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PREFACE TO THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.
no man had performed them; that it became therefore necessary to appoint another medium, or condition of justifiertion, in which now medium the Jewish peculiarity was merged and lost; that Abraham's own justificatián was arteoeden! :o the law, and independent of it; that the Jewish converts were to consider the law as now dead, and themselves as married to another; that what the law in truth could not do, in that it was weak
... through,the flesh, God had done by sending his Son; that God had rejected the unbelieving Jews, and had
Substituted in:;hér psycé :a: sočiety of believers in Christ, collected indifferently from Jews and Gentiles.
Therefore, in an epistie directed to Roman believers, the point to be endeavoured after by St. Paul was to
reconcile the Jewish converts to the opinion that the Gentiles were admitted by God to a parity of religious situation with themselves, and that without their being obliged to keep the law of Moses. In this epistle, though directed to the Roman Church in general, it is, in truth, a Jew writing to Jews. Accordingly, as often as his argument leads him to say any thing derogatory from the Jewish institution, he constantly follows it by a softening clause. Having, chap. ii. 28, 29, pronounced “that he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor that circumcision which is outward in the flesh,” he adds immediately, “What advantage then hath the Jew or what profit is there in circumcision 1 Much every way.” Having in chap. iii. 28, brought his argument to this formal conclusion, “that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of the law,” he presently subjoins, wer. 31, “Do we then make void the law through faith ? God forbid Yea, we establish the law.” In the seventh chapter, when in ver. 6 he had advanced the bold assertion, “that now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held ;” in the next verse he comes in with this healing question, “What shall we say then Is the law sin God forbid Nay, I had not known sin but by the law.” Having, in the following words, more than insinuated the inefficacy of the Jewish law, chap. viii. 3 : “For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh;” after a digression indeed, but that sort of a digression which he could never resist, a rapturous contemplation of his Christian hope, and which occupies the latter part of this chapter; we find him in the next, as if sensible that he had said something which would give offence, returning to his Jewish brethren in terms of the warmest affection and respect : “I say the truth in Christ Jesus, I lie not ; my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost, that I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart; for I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites, to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers; and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came.” When, in the 31st and 32d verses of the ninth chapter, he represented to the Jews the error of even the best of their nation, by telling them that “Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, had not attained to the law of righteousness, because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law, for they stumbled at that stumbling-stone;” he takes care to annex to this declaration these conciliating expressions: “Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved ; for I bear them record, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.” Lastly, having, chap. x. 20, 21, by the application of a passage in Isaiah, insinuated the most ungrateful of all propositions to a Jewish ear, the rejection of the Jewish nation as God's peculiar people; he hastens, as it were, to qualify the intelligence of their fall by this interesting exposition : “I say then, hath God cast away his people, (i. e. wholly and entirely 1) God forbid! For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew ;” and follows this throughout the whole of the eleventh chapter, in a series of reflections calculated to soothe the Jewish converts, as well as to procure from their Gentile brethren respect to the Jewish institution. Dr. Paley, drawing an argument from this manner of writing, in behalf of the genuineness of this epistle, adds, “Now all this is perfectly natural. In a real St. Paul writing to real converts, it is what anxiety to bring them over to his persuasion would naturally produce ; but there is an earnestness and a personality, if I may so call it, in the manner, which a cold forgery, I apprehend, would neither have conceived nor supported.” Horae Paulinae, p. 49, &c. From a proper consideration of the design of the apostle in writing this epistle, and from the nature and circumstances of the persons to whom it was directed, much light may be derived for a proper understanding of the epistle itself. When the reader considers that the Church at Rome was composed of heathens and Jews, that the latter were taught to consider themselves the only people on earth to whom the Divine favour extended; that these alone had a right to all the blessings of the Messiah's kingdom ; that the giving them the law and the prophets, which had not been given to any other people, was the fullest proof that these privileges did not extend to the nations of the earth; and that, though it was possible for the Gentiles to be saved, yet it must be in consequence of their becoming circumcised, and taking on them the yoke of the law :—when, on the other hand, the reader considers the Roman Gentiles, who formed the other part of the Church at Rome, as educated in the most perfect contempt of Judaism and of the Jews, who were deemed to be haters of all mankind, and degraded with the silliest superstitions, and now evidently rejected and abandoned by that God in whom they professed to trust; it is no wonder if, from these causes, many contentions and scandals arose, especially at a time when the spirit of Christianity was but little understood, and among a people, too, who do not appear to have had any apostolic authority established among them to compose feuds and settle religious differences. That the apostle had these things particularly in his eye is evident from the epistle itself. His first object is to confound the pride of the Jews and the Gentiles; and this he does by showing the former that they had broken their own law, and, consequently, forfeited all the privileges which the obedient had a right to expect PREFACE TO THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.
He shows the latter that, however they might boast of eminent men, who had been an honour to their country, nevertheless, the Gentiles, as a people, were degraded by the basest of crimes, and the lowest idolatry; that, in a word, the Gentiles had as little cause to boast in their philosophers as the Jews had to boast in the 'faith and piety of their ancestors; “for all had sinned and come short of the glory of God.” This subject is particularly handled in the five first chapters, and often referred to in other places. Concerning the time in which this epistle was written, there is not much difference of opinion: it is most likely that it was written about A. D. 58, when Paul was at Corinth : see chap. xvi. 23, conferred with 1 ; Cor. i. 14; and Rom. xvi. 1, conferred with 2 Tim. iv. 20. It appears, from chap. xvi. 22, that Paul did not write this epistle with his own hand, but used a person called Tertius as his amanuensis; and that it was sent by the hands of Phoebe, a deaconess, (6ta Pot(3mg Tng 6takvvov,) of the Church of Cenchrea, which was the eastern port on the Isthmus of Corinth. From internal evidence Dr. Paley has demonstrated the authenticity of this epistle; and its existence in the ancient Antehieronymian versions and the Syriac, as well as its being mentioned by the Apostolic Fathers, Barnabas, chap. xii. 13; Clemens Romanus, Ep. i. c. i. 30, 32, 35, 46; Ignatius, Epist. ad Ephes. 20, ad Smyrn: 1, ad Trall. 8; and Polycarp, 3 and 6, and by all succeeding writers, puts it beyond all dispute. Of the fourteen epistles attributed to St. Paul, (thirteen only of which bear his name,) this has been reckoned the first in importance, though certainly not in order of time; for there is every reason to believe that both the epistles to the Thessalonians, that to the Galatians, those to the Corinthians, the first to Timothy, and that to Titus, were all written before the epistle to the Romans. See the dates of the books of the New Testament at the end of the introduction to the Gospels, &c. the arrangement of the epistles nothing seems to have been consulted besides the length of the epistle, the character of the writer, and the importance of the place to which it was sent. RoME, being the mistress of the world, the epistle to that city was placed first. Those to the Corinthians, because of the great importance of their city, next. Galatia, Ephesus, Philippi, Colosse, and Thessalonica, follow in graduated order. Timothy, Titus, and Philemon succeed in the same way: and the epistle to the Hebrews, because the author of it was long in dispute, was placed at the end of the epistles of Paul, as being probably written by him. James, as Bp. of Jerusalem, precedes Peter; Peter precedes John, as the supposed chief of the apostles; and John the beloved disciple, Jude. The book of the Revelation, as being long disputed in the Christian Church, was thrown to the conclusion of the New Testament Scriptures. The surats or chapters of the Koran were disposed in the same sort of order; the longest being put first, and all the short ones thrown to the end, without any regard to the times in which it was pretended they were revealed. There have been some doubts concerning the language in which this epistle was written. John Adrian
Bolten endeavoured to prove that St. Paul wrote it in Syriac, and that it was translated into Greek by Tertius : but this supposition has been amply refuted by Griesbach. Others think that it must have been written originally in Latin, the language of the people to whom it was addressed; “for although the Greek tongue was well known in Rome, yet it was the language of the great and the learned ; and it is more natural to suppose - t that the apostle would write in the language of the common people, as those were most likely to be his chief : readers, than that of the great and the learned.” This argument is more specious than solid.—1. It is certain o that at this time the Greek language was very generally cultivated in Rome, as it was in most parts of the l Roman empire. Cicer., pro Arch. 10, says Graca leguntur in omnibus sere gentibus: Latina, suis finibus, exiguis, sane continentur. “ The Greek writings are read in almost all nations: those of the Latin within their | own narrow limits.” Tacitus, Orator. 29, observes, Nunc matus infans delegatur Graculae alicut ancillae. “Now the new-born child is put under the care of some Greek maid;” and this undoubtedly for the purpose of its to learning to speak the Greek tongue. And Juvenal, Sat. vi. ver, 184, ridicules this affectation of his country- | men, which in his time appears to have been carried to a most extravagant excess. o o, Nam quid rancidius, quam quod se non putat ulla Formosam, nisi quae de Tusca Graecula facta est? - * : De Sulmonensi mera Cecropis’ OMNIA GRAECE, Cum sit turpe magis nostris nescire Latine. Hoc sermone pavent, hoc Iram, Gaudia, Curas, - Hoc cuncta jo animi secreta. Quid ultra 2 ** - - “For what so nauseous and affected too, . . . . As those that think they due perfection want of Who have not learned to lisp the Grecian cant 2 ** * * - - In Greece their whole accomplishments they seek: * > * - Their fashion, breeding, language must be Greek. - - - - - But raw in all that does to Rome belong, ... • They scorn to cultivate their mother-tongue. o -* . - - In &: they flatter, all their fears they speak, *-*. Tell all their secrets, may they scold in Greek.” DRYDEN. so * * * * From these testimonies it is evident that the Greek was a common language in Rome in the days of the apostle; and that in writing in this language, which he probably understood better than he did Latin, he consulted the taste and propensity of the Romans, as well as the probability of his epistle being more extensively read in * consequence of its being written in Greek. - - - 2. But were these arguments wanting, there are others of great weight that evince the propriety of choos- a- - - - - - - - t that ti is ing this language in preference . any other. The sacred writings of the Old Town were, a time, - *.
THE ORIGINAL AND NATURE OF THE JEWISH CONSTITUTION,
confined to two languages, the Hebrew and the Greek. The former was known only within the confines of Palestine ; the latter over the whole Roman empire: and the Latin tongue appears to have been as much confined to Italy as the Hebrew was to Judea. The epistle, therefore, being designed by the Spirit of God to be of general use to the Christian Churches, not only in Italy, but through Greece and all Asia Minor, where the Greek language was spoken and understood, it was requisite that the instructions to be conveyed by it should be put in a language the most generally known ; and a language too which was then in high and in daily increasing credit.
3. As the Jews were the principal objects of the epistle, and they must be convinced of the truth of Christianity from the evidence of their own Scriptures; and as the Greek version of the Septuagint was then their universal text-book, in all their dispersions, it was absolutely requisite that the epistle should be written in a tongue with which they were best acquainted, and in which their acknowledged Scriptures were contained. These arguments seem conclusive for a Greek and not a Latin original of this epistle.
From the manner in which this epistle has been interpreted and applied, various most discordant and conflicting opinions have originated. Many commentators, forgetting the scope and design of it, have applied that to men in general which most obviously belongs to the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles, and to them only. From this one mistake the principal controversies that have agitated and divided the Church of Christ concerning the doctrines of unconditional reprobation and election have arisen. Men, eminent for their talents, learning, and piety, have interpreted and applied the whole on this mistaken ground. They have been opposed by others, not at all their inferiors either in religion or learning, who, not attending properly to the scope of the apostle, have rather argued from the perfections of the Divine nature, and the general concurrent sense of Scripture, and thus proved that such doctrines cannot comport with those perfections, nor with the analogy of faith; and that the apostle is to be interpreted according to these, and not according to the apparent grammatical import of the phraseology which he employs. On both sides the disputes have run high ; the cause of truth has gained little, and Christian charity and candour have been nearly lost. Dispassionate men, on seeing this, have been obliged to exclaim—
tantaeme animis coelestibus irae /
To compose these differences, and do justice to the apostle, and set an important portion of the word of God in its true and genuine light, Dr. John Taylor of Norwich, a divine who yielded to few in command of temper, benevolent feeling, and deep acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, undertook the elucidation of this much-controverted epistle. The result of his labours was a paraphrase and notes on the whole book, to which is prefixed “A KEY to the Apostolic Writings; or, an essay to explain the Gospel scheme, and the principal words and phrases the apostles have used in describing it.” 4to. 1769, fourth edition. This KEY, in the main, is a most invaluable work, and has done great justice to the subject. Christians, whether advocates for general or particular redemption, might have derived great service from this work, in explaining the Epistle to the Romans; but the author's creed, who was an Arian, (for he certainly cannot be ranked with modern Unitarians,) has prevented many from consulting his book.
To bring the subject of this epistle before the reader, into the fairest and most luminous point of view in my power, I think it right to make a large extract from this Key, steering as clear as possible of those points in which my own creed is certainly at variance with that of my author; especially in the articles of Original Sin, the Atonement, and Deity of Christ ; but as these points are seldom directly touched in this introductory key, the reader need be under no apprehension that he shall meet with any thing in hostility to the orthodoxy of his own creed.
A KEY to THE Apostolic WRITINGs ; or, an Essay to explain the Gospel Scheme, and the principal words and phrases which the apostles have used in describing it.
§ 1. On the Original and Nature of the Jewish Constitution of Religion.
1. God, the Father of the universe, who has exercised his boundless wisdom, power, and goodness, in producing various beings of different capacities; who created the earth, and appointed divers climates, soils, and situations in it; hath, from the beginning of the world, introduced several schemes and dispensations for promoting the virtue and happiness of his rational creatures, for curing their corruption, and preserving among them the knowledge and worship of himself, the true God, the possessor of all being, and the fountain of all good.
2. In pursuance of this grand and gracious design, when, about four hundred years after the flood, the generality of mankind were fallen into idolatry, (a vice which in those times made its first appearance in the world,) and served other gods, thereby renouncing allegiance to the one God, the maker and governor of heaven and earth, He, to counteract this new and prevailing corruption, was pleased, in his infinite wisdom, to select one family of the earth to be a repository of true knowledge and the pattern of obedience and reward among the nations; that, as mankind were propagated, and idolatry took its rise and was dispersed from one part of the world into various countries, so also the knowledge, worship, and obedience of the true God might be propagated and spread from nearly the same quarter; or, however, from those parts which then were most
THE ORIGINAL AND NATURE OF THE JEWISH CONSTITUTION.
famous and distinguished. To this family he particularly revealed himself, visited them with several public and remarkable dispensations of providence, and at last formed them into a nation under his special protection, and governed them by laws delivered from himself; placing them in the open view of the world, first in Egypt, and afterwards in the land of Canaan. 3. The head or root of this family was Abraham, the son of Terah, who lived in Ur of the Chaldees, beyond Euphrates. His family was infected with the common contagion of idolatry, as appears from Joshua xxiv. 2, 3 : “And Joshua said unto all the people, Thus saith the Lord God of Israël, your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood (or river Euphrates) in old time; even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor: and they served other gods. And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood, &c.”. And the Apostle Paul intimates as much, Rom. iv. 3, 4, 5 : “For what saith the Scripture ? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.” Abraham is the person he is discoursing about; and he plainly hints, though he did not care to speak out, that even Abraham was chargeable with not paying due reverence and worship to God; as the word AXEBHX, which we render ungodly, properly imports. 4. But, though Abraham had been an idolater, God was pleased, in his infinite wisdom and goodness, to single him out to be the head or root of that family or nation which he intended to separate to himself from the rest of mankind for the forementioned purposes. Accordingly he appeared to him in his native country, and ordered him to leave it and his idolatrous kindred, and to remove into a distant land to which he would direct and conduct him, declaring at the same time his covenant or grant of mercy to him, in these words, Gen. xii. 1, 2, 3: “I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great , and thou shalt be a blessing. And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.” So certainly did God make himself known to Abraham, that he was satisfied this was a revelation from the one true God, and that it was his duty to pay an implicit obedience to it. Accordingly, upon the foot of this faith, he went out, though he did not know whither he was to go. The same covenant, or promise of blessings, God afterwards at sundry times repeated to him ; particularly when it is said, Gen. xv. 5: “And the Lord brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now towards heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them : and he said unto him, so shall thy seed be.” Here again he believed in the Lord, and he counted it to him for righteousness. Also, Gen. xvii. 1–8, he repeats and establishes the same covenant, to be a God unto him and his seed after him ; promising him the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession, and appointing circumcision as a perpetual token of the certainty and perpetuity of this covenant. Thus Abraham was taken into God's covenant, and became entitled to the blessings it conveyed; not because he was not chargeable before God with impiety, irreligion, and idolatry; but because God, on his part, freely forgave his prior transgressions, and because Abraham, on his part, believed in the power and goodness of God; without which belief or persuasion that God was both true and able to perform what he had promised, he could have paid no regard to the Divine manifestations; and consequently must have been rejected as a person altogether improper to be the head of that family which God intended to set apart to himself. 5. And as Abraham, so likewise his seed or posterity, were at the same time, and before they had a being, taken into God's covenant, and entitled to the blessings of it. Gen. xvii. 7: “I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and thy SEED AFTER thee, &c.” Not all his posterity, but only those whom God intended in the promise; namely, first, the nation of the Jews, who hereby became particularly related to God, and invested in sundry invaluable privileges; and, after them, the believing Gentiles, who were reckoned the children of Abraham, as they should believe in God as Abraham did. 6. For about two hundred and fifteen years from the time God ordered Abraham to leave his native country, he, and his son Isaac and grandson Jacob, sojourned in the land of Canaan, under the special protection of Heaven, till infinite wisdom thought fit to send the family into Egypt, the then head-quarters of idolatry, with a design they should there increase into a nation; and there, notwithstanding the cruel oppression they long groaned under, they multiplied to a surprising number. At length God delivered them from the servitude of Egypt, by the most dreadful displays of his almighty power; whereby he demonstrated himself to be the one true God, in a signal and complete triumph over idols, even in their metropolis, and in a country of fame and eminence among all the nations round about. Thus freed from the vilest bondage, God formed them into a kingdom, of which he himself was king ; gave them a revelation of his nature and will; instituted sundry ordinances of worship; taught them the way of truth and life; set before them various motives to duty, promising singular blessings to their obedience and fidelity, and threatening disobedience and apostasy, or revolt from his government, with very heavy judgments, especially that of being expelled from the land of Canaan and “ scattered among all people from one end of the earth unto the other,” in a wretched, persecuted state; Deut. xxviii. 63–68; Lev. xxvi. 3, 4, &c. Having settled their constitution, he led them through the wilderness, where he disciplined them for forty years together, made all opposition fall before them, and at last brought them to the promised land. 7. Here I may observe that God did not choose the Israelites out of any partial regard to that nation, nor because they were better than other people, (Deut. ix. 4, 5,) and would always observe his laws. It is plain he knew the contrary, (Deut. xxxi. 29; xxxii. 5, 6, 15.) It was indeed with great propriety that, among other advantages, he gave them also that of being descended from progenitors * for piety and virtue 2
THE ORIGINAL AND NATURE OF THE JEWISH CONSTITUTION,
and that he grounded the extraordinary favours they enjoyed upon Abraham's faith and obedience; Gen. xxii. 16, 17, 18. But it was not out of regard to the moral character of the Jewish nation that God chose them; any other nation would have served as well on that account; but, as he thought fit to select one nation of the world, he selected them out of respect to the piety and virtue of their ancestors; Exod. iii. 15 ; vi. 3, 4, 5, Deut. iv. 37.
8. It should also be carefully observed that God selected the Israelitish nation, and manifested himself to them by various displays of his power and goodness, not principally for their own sakes, to make them a happy and flourishing people, but to be subservient to his own high and great designs with regard to all mankind. And we shall entertain a very wrong, low, and narrow idea of this select nation, and of the dispensations of God towards it, if we do not consider it as a beacon, or a light set upon a hill, as raised up to be a public voucher of the being and providence of God, and of the truth of the revelation delivered to them in all ages and in all parts of the world; and, consequently, that the Divine scheme, in relation to the Jewish polity, had reference to other people, and even to us at this day, as well as to the Jews themselves. The situation of this nation, lying upon the borders of Asia, Europe, and Africa, was very convenient for such a general purpose.
9. It is farther observable that this scheme was wisely calculated to answer great ends under all events. If this nation continued obedient, their visible prosperity, under the guardianship of an extraordinary Providence, would be a very proper and extensive instruction to the nations of the earth; and no doubt was so ; for, as they were obedient, and favoured with the signal interpositions of the Divine power, their case was very useful to their neighbours. On the other hand, if they were disobedient, then their calamities, and especially their dispersions, would nearly answer the same purpose, by spreading the knowledge of the true God and of revelation in the countries where before they were not known. And so wisely was this scheme laid at first, with regard to the laws of the nation, both civil and religious, and so carefully has it all along been conducted by the Divine providence, that it still holds good, even at this day, full 3600 years from the time when it first took place, and is still of public use for confirming the truth of revelation. I mean, not only as the Christian profession spread over a great part of the world has grown out of this scheme, but as the Jews themselves, in virtue thereof, after a dispersion of about 1700 years over all the face of the earth, every where in a state of ignominy and contempt, have, notwithstanding, subsisted in great numbers, distinct and separate from all other nations. This seems to me a standing miracle ; nor can I assign it to any other cause but the will and the extraordinary interposal of Heaven, when I consider that, of all the famous nations of the world who might have been distinguished from others with great advantage, and the most illustrious marks of honour and renown, as the Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, who all, in their turns, held the empire of the world, and were, with great ambition, the lords of mankind, yet these, even in their own countries, the seat of their ancient glory, are quite dissolved and sunk into the body of mankind; nor is there a person upon earth can boast he is descended from those renowned and imperial ancestors. Whereas a small nation, generally despised, and which was, both by Pagans and pretended Christians, for many ages harassed, persecuted, butchered, and distressed, as the most detestable of all people upon the face of the earth, (according to the prophecy of Moses, Deut. xxviii. 63, &c.; see Dr. Patrick's commentary upon that place,) and which, therefore, one would imagine, every soul that belonged to it should have gladly disowned, and have been willing the odious name should be entirely extinguished ; yet, I say, this hated nation has continued in a body quite distinct and separate from all other people, even in a state of dispersion and grievous persecution, for about 1700 years; agreeably to the prediction, Jer. xlvi. 28 : “I will make a full end of all the nations whither I have driven thee; but I will not make a full end of thee.” This demonstrates that the wisdom which so formed them into a peculiar body, and the providence which has so preserved them that they have almost ever since the deluge subsisted in a state divided from the rest of mankind, and are still likely to do so, is not human but Divine. For, no human wisdom nor power could form, or, however, could execute such a vast, extensive design. Thus the very being of the Jews, in their present circumstances, is a standing public proof of the truth of revelation.
§ II. The peculiar Honours and Privileges of the Jewish Nation, while they were the peculiar People of God, and the Terms signifying those Honours explained.
10. The nature and dignity of the foregoing scheme, and the state and privileges of the Jewish nation, will be better understood if we carefully observe the particular phrases by which their relation to God and his favours to them are expressed in Scripture.
11. As God, in his infinite wisdom and goodness, was pleased to prefer them before any other nation, and to single them out for the purposes of revelation, and preserving the knowledge, worship, and obedience of the true God, he is said to choose them, and they are represented as his chosen or elect people. Deut. iv. 37; vii. 6; x. 15 : “The Lord had a delight in thy fathers—and he chose their seed after them, even you above all people.” I Kings iii. 8 : “Thy servant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people that cannot be numbered.” I Chron. xvi. 13: “O ye seed of Israel his servant, ye children of Jacob his chosen ones;” Psa, cv. 6; xxxiii. 12: “Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord ; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance;” cv. 43 ; cvi. 5: “That I may see the good of thy chosen or elect, that I may rejoice in the goodness of thy nation;” cxxxv. 4; Isa. xli. 8, 9; xliii.20; xliv,