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your God." It is in and through Jehovah that Israel is sanctified, is hallowed, is holy, is righteous, is strong,through following him, and copying him and knowing him; the sum of Israel's holiness, righteousness, and life, holds ratio to the fulness with which she makes him her God. "I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed; to love Jehovah thy God, to obey his voice, and to cleave unto him, for he is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which Jehovah sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them.'

LATER JUDAISM

and Persian

When the Jews returned to Jerusalem by the permission of Cyrus, they had been exposed for some years to the influences of the gross material civilization of Babylon. Exilic and post-exilic literature Babylonian show that the size and scarlet glory of Babylon Influence. impressed the Israelite imagination. There the Jews dwelt in communities by themselves, with probably but little intercourse between them and the rest of Nebuchadnezzar's subjects. It is difficult to point to elements in the subsequent life of the Jews traceable to Babylonian influence.

The influence of the Persians was greater. They were recognized as deliverers, and Cyrus was regarded as Jehovah's instrument, chosen to restore the tribes of Judah. Moreover, assuming that the religion of Zarathushtra, as set forth in the older portions of the Avesta, was the religion of the Achæmenian Persians, there must have been religious affinities between the Jews and Persians which perhaps they would have recognized if acquainted with each other's faith. But this is the point as to which 1 Lev. xxii, 32, 33; cf. Lev. xxiv, 16.

? Deut. xxx, 19, 20.

there is no direct testimony beyond the likelihood that there were opportunities of intercourse in Babylonia and afterwards in Palestine. The inquirer has to rely on such inferences as may be drawn from a comparison of Mazdaism with later Jewish writings; nor can he conclude that whatever is found in later Judaism with its apparent counterpart or prototype in Mazdaism must for that reason have been borrowed. Both systems had much in common before there was any contact between them, and likely in their later development would show similar conceptions and practices. On the whole, basing an opinion on coincidences of name and fact too particular to be accounted for on the principle that similar stages of similar systems produce closely related thoughts, it may be said that Mazdaism had much to do with determining the particular forms assumed by Jewish conceptions, though it does not follow that those conceptions would not have reached a like stage of development had Judaism never come in contact with the religion of Zarathushtra. Contact with Mazdaism probably influenced Jewish thoughts regarding ceremonial uncleanness, regarding angels and the evil spirits, and regarding the resurrection of the dead and final judgment.'

The Greek influence on Judaism was as important as the Persian, and may be more surely traced. It did not affect the Jewish religion directly, but gave new knowledge to the upper classes of the Jews, and some philosophical ideas to which they might endeavor to adjust their thoughts of God and man.

Hellenism.

It

'On the other side, the development of thoughts of angels and other spirits was a natural accompaniment of the growing thought of God's far off transcendence, and the idea of Satan can largely be accounted for without looking to the dualism of Zarathushtra. The Satan of Job is, as yet, very far from being the Devil, but a conception of an evil spirit was one natural answer to Job's problem; and also was suggested by the trend of Hellenistic philosophy. Says Renan: “Une observation générale, cependant, c'est que presque toutes ces croyances communes à l'Iran et à la Judée sont des déductions tout à fait naturelles de croyances antérieures."-Histoire du Peuple d'Israel, vol. iv, p. 170.

gave them also novel views of living, and a sense of annoyance at being marked by their customs as peculiar. Jewish Hellenism was largely an affectation of fashions which the Jew at heart did not care for. He got little of the Greek sympathy with human life, little of Greek reason; he was at best a poor philosopher. The Hellenized Jew was a sterile hybrid; only the Alexandrian Philo evolved some thoughts which influenced Plotinus and gave perhaps a phrase to the author of the Fourth Gospel. But Philo may have taken quite as important elements of his logos-conception from Hebrew Chokhmah as from Greek philosophy. He was the greatest of Hellenizing Jews. The other end of the scale was the would-be athlete, trying to hide his circumcision.

Israel's

Rigid Strength.

Through these later Jewish times, the strength of Judaism, for good or ill, lay within itself. The Israel which clung to the Law as God's strict command, bringing a sure reward; the Israel which hoped for the Messiah, regal or spiritual; the Israel which moved on to Christ or dashed itself against Rome, was Israel unaffected by Greek thought. It is a marvellous piece of history, the conduct and fortunes of the Jewish race, between the return from Babylon and the death of Christ. Amid influences at one time calculated to crush, at another to disintegrate the race, the Jews hardened more intensely into Jews, and, so hardening, kept themselves a nation; nor did they lose the propagandist spirit, or the belief that all nations would come to worship their God and acknowledge them as his chosen people, entitled for that reason to dominate the world. Israel continued to believe in the absolute validity of the commands and promises of her religion. But the race was no longer growing or creative, and its faith became an unyielding shell within which it went on elaborating in detail the Law of Moses, and out of the great hopes of its prophets spinning apocalyptic webs.

VOL. II.-15

Jehovah's promises to Israel in the wilderness had been coupled with commands and made conditional on Israel's obedience. Those promises would surely fulThe Zeal fil themselves, if Israel fulfilled their condifor the Law tions of obedience. And the Jews in these and its Tradition. later days were believing more fixedly than

ever in the rewards attached to obedience to Jehovah's law. The canonical books of the Old Testament as a whole leave no doubt that the way of the righteous prospers on earth. To this rule there were apparent exceptions, which might lead to individual questionings, but in the end would reach their answers in a strengthened faith. In olden times the relations of the individual to the justice of God had not been considered fully. Jehovah's promises were to Israel as a people; and their fulfilment depended on the people's obedience. But the people were prone to disobedience, and their just punishment might entail the ruin of the righteous ones among them. Or the sins of one generation might bring ruin to the next, as the Babylonian Exile taught, and the Jews brought from exile a keener sense of the shortcoming and suffering of mortal lives, and the ineradicable evil of the world.

From such thoughts they drew some general inferences. Jehovah's justice must discriminate between righteous and wicked Israelites; righteousness is desirable; for, as a rule, the righteous prosper. Earthly conditions entail apparent exceptions; but God is scrupulously just, rewarding every individual according to his works, if not in this life, then in a future state. Inasmuch as Jehovah's justice is perfect and does not fully show itself in men's mortal lives, a future retribution and reward is a matter of absolute certainty and transcendent importance. Let every man shape his life with reference to it; let every man obey God and observe the law in every detail, for that is God's full command, and its observance is righteousness which brings reward. Hence the steady, intense, and, when opposed, passionate desire of the Jews

to fulfil the law;' it was for the great and sure reward to come. Yet such zeal carried unselfish devotion to Jehovah's ordinances, and the zealots of the law often lost sight of self in their ardent devotion to the great and sure commands of God, and there was response in many hearts to the saying of the Rabbi: “Be not like servants, who serve their master for the sake of reward, but be like those who do service without respect to reward.'

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In the strength of their religion, which now more than ever made their life, the Jews, though hated and despised of men, were the chosen race of God. Therefore were they assuredly some time to be the ruling race, if only they would observe his commands, the law. The more strictly it was observed, the more surely would the great future be realized. That lay within the power of the people if they devoted themselves to the law's observance. Let the learning it be their sole study, the doing it their sole endeavor. But the law in the Pentateuch did not cover every act of daily life, not even every detail of religious observance. The Jews yearned to bring their entire lives within its compass. So by comparisons and devices and new precepts ingeniously drawn from ancient rules, the learned scribes supplemented the law till its "tradition" resulted in the astounding detail and elaboration of the Mishna.' And thus it came that as every act of life of every law-observing Pharisaic Jew was made to conform to definite authoritative precept, their lives became a complex, scrupulous observance, which left little place for the spontaneous action of a righteous conscience.

Not all the Jews went along with this. Many of the leading priestly families would observe only the law of Moses, as written in the Pentateuch. These men became in time the Sadducees, who would not recognize

1 See Schürer, History of the Jewish People in the Time of Christ, vol. ii, div. ii, p. 90, etc.

Cited Schürer, ibid., p. 93.

See Schürer, ibid., ii, i, 320, etc. ; ii, ii, 96, etc.

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