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Georgics, he resided principally at Neapolis, a favourite resort of the learned, where they could indulge their speculations and fancies away from the bustle and distraction of the capital. He is said to have composed this poem with scrupulous care, every morning inditing a large number of verses, and at night revising, condensing, and giving the requisite finish. This work, which was finished shortly after the battle of Actium, B.c. 31, was dedicated to Mæcenas, its projector. The immense success which the Georgics met with encouraged Virgil to undertake a still loftier theme. The precise year in which he commenced the Eneid is not known. It is probable that this work had been long in contemplation, though not commenced until the publication of the Georgics. That it was in progress in the year B.C. 27, appears from the correspondence between Augustus and Virgil, preserved to us by Macrobius. As the work proceeded, he was in the habit of reciting passages to his select friends and receiving the benefit of their criticisms. The lines at the end of the sixth book, in which he so pathetically refers to Marcellus, when read before Octavia, that prince's mother, are said to have moved her to tears. These specimens of the work raised great expectations at Rome, and we find Propertius stating that a work was in progress that would overshadow even the Iliad itself. When Virgil had brought the Eneid to a close, the state of his health, which had always been delicate, induced him to repair to Greece, where he could revise and polish his great work at his leisure. This was the occasion of Horace's ode (Lib. i. 3), which shows us the tender and affectionate regard which existed between those two congenial natures. The intention of Virgil was to spend three years in that land of poetic inspiration; but his fast declining health evidently caused him to change his design. After he had been a few months at Athens, Augustus arrived there on his way to Italy from the East. Virgil joined his escort, and proceeded homewards in his company. He died a few days after his arrival at Brundusium, B.C. 19, before he had completed his fifty-first year, attended in his last hours by his friends Varius and Plotius.
FIGURES OF SYNTAX AND SPEECH.
Allegoria, a figure by which something is understood beyond the literal signification of the words.
Antiphrasis, a figure by which words are used in a sense opposite to their proper and general meaning.
Antithesis takes place when one letter is put for another, as, olli for illi; volnus for vulnus; volgus for vulgus, &c.
Apheresis is the taking away of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word, as, temnitis arma for contemnitis, &c.
Apocope, a figure by which a letter or syllabie is cut off from the end of a word, as, viden' for videsne; ain' for aisne, &c.
Aposiopēsis, a breaking off in the midst of a speech through some affection of the speaker, as sorrow, wrath, &c.
Arsis, the elevation of the voice in distinction from thesis, or the depression of the voice.
Automasia implies that instead of a name the epithet of a person is used, as, "Eversor Carthaginis" for Scipio.
Diaresis is the dividing of one syllable into two, as aulaï for aulæ.
Diastole, or Ectasis, is the lengthening of a syllable naturally short, as, Prīamides for Priamides.
Diplasiasmus is the term given to the system of doubling a consonant, as in the words redducere, reccidere, relligio.
Enallige, a change of words in the common moods of speech, as, "Vos, O! Calliope, precor."
Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter or syllable into the body of a word to lengthen the short u, as in pluvi for plui; fuvi for fui; annuvi for annui. Epiphonema, a crying out, an exclamation.
Hellenismus, a Græcism.
Hendiadis, a figure when two nouns are used instead of a noun and an adjective. Hypallage, a change of words or of construction, as, "dare classibus Austros" for dare classes Austris."
Hyperbaton, a figure of Syntax when the usual order of words is transgressed, as, “In duas divisam esse partes" for "in duas partes."
Hyperbole, a figure when any thing is exaggerated beyond the truth.
Metalepsis, a figure of rhetoric by which the consequent is put for that which precedes, especially when the exchange of idea is two-fold, as when Arista is put for harvest, and that for a year.
Metaphora, the transferring of a word from its proper signification for the sake of beauty or force.
Metathesis is a transposition of letters, as, Evandre for Evander; Thymbre for Thymber.
Metonymia means the substitution of one name for another.
Paragoge adds a letter or syllable at the end, as, amarier for amari; docerier for doceri; legier for legi; audirier for audiri.
Pleonasmus, a redundancy of words, as, sic ore locuta est.
Prosopopoeia, personification, introducing things without life as speaking like persons, or an introducing of deceased or absent persons as speaking.
Prosthesis may be thus explained:-The poets were in the habit of affixing a letter to certain words, as in gnarus for narus; gnavus for navus; gnatus for natus; and gnaviter for naviter.
Synæresis, the contraction of two syllables or two vowels into one, by suppressing one of the syllables, or by the formation of a diphthong.
Synalopha, a contraction of syllables by suppressing some vowel or diphthong at the end of a word, before another vowel or diphthong.
Syncope, dropping a letter or syllable out of a word, as in vinclum, divum, explesse, orasse.
Synecdoche, a trope by which the whole stands for a part, or the opposite; a proper for a common noun.
Systole is the shortening of a syllable which from its natural quantity, or from position, ought to be long, as, dederunt, tulerunt, stetěrunt, &c.
Tmesis is a figure by which the parts of a word are separated into two, for the purpose of placing another word between the parts, as, circum dea fudit for dea circumfudit.
Zeugma, a figure in Grammar by which an adjective or verb which agrees with a nearer word, is by way of supplement referred to another more remote.
P. VIRGILII MARONIS
THE subject of the Eneid is the settlement of Eneas in Italy. Virgil was eleven years in composing it. It consists of twelve books, embracing a period of twelve years.
In Book First the hero is introduced in the seventh year of his expedition with the Trojans sailing from Sicily to Italy. Juno through her influence with Eolus raises a dreadful storm. Neptune allays the tempest. Seven ships arrive in safety at an African port, one is sunk, and the rest scattered over the deep. Venus complains to Jove of the misfortune of her son. Jupiter consoles her, and unfolds to her the high destiny of Æneas and of his posterity. Mercury is sent to procure for the Trojans a welcome reception among the Carthaginians. Venus in the dress of a huntress meets her son in the midst of a forest, and encourages him to proceed to Dido's new city, not far distant. Shrouded in a thin cloud, he enters a temple, on the walls of which are emblazoned scenes from the Trojan war: and soon after Dido approaches followed by the men of the missing ships, to whom she gives a most cordial welcome. Eneas is received with distinguished honour, and invited to a splendid banquet. By the device of Venus, Cupid is substituted for Ascanius. Cupid secretly contrives to inspire the Queen with a passionate love for Æneas. Dido invites Eneas to give a full account of the events connected with the downfall of Troy, and of his own wanderings and adventures. The book is one of the best and most finished in the Æneid.
ARMA virumque cano, Trojæ qui primus ab oris
1. Where was Troy, and near what rivers was it situated? Mention other verbs besides cano which double the first syllable in the perfect indicative, and conjugate this verb with the prefixes ac, con, in, præe, and re. Give the positive and comparative of primus; and why is ab used before oris and not a or abs? 2. Parse venit, and state what is the difference between veni and veni, venit and věnit? 3. Why is Littora in the accusative? In what sense is ille employed here, and distinguish it from is, hic, and iste? Explain the uses of et and que, and when are ac and atque employed? 4. Give the accusative and vocative singular of vis. 5. Give the meaning of dum: what tense does it generally prefer? Why is conderet in the subjunctive mood? 6. Parse Inferret, and give all the compounds of fero. 7. Give the date of the foundation of Rome, the hills on which it was built, and the name of the river on whose banks it stood.
Musa, mihi caussas memora, quo numine læso,
Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni,
8. What muse is here referred to? What cases does memora govern, and tell the construction of quo numine læso? 9. What are the respective meanings of tot and quot? 10. What is meant by the pietas of Æneas? 11. Why is Impulerit in the subjunctive? 13. Where was Carthage, and what Roman general ultimately destroyed it? 14. Give the construction of dives opum, and asperrima studiis. 15. Why is terris in the ablative? 16. Explain the use of the adverb hic. What part of a sentence does it generally occupy, and in connection with what tense. 18. fovet: Mention other verbs like this, which without change of consonant have a short vowel in the present, a long one in the perfect, and give their tenses. 19. How is the English infinitive present usually translated in Latin after verbs to promise, hope, undertake, or engage? What case is excidio, and why? From what is it derived? 32. Give synonymes of maria.