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and bribery together had done their work. And it was the fatal consciousness of this, rather than any despondency occasioned by the particular character of Pompey, which gave rise to the deep tone of melancholy that pervades the later letters of Cicero, ifc saw that the Roman Constitution was doomed. But he stood by the sinking ship: and it has now become the fashion to revile him for his fidelity to "the cause." Practical men who fall into this blunder are in our eyes inexcusable. But Mr. Do Quincey is not a practical man, and we are satisfied, therefore, with adducing the blunder as an additional testimony to the truth of our own criticism.
With regard to our own situation in 1793 we are bound to admit this much—that if Mr. Do Quincey errs, he at least errs in good company. Both Mr. Disraeli and Lord Macaulay have united in condemning the first French war of Mr. Pitt. But we must confess that we have never been able to understand how those who object to the war of 1793 can justify that of 1804. Napoleon I. was a much more sensible and practical antagonist than the Jacobins. They went to war for "an idea" in good earnest. They would have burned our houses over our heads in the name of reason and licentious
ness. But the first emperor was in many respects a Conservative. He was reconstructing the society which the Jacobins had torn to pieces. He was exterminating the " ideas" igainst which we ourselves had made war. It was necessary, no doubt, to withstand his lust of conquest; but that the people of this country were more unanimous in their hostility to him than they were in their hostility to the convention we can scarcely bring ourselves to believe, in spite of Mr. Wordsworth's lines.
De Quincey, then, to sum up our remarks, was evidently a man of singularly independent character, and of great intellectual delicacy. He was formed of the same stuff as an Aquinas or a Scotus, and, had he lived in a different age, might have founded a system of metaphysics. The same precision and profundity brought to bear upon questions of history and criticism have produced many striking results, if not always convincing conclusions. Convincing or not, however, they are most wholesome at the present moment, when a disposition prevails so generally to underrate tho First Philosophy. In questions of taste De Quincey is a less certain guide: and in practical politics we feel that we are speculating with the scholar rather than walking with the statesman.
A Correspondent in Naples sends ns tho following warning to antiquaries, and other curious folks, how they run about among tho ruins of Pompeii:—
"' Wonderful escape nt Pompeii!' said a friend tho other day.—'But how? What on earth is there to be afraid of at Pompeii? Another eruption, or earthquake? Did the ghost of Dionicdes make his appearance ! or, worst of all, did you drink a bottio of Lncryma Christ! at the hotel which beats tho old Greek's namo? '— 'Oh, I am not tho hero of the story,' was the reply ; and then lie proceeded to tell mo how two young officers of the Rifle Brigade, Messrs. Turner nnd Boyle, on leave from Malta, had gono over to Pompeii on Thursday last, and had been groping amongst tho cellars of the old houses. Mr. Turner, on passing what appeared to bo a doorway, was precipitated into an ancient well. Hearing a Midden crash, his friend hastened to tho spot, but although ho repeatedly called Turner by name, no answer was returned, and overcome by apprehension, ho gave the alarm, and
called together a number of tho official nnd tin" official savages who tenant tho place. By this i i in'- Tamer had regained his senses, and had recovered so far as to bo able to stand upright at tho bottom of tho well, which, fortunately, was dry. According to directions which ho himself shouted up, a light was first let down, and then a ropo, which proved to bo too short. At last a piece of a plnnk, with a ropo attached, to each cnil, was let down, and tho lost man was steadily brought up. He had been upwards of an hoar at the bottom of this well, which was afterwards measured by tho officials, and found to be 30 metres, or nearly 100 feet in depth. Marvellous to relate, ho was in a state to bo driven back to Naples; and for tho satisfaction of those of his friends whoso eye may glance at this notice, on being examined by Dr. Bishop, it was reported that no injury had been sustained. Tho accident took place in tho Vicolctto della Kegina, near tho Forum Civile, in a house which had been abandoned as possessing no especial interest. "—Atlienaium.
From The Literary Gazette.
Tnis is a very curious and a very amusing book. Captain Shakespear is a mighty hunter, and evidently believes that the chief duty, or, at all events, the chief glory of a man, is to fight with wild beasts in the forests of India. And his faith has been -well exercised, since the volume now before us contains the experience of a quarter of a century, and is written for the instruction and guidance cf the author's sons, who are about to proceed to India, and who, if they comply with their father's wishes, will study it carefully and become "shikarees." The jungle is, in the captain's eye, the best possible security against the temptations of youth, and he implores the "anxious parents " who are resolved that their boys shall not peruse his book, to bear with him while he explains to them that "by making them shikarees, or hunters of the large game of India's magnificent forests, they are keeping them out of a thousand temptations and injurious pursuits, which they can scarcely avoid falling into, if from no other causf than ennui and thoughtlessness." And then, •warming with his theme, the sportsman •views it from a Christian standpoint, and exclaims —
"To each one is his talent given by God to cultivate: to the preacher, in order to save the souls of the poor, unlettered, and ignorant heathen; to him who has been blessed with the gifts of good nerve, energy, and strength, that he may save the bodies of these same ignorant heathen from the full destroyer that lives in the forest, and preys upon them. Who shall say that the poor isolator, saved by tho latter from destruction, shall not become converted to Christianity by tho former?"
This is no idle verbiage, for Captain Shakespear, like many other enthusiasts and reformers, confesses that he has "a call" to the work he has so long and ardently pursued; and if some portion of his •port may be termed secular, evidently regards the slaying of tigers as a duty preeminently religious.
On Sunday, he tells us, he never kills any animals except the tiger, and he devoutly expresses his gratitude on one occasion that he "had been the avenger, constituted by Him who ordains all things, to slay these tigers and to save further loss of human life."
We can pardon the mild eccentricities of a man who, ever since the year 1834, has been fighting — often single-handed — with panthers and tigers, wild elephants and
« The Wild Sporli of India. By Captain Henry Shakcspear. hinitli. Elder, & Co.
bears, buffaloes and boars, and who, in spite of many broken bones, and many marvellous escapes, is still pursuing his old vocation, and is capable of riding one hundred miles in the day.
Such a hero may be allowed to dream dreams, since he has performed prodigies of valor and endurance. He has succeeded so notably that we need not quarrel with him for believing that he has been especially favored.
In spite of "anxious parents" we cannot do better than allow Captain Shakcspear to relate a few of his adventures. "Wild Sports in India" swarms with passages at arms, which cannot fail to interest the reader. Some of these we shall transcribe, for though the captain modestly assures us that he has no skill in the craft of authorship, he manages to relate his encounters with the monarchs of the forest with considerable liveliness and vigor, and it is far better to allow him to speak for himself than to retail his adventures at second-hand.
Captain Shakespear's chief passion is for hog-hunting, and he seems to think that there is more peril in attacking a boar than any other wild beast; but as his adventures with these animals are related somewhat at length, we must pass on to inferior game, and be contented with a tiger-hunt. A village had, it seems, been depopulated by a "man-eater" and his wife, and the gallant sportsman sallied forth to. slay the monsters. This he did on foot; a desperate venture. The haunt of the tiger was found, an unhappy calf was tied to a tree, in order to allure the man-eaters, and then, after a night of anxious watching, the captain sallied forth to the encounter. But we must let him tell his own tale: —
"I waited for daylight with mncli anxiety; and, directly there, was sufficient light, rubbing the cotten off my rifle sights, I got my people up, and started for tho plnco where the- calf had been tied. The I. ullnl, or wine-maker, was taken as a guide, lest \ro should lose ourselves in the jungle, nnd also to carry the drinking water. Scarcely two hundred yards had been passed, when we heard the tiger, which infested that part of the forest, roar loudly. The poor villager, the father of the only remaining family, whispered, 'Wuh hni—that is he I that's the tiger who owns my village.' I replied, ' If yon run, you ore a dead man; keep behind us.' Placing in front my head shikaree, Mangknlee, who has very good eight, while, in the dusk, my own is very bad, we hurried along tho path.
"Coming to some rocks, from which I knew that the ticd-np calf could be seen, and thinking that the shikaree might not hare remembered the spot, I pulled him back cautiously. I looked. There was the white calf, apparently dead. Mangkalce remarked as much in a whisper. The younger shikaree, Nursoo, was behind me on the left. We nil gazed at a tail. The distance was some sixty yards from ns, but wo could not make out the tiger. At length the end of the tail moved. Nursoo, making a similar motion with his forefinger, whispered in my car,' Doomhiltn-hai'—('The tail's moving.') I now made out the body of the nnimnl clear enough. Not a blade of grass nor a leaf was between us. A single forest tree, without a branch on it for thirty feet from the ground, was twenty yards nearer the tiger.
"It was very probable that he would see us, but it must be risked; so, pressing down my shikaree, Mangkalce, with my hand behind me, and keeping the trunk of tho tree between the foo and me; while I said within myself, ' God bo with me 1 If I get behind that tree, without your seeing me, you're a dead tiger.' I passed rapidly forward. So intent was the huge beast upon tho poor calf, that be did not hear mo. I placed the barrels of my rifle against the tree, but was obliged to wait.
"The tiger and the calf lay contiguous, tails on end to us. The calf s neck was in tho tiger's mouth, whoso largo paws embraced his victim. I looked, waiting for some change in the position of the body, to allow mo to aim at a vital part.
"At length the calf gave n struggle and kicked the tiger, on which the latter clasped him nearer, arching his own body, and exposing the white of his belly and chest. I pulled tho trigger very slowly, aiming at the white, and firing for his heart—he was on his left side—as if I was firing at nn egg for a thousand pounds.
"I knew that I hit the spot aimed at; but, to my astonishment, llhe tiger sprang up several feel in the air with a roar, rolled over, and towards me,—for ho was on higher ground than I was,—when, bounding to his feet, as if unscathed, he made for the mountains, tho last rock of which was within forty yards of him.
"I must acknowledge that, firing at a beast of this sort, with no vital part to aim at, standing as I was for some time looking at him, and on lower ground, my heart beat rather quicker than was its wont. Albeit I had never turned my back to any animal in the jungles, and not one had ever seen its shape! I was confident, too, in my own nerve and shooting, for I had cut down, with one exception—and that one had cut me down ns tho scythe does tho grass—every wild beast of llio forest.
"Immediately, tho tiger sprang to his feet and exposed his broad, left side to me, I stepped from behind the tree, looked at him in tho face with contempt, as if ho had been a sheep, and while he passed me with every hair set, his beautiful white beard and whiskers spread, nnd his eye liko fire, with tho left barrel I shot him through tho heart. He went straight and at undiminished speed, each bound covering fifteen feet at least, for twenty-five yards, nnd then fell on his head under tho lowest rock of the mountain, in which was his stronghold. Up went in the air his thick, stumpy tail. Seizing my other rifle, I walked up to about fifteen yards of him—for he was still opening his mouth and gasping—
and broke his back. Turning round to the poor villager, who, now the tiger was dead, was afraid to come near him, I patted him on the shoulder, and said, ' There is your enemy, old man : now, where does the tigress live?' 'I know nothing about her,' said the. man, trembling all over (and no wonder); 'this was the owner of my village. I know nothing at all of the tigress. She takes her water at the other side of the village, and a long way off.'"
On the following night the fires were lit, the sentries posted, and every precaution taken to avoid a visit from the female maneater who was to be tracked out on the morrow. But this care proved ineffectual, for an unhappy trooper was pounced upon by the tigress, who sprung on the man's chest, seizing him by the mouth, and thus closing it, so that he could not even cry for help. An attempt at succor proved useless, and Captain Shakspear, as he lay in the camp, could hear the growl of the tigress, and the "crunching of the poor trooper's bones." But the avenger is at hand, and it is not long before the few villagers who had not been eaten were enabled to return to their homes.
Captain Shakspear informs us that the tiger is not half so courageous an animal as the wild hog or the panther, and that if a man is bold enough to face round upon him, and to look at him calmly, at tho same time shouting in defiance, the beast will very probably turn tail. But he adds that to him who runs it is almost certain death. The tenacity of life possessed by these animals is almost incredible, and " a tiger will often go in his charge several yards, with all the power and capability to strike down every one in his path, after the bullet has gone through his heart or crashed through his brain."
The following story is in corroboration of this statement:—
"A few days after this, when encamped some seven miles cast of Aring, kubbur, or report, of a tigress having killed n bullock, was brought in. Out I went alone. Twice I beat the nullah, which she had dragged tho ballock into with my pad elephant, and was walking alongside about thirty yards off her, when up tho tigress got, with a roar, drove the elephant back, nnd went out at the other side of tho nullah. On a sudden there was an awful shrieking, and I thought some one had been seized. I rushed through tho nullah at the risk of my life, when I saw n wretch of a man high up a tree, shouting. However, lie had seen which way the tigress went.
"The villagers, in a clump of one hundred men, were at a respectable distance off on the other side of the nullah, on n low hill. My elephant also, was some fifty yards off on the other side. One villager was near me, and I told him to go round, and make the people on the other side shout. I was within twenty yards of the nullah, at the spot where the tigress was last seen, and I had scarcely spoken, when out she charged at the sound, her curs back, and at such a pace that her belly almost touched the ground, I shot her through the chest, but just too low for the heart, with the first barrel. This never turned her, and I fired the second barrel when she was within springing distance, at about five yards. This hit her in the inner corner of the right eye, went through her brain, crushing the bones of the back part of her skull to pieces, nnd out below her chest, The tigress swerved a little, passed me at about seven feet, went at diminished speed for certainly forty yards, and then she lay on her belly extended. So marvellous did this seem to me, and so lifelike, did she then appear, that, having seized another rifle, I fired and hit her, the ball passing through her thigh and into her neck. Her skull is worth looking at, and defies all scepticism as to what tigers ran do after they are shot through the brain."
And now take an adventure with a panther, one among several which are descnbed graphically enough in the volume. The animal had already been wounded by a rifle ball:—
"Having warned the village shikaree to keep close behind me with the heavy spear ho had in his hand, I began to follow the wounded panther; but bad scarcely gone twenty-five yards, when ono of the beaters, who was on high ground, beckoned to me, and pointed a little below him, and in front of me. There was the large panther sitting out, unconcealed, between two bushes, a dozen yards before me. I could not however see his head; nnd whilst I was thus delayed, he came out with a roar straight at me. I tired at his chest with n ball; and, as ho sprang npon me, the shot barrel was aimed nt his head. In the next moment he seized my left arm and the gun. Thus, not being able to use the gun *a a club, I forced it, crosswise, into his mouth. Ho bit the stock through in one place; and whilst his upper fangs lacerated my arm, and hand, the lower fangs went into the gun. His hind claws pierced my left thigh. He tried very hard to throw me over. In the mean while, the ihikarce, who, had he kept the spear before him, might have stopped the charge of the panther, had retreated some paces to the left. Ho now, instead of spearing the panther, shouted out, and strnck him, using the spear as a club. In a moment the animal was upon him, stripping him of my shikar bag, his turban, my revolving rifle, and the spcnr. The man passed by mo holding his wounded arm.
"The panther quietly crouched five paces in front of me. I knew my only chance was to keep my eye upon him. He sat with all my dc
spoiled property, stripped from the shikaree, around nnd under him. The first step I moved backwards, keeping my eye on the pnntlicr, I fell on my back into a thorn bush, having slipped upon the. rock. Hero I was still within one spring of the animal, who appeared, as far as I could sec, to be not nt all disabled by the fight. Nothing could have saved me had he again attacked; but 'there's n sweet little cherub tlint sits up aloft,' to look out for the life of the wild hunter. I retreated step by step, my face still towards the foe, till I got to my horse, nnd to the other beaters, who were all collected together some forty yards from the fight.
"I immediately loaded the gun with a charge of shot, and a bullet that I perchance found; and, taking my revolver pistol out of the holster, and sticking it into my belt determined to carry on the affair to its issue, knowing how rarely men recover from such wounds as mine. I was bleeding profusely from large tooth wounds in the arm; the tendons of my left hand were torn open, nnd I had five claw-wounds in the thigh. The poor shikaree's left arm was somewhat clawed up, and if the panther was not killed, the superstition of the natives would go far to kill this man. Terribly frightened as he was, his wounds were not so bad as mine. I persuaded my horse-keeper to come with me; and, taking the hog-spear he had in his hand, we went to the spot where lay the weapons stripped from the shikaree. A few yards beyond them there crouched the huge panther. Agnin^I could not see his head very distinctly, but fired deliberately behind his shoulder. In one moment he was again upon me. I gave him the charge of shot, as I supposed, in his face, but had no time to take aim. Tha horse-keeper, instead of spearing, fell upon his back. In the next instant the panther got hold of my left foot in his teeth, nnd threw me on my back. I struck nt him with the empty gun, and he seized the barrels in his mouth. This was his lust effort. I sprang up, nnd seizing the spenr from the horse-keeper, drove it with both hands through his side, and thus killed him. I immediately had my boot pulled off. My foot bled profusely. Fortunately, the wound was in the thin part of the foot, and not in the instep or ankle: but the teeth had met."
It would be easy to multiply extracts from the wild sports of a "shikaree " so courageous as Captain Shakespear; but our space is exhausted, and we will only add that, although the sportsman writes for the benefit of those who may pursue the same vocation, his narrative will delight readers who, like ourselves, have no ambition to encounter buffaloes, tigers, or wild elephants in their primeval haunts.
From The Eclectic Magazine. THE PROTESTANT MOVEMENT IN ITALY. Ages before Luther and Calvin were born, and generations before the days of Wiclif, there sheltered in the valleys of Northern Italy a brave race who rejected the doctrines and the domination of the papacy. These were the progenitors of those very Waldenses who have of late years been so anxious to teach the Italians a purer faith. The history of this people is one of the most interesting on record, and exhibits one of the grandest protests ever made in favor of religious liberty. Amid all internal fluctuations and external changes, the AValdenses have never ceased to claim for themselves the right to worship God in their own way. When the reformation movement of the sixteenth century began, multitudes in Italy then eagerly embraced the doctrines of Protestantism, and the Scriptures and other religious books were printed in the vernacular. But the Inquisition, with its racks, gibbets, and stakes, its prisons and its banishments, cruelly suppressed the new doctrine, and plunged Italy into darkness again.* From time to time since then a little has been done to make known the Gospel in that land; but it was not till the revolutions of 1848 that airy extensive action could be attempted. Then, however, many thousand copies of the Scriptures and other works were circulated among the people throughout the country. Many of these have been destroyed, and their readers, wherever discovered, have been punished.t But many have escaped; and even in Tuscany itself, there are persons who have continued to meet secretly in order to read the New Testament and'to pray. In Sardinia, however, thanks to more liberal measures, the work of Italian evangelization was diligently carried on. The old Waldenses, faithful to their traditions, were vigilant and active. Coming forth from their Alpine valleys, they established themselves at such places as Turin, Nice, Genoa, and Alessandria. As far as possible they instituted religious services in the Italian language, and sent out
* The reader who wishes to be acquainted with the religious movement and its suppression in Italy, in the sixteenth century, should peruse the admirable work of Dr. M'Cri'e on this subject— "History of the Reformation in Italy."
t Such cases as those of Count Utiicciardini, the Sladiiti, etc., are well known. "In Tuscany alone we are not surprised to find that, from 1853 to 1866 inclusive, a period of only four years, no fewer than 1,820 persons were prosecuted for what they call' offences' against the established religion o'f the country."—"Evangelization of Italy," p. 7. See also About's " Question Romaine," chap. 16, Tolerance. The great fault of this book is that it is too true.
evangelists and colporteurs to the frontiers of Lombardy and Parma, where they taught and distributed books in the same tongue. In this way many strangers from Central and Southern Italy heard the Gospel, and carried home the books they had received, at leisure to ponder over what they had learned. A secession from the Waldenses, originating in some questions of church ori der, led to the formation of a purely Italian I party and an extension of the work.*
This new body adopted principles somewhat assimilated to those of the Plymouth I Brethren. Regarding the church as a spiritual institution, and not an ecclesiastical organization, they maintained that the Bible was the only Christian law, that all believers x were bound to make known the truth, and that the true bond of fellowship was personal religion. At the same time they declared their adhesion to orthodox doctrine, and their undying enmity to all the corruptions of popery. They prided themselves on their nationality as Italians, and adopted as their mission Italian evangelization. Among them were men of strong faith, and withal of genius and eloquence—men who had suffered confiscation and exile for their religion. It is not to be wondered at that these zealous men made way, and found many to sympathize with them.f
When, therefore, the war and its concomitant revolutions of last year broke out, there were two distinct parties ready to take advantage of the opportunity afforded for more active endeavors on behalf of Italy. The
* The following passages of letters from the Genevan committee will show the mode of evangelization adopted:—
"You will understand our plan of campaign: to sell Bibles, tracts, etc., by good colporteurs j and by means of our humble laborers, the evangelists, to form little meetings without agitation; to multiply meetings in upper rooms, and to (rive lessons on the Bible, as would be done with little children. Then, if God design to bless these small beginnings, others will go afterwards to preach during the long evenings of autumn and winter. Colportage looks well—infinitely better than we expected. The sales have been abundant; three hundred to three hundred and fifty tracts or pamphlets of different sorts, and a score of Bibles aii'l Now Testaments, in one week, is much in a country where so few people know how to read.
"Do not be astonished that we recommend our Bible-readers to confine themselves to small meetings, and to multiply them. It is important at the beginning to have only meetings to which every one brings his Bible, and to instruct the people as children, in order that they may be accustomed at the outset to draw for themselves from the fountain of the Word. It is through the Word that they will be in n condition to resist the priests, who ore already considerably astir."
t An excellent account of parties in Italy will be found in the pamphlet of Mr. Dunn on " Protestantism in Italy; its Progress and Peculiarities."