Origin of Species,
2. Concerning Man and his Dwelling-place,.
3. The Four Georges: George II., .
. Quarterly Review, 515
Fraser's Magazine, 536 . Mr. Thackeray, in Cornhill
4. Destiny of the Colored Race R. J. Breckinridge, D.D., 560
6. Lucile. By Owen Meredith, .... Examiner, 564
6. Mr. Frankland's Marriage, .... Englishwoman's Journal, 568
7. Wild Sports in the South, Saturday Review, 574
Poetry.—Dying—Living, 514. The Three Lovers, 514.
Short Articles. — Latin Puzzle, 535. Gold Ants of Herodotus, 549. Manifold Writers, 549. Burning Alive, 549. Pope and Hogarth, 559. She took the cup of life to sip, 563. Mediaeval Rhymes, 567. Alleged Interpolations in the "Te Deum," 567. Bee Superstitions, 576.
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Yon and I once loved
As you turned your heart,
This is how wo part!
I was sad and silent,
And you could not know—
It would grieve mo so.
Mine is gone,
She has none.
Ah! yon start and shudder,
It is true,
Even to you.
Are closed for ever,
Beam on you so brightly
Their sweet light,
And I would not stay,
If I may.
Once I wished to live,
Now what matters it?
And death scatters it.
Nothing is amiss;
One last kiss.
Is this bliss 1 A. D.
This was how she left mo
Oh, my heart!
Tears will start.
For blue eyes I left her,
And bright hair,
Men call fair.
Up in heaven,
Might I pour my heart out
At your feet,
Of the Golden Street f
All my grief,
For the death you died by
Tears will start.
As you said—
By my bed?
What if death should part us,
You and I,
Let mo try?
Day by day;
In some way.
Death may re-unite us,
Who can tell?
I in hell?
From the sky;
You and I?
By and by." A. D.
THE THREE LOVERS.
(Temp. Elizabeth.) 0! Such a ruff the Marquis wears,—
So fair and stiff with plaits all round; Fair shines his satin cloak and vest,
With Indian pearl-seed edged and bound; His sword-hilt's gold, his orders hang
Like strings of toys around his neck; A dozen men, in black and white,
Follow like chessmen at his beck:
This is the Marquis. Then the Fop,
Who moves not but a scent of spring Shakes from his mantle and his plume.
His gold spurs on the pavement ring; His feather is a good yard high;
His buttons every one a gem; A jewel hangs from cither ear,
His white hands ever play with them.
But see my Willy—kissing glove—
Stabbing his shadow—brave and free He dances through the palace lands,
Greeting eachlrird that sings like me. His velvet cap is looped with chains;
Red rubies in his bonnet flamo So pay, so bright, and dtbonnaire—
I love to hear his very name. —Welcome Guest. Walteb TnoRnninrr. From The Quarterly Review.
On the Origin of Species, by Means of Natural Selection; or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.K.S. London, 1860.
Any contribution to our natural history literature from the pen of Mr. C. Daf win, is certain to command attention. His scientific attainments, his insight and carefulness as an observer, blended with no scanty measure of imaginative sagacity, and his clear and lively style, make all his writings unusually attractive. His present volume on the "Origin of Species " is the result of many years of observation, thought, and speculation; and is manifestly regarded by him as the "opus " upon which his future fame is to rest. It is true that he announces it modestly enough as the mere precursor of a mightier volume. But that volume is only intended to supply the facts which are to support the completed argument of the present essay. In this we have a specimencollection of the vast accumulation j and, working from these as the high analytical mathematician may work from the admitted results of his conic sections, he proceeds to deduce all the conclusions to which he wishes to conduct his readers.
The essay is full of Mr. Darwin's characteristic excellences. It is a most readable book; full of facts in natural history, old and new, of his collecting and of his observing; and all of these are told in his own perspicuous language, and all thrown into picturesque combinations, and all sparkle with the colors of fancy and the lights of imagination. It assumes, too, the grave proportions of a sustained argument upon a matter of the deepest interest, not to naturalists only, or even to men of science exclusively, but to every one who is interested in the history of man and of the relations of nature around him to the history and plan of creation.
With Mr. Darwin's "argument" we may say in the outset that we shall have much and grave fault to find. But this docs not make us the less disposed to admire the singular excellences of his work; and we will seek in limine to give our readers a few examples of these. Here, for instance, is a beautiful illustration of the wonderful interdependence of nature—of the golden chain
of unsuspected relations which bind together all the mighty web which stretches from end to end of this full and most diversified earth. Who, as he listened to the musical hum of the great humble-bees, or marked their ponderous flight from flower to flower, and watched the unpacking of their trunks for their work of suction, would have supposed that the multiplication or diminution of their race, or the fruitfulness and sterility of the red clover, depend as directly on the vigilance of our cats as do those of our wellguarded game-preserves on the watching of our keepers? Yet this Mr. Darwin has discovered to be literally the case:—
"From experiments which I have lately tried, I have found that the visits of bees arc necessary for the fertilization of some kinds of clover; but hamblc-bces alone visit the red clover (Trifolium pratense), as other bees cannot reach the nectar. Hence J have very little doubt, that if the whole genus of humble-bees became extinct or very rare in England, the heartsease and red clover wouM become very rare or wholly disappear. The- number of liumblc-becs in any district depends in a great degree on the number of field-mice, which destroy their combs and nests; and Mr. H. Newman, who has long attended to the habits of humble-bees, believes that 'more than two-thirds of them arc thus destroyed all over England.' Now the number of mice is largely dependent, as every one knows, on tho number of cats; and Mr. Newman says, 'near villages and small towns I have found tho nests of humble-bees more numcrons than elsewhere, which I attribute to the number of cats that destroy tho mice.' Hence, it is quite credible that tho presence of a feline animal in largo numbers in a district might determine, through the intervention, first of mice, and then of bees, the frequency of certain flowers in that district."—P. 74.
Again, how beautiful are the experiments recorded by him concerning that wonderful relation of the ants to the aphides, which would almost warrant us in giving to the aphis the name of Vacca formicaria :—
"One of the strongest instances of an animal apparently performing nn action for tho eolo good of another with which I am acquainted is that of aphides voluntarily yielding their sweet excretion to ants. That they do so voluntarily the following facts will show. I removed all tho ants from a group of about a dozen aphides on a dock plant, and prevented their attendance during several hours. After this interval, I felt snro that the aphides would want to excrete. I watched them for some time through a lens, but not ono of them excreted. I then tickled and stroked them with a hair in the same manner, as well as I could, as the ants do with their antenna;, but not one excreted. Afterwards I