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LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST.
CAREFULLY PRINTED FROM THE MOST CORRECT COPIES OF THE PRESENT
MARGINAL READINGS AND PARALLEL TEXTS:
A COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES;
*SIGNED AS A HELP To A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE SACRED WRITINGs:
BY ADAM CLARKE, LL.D., F.S.A., &c.
A NEW EDITION, WITH THE AUTHOR'S FINAL CORRECTIONS.
FOR WHATSOEVER THINGS WERE WRITTEN AFORETIME WERE WRITTEN FOR OUR LEARNING ; THAT WE, THROUGH
VOLUME II. — ROMANS TO THE REVELATION,
JAMES colloRD, PRINTER.
E PIS T L E TO THE R O M A N S.
HAT St. PAUL was the author of this epistle, and that it possesses every evidence of authenticity }. that any work of the kind can possess, or that even the most fastidious skepticism can require, has been - . most amply proved by Dr. W. Paley, Archdeacon of Carlisle, in his work entitled “Hora Paulinae; or, the Truth of the Scripture History of St. Paul evinced, by a comparison of the Epistles which bear his name with the Acts of the Apostles, and with one another.” Of this apostle I have spoken at large in the notes on the preceding book, and especially in the observa tions at the close of the ninth chapter, to which I beg leave to refer the reader. It will be sufficient to state here, that Saul, (afterwards called Paul,) was born in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia, of Jewish parents, who possessed the right of Roman citizens; (see the note on Acts xxii. 28;) that, when young, he was sent to Jerusalem for the purpose of receiving a Jewish education; that he was there put under the tuition of the famous Rabbi Gamaliel, and was incorporated with the sect of the Pharisees, of whose system he imbibed all the pride, self-confidence, and intolerance ; and distinguished himself as one of the most inveterate enemies of the Christian cause ; but, being converted by a most singular interposition of Divine Providence and grace, he became one of the most zealous promoters and successful defenders of the cause which he had before so inveterately persecuted. Though this epistle is directed to the Romans, yet we are not to suppose that Romans, in the proper sense of the word, are meant; but rather those who dwelt at Rome, and composed the Christian Church in that city: that there were among these Romans, properly such, that is heathens who had been converted to the * Christian faith, there can be no doubt; but the principal part of the Church in that city seems to have been s formed from Jews, sojourners at Rome, and from such as were proselytes to the Jewish religion. When, or by whom, the Gospel was first preached at Rome cannot be ascertained. Those who assert that St. Peter was its founder, can produce no solid reason for the support of their opinion. Had this apostle first preached the Gospel in that city, it is not likely that such an event would have been unnoticed in the Acts of the | Apostles, where the labours of St. Peter are particularly detailed with those of St. Paul, which indeed form the chief subject of this book. Nor is it likely that the author of this epistle should have made no reference o: to this circumstance, had it been true. Those who say that this Church was founded by these two apostles No. conjointly, have still less reason on their side; for it is evident, from chap. i. 8, &c., that St. Paul had never • been at Rome previously to his writing this epistle. It is most likely that no apostle was employed in this important work, and that the Gospel was first preached there by some of those persons who were converted at Jerusalem on the day of pentecost; for we find, from Acts i. 10, that there were at Jerusalem strangers of Rome, Jews, and proselytes; and these, on their return, would naturally declare the wonders they had witnessed, and proclaim that truth by which they themselves had received salvation. Of Rome itself, then the metropolis of the world, a particular account has been given in the note on Acts xxviii. 16 ; to which the reader is requested to refer. The occasion of writing this epistle may be easily collected from the epistle itself. It appears that St. Paul had been made acquainted with all the circumstances of the Christians at Rome, by Aquila and Priscilla, (see chap. xvi. 3.) and by other Jews who had been expelled from Rome by the decree of Claudius, (meu tioned Acts xviii. 2;) and, finding that they consisted partly of heathens converted to Christianity, and partly of Jews who had, with many remaining prejudices, believed in Jesus as the true Messiah, and that many contentions arose from the claims of the Gentile converts to equal privileges with the Jews, and from the absolute refusal of the Jews to admit these claims unless the Gentile converts became circumcised, he wrote to adjust and settle these differences. Dr. Paley, with his usual perspicuity, has shown that the principal object of the argumentative part of the epistle is “to place the Gentile convert upon a parity of situation with the Jewish, in respect of his religious condition, and his rank in the Divine favour.” The epistle supports this point by a variety of arguments; such as, that no man of either description was justified by the works of the *-*. this plain reason, that 2