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and students to the sculpture galleries, was about 4938 in 1831, 6081 in 1835, 6354 in 1840, 5655 The number of visits to the print-room was in 1841, 5627 in 1842, and only 4907 in 1843 about 4400 in 1832, 5065 in 1835, 6717 in 1840, 7744 in 1841, 8781 in 1842, and 8162 in 1843. In the manuscript department 805 MSS. and 35 original charters have been added since the last of great biblical and theological importance, the These MSS. include 320 vols. of Syriac, greater portion written between the 6th and 9th centuries. The number of printed books recently added to the library is 11,549, of which and 8965 purchased. The reading-rooms have 545 were presented, 2039 received by copyright, been kept open 295 days, and the average number of daily readers has been 244. It appears that each reader consulted, on an average, nearly five books a day. To the zoological collection have been added during the present year.—Lit21,864 specimens of different classes of animals erary Gazette.

manly and practical view of the present requirements of the English Church, and as has been done in one field by the vicar of Leeds, take up such questions as this we have now dicussed-where the want is clear and palpable, and the remedy simple and well defined. Going over the theory of virtue in one's own thoughts, talking well, and drawing fine pictures of it;' this may suffice for the philosopher, but not for the Divine. Let it never be said of English theology, as it was of Grecian ethics, that when its written principles were highest, its practical development was at the lowest ebb. Of course we do not mean to apply this personally; we speak of measures, not of men. No great principles were ever yet advanced by the mere speculations of the closet. The benefactors of mankindthose for whose being we have to give God thanks have not been content with putting forth abstract opinions, but, like their great Master, have employed themselves in going had the gratification of a glance at an extremely inabout doing good. It is a commendation MSS., which Mr. Bentley has recently had the teresting collection of correspondence and other in the Gospel, that the love of a disciple good fortune to procure for publication. It conwas deepest shown, in that the work she did sists of letters of King Charles I. and II, and was done for burial.' We look to the also of a large number of Prince Rupert's; and Fathers of our Church to draw the conclu- many of them of great personal as well as hission, and sum up our paper in the words and other literary treasures, these documents torical importance. Like the Evelyn, Pepys, of the faithful Borromeo-Morem restit-have been curiously and safely preserved. Mr. uendum curent Episcopi in cemeteriis sepe- Bennett, the secretary to Prince Rupert, was liendi.'

ENGLISH HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS.-We have

their original custodier, and in his family they were handed down till an intermarriage with the family of Mr. Benet, the member for Wiltshire, brought them into his possession. It is remarkable enough that though so nearly alike in name, the ancestor of Mr. Benet was disBRITISH MUSEUM.-The gross total amount of tinguished on the side of the parliamentarians, all receipts from Christmas 1842 to Christmas whilst the ancestor of the female line of Ben1843 was 37,3147.. of which 24,4327. arose from nett was serving the king; and there was no sums already received from the Parliamentary We look forward to the appearance of these reconsanguinity, till their descendants were united. grant of 1843-44. The total expenditure during the same period amounted to 35,488., leav-mains with much curiosity, as likely to eluciing a balance in hand of 1,826. The estimated date many matters belonging to one of the most expenditure for 1843 amounted to 37,5261. The memorable eras in English history. One of the estimated charge from Lady-day 1844 to Lady-papers we looked at was a receipt signed in a bold hand by Prince Rupert for 1500l., his two quarday 1845 is 39,487., and the sum proposed to be voted by Parliament 37,9871. The total numters' pension to Christmas-Lit. Gaz. ber of persons who were admitted to visit the British Museum, and to view the general collections, during the year 1843, amounted to 517,440, being less by 30,274 than the number who visited the establishment in 1842. The number of visitors in former years was as follows, viz. :-in 1838, 266,008; in 1839, 280,050; in 1840, 247,929; and in 1841, 319,374. The number of visits made to the reading-rooms for the purpose of study or research, was about 1950 in 1810, 4300 in 1815, 8820 in 1820, 22,800 in 1825, 31,200 in 1830, 63,466 in 1835, 76,542 in 1840, 69,303 in 1841, 71,706 in 1842, and 70,931 in 1843, exhibiting the enormous increase, between the years 1810 and 1844, of 68,981 readers, or between 35 and 40 times more than in 1810. The number of visits by artists

NAPOLEON RELICS.-M. Marchand, who was valet-de-chambre to Napoleon, has addressed a letter to the Constitutionnel, respecting the sale, by the executors of Sir Hudson Lowe, of various articles described as having belonged to the late Emperor. M. Marchand declares, that some of the articles so described were never in the possession of the Emperor. He mentions particularly the Breguet watch, the portrait, and the gardenchair; and adds, that although the hair in the medallion may be genuine, the ribands connected with it had never been worn by Napoleon.Athenæum.

NEW SPIRIT OF THE AGE.*

From the Westminster Review.

[but rarely statesmen or legislators. The world rarely sees the "spirit" which moves the external agency of a wise and beneficent law. Practical men gain the reputation, the power, the wealth. The "spirit" rests from its work contentedly, unknown, and "it is good."

says

A New Spirit of the Age. Edited by R. H. Horne. Smith Elder and Co. A TITLE of large promise. Amidst all that is even now stirring all human things to their deepest depths, the announcement of All art, invention-i. e. original art-is a yet newer spirit is pregnant with high but the embodiment of "spirit" in some interest. For it is, after all, the "spirit" form directly or indirectly useful to man. which can alone give value to the material. Art is but the combination or arrangement of The aspiring, the upward, and the onward, natural principles to produce new results; are all encircled in the term spirituality. and the organization of bodies of men or It is synonymous with progress, with the bodies of matter are, in all cases, operations growth of man from the savage state, with of the " spirit." The art by which Mimatted hair, projected muzzle, high cheek chael Angelo found the statue in the marble bones, and prominent eyes, up to the high-block, and the art by which Oliver Cromest forms of human beauty; it is synony- well found a cavalry regiment in a rude mous with the release of man from physical mass of men and horses, were alike operadrudgery to mental exercise-his intellect tions of the "spirit." The spirit of Watt gaining knowledge, and his spirituality could discern the form of the steam-engine teaching him, or impelling him to, its right-in the metallic ore, with the dim vista of ful application in the purposes of benefi

cence.

countless thousands of human beings set free from drudgery in the hewing of wood Through the whole range of human pur- and the drawing of water; and the spirit of suits, we find constant traces of this ad- Arkwright beheld the forms of various kinds vancing spirit, more rife at the present than of matter combining into a mill for grindat any former period of the world's history.ing out clothing by miles These men put And the reason for this is obvious. There forth their " 'spirit" in actual forms, to the is a large leisure class who have time to cognizance of the world. Other spirits, as think, who are clothed, fed, and lodged Homer and Shakspeare, gave their creations while thinking, with more or less freedom to the world in written descriptions; their from anxiety, and their thoughts are direct- ideal embodied their actual. Michael Aned to the processes best adapted for guid-gelo, Oliver Cromwell, Watt, and Arking the work of the workers, and shaping it wright, actualized their ideal. But there to the most useful ends. The workers have it is, the self-same "spirit" in all, making more supervisors over them, and produce itself obvious to man's apprehension in one better results; they waste less labor. A or other of the various modes by which society of all workers would do little more man holds converse with his fellows, of than realize their own physical consump-greater or lesser significance. tion. A sailing vessel, with a large crew and no captain, would be lost, with all its power of physical labor. Converted into a steam-moving vessel by the long studies of men of leisure, the drudgery of the mass of the crew is dispensed with, and a very small minority do the work. They are set free to become men of leisure or workers at other things. All that is greatest in the history of human actions, has been produced, not by the workers, but by the thinkers. The changes that take place are the result of thoughts of individual minds, practicalised by the more active workers of greater physical energy. Even the law-makers are *This work has been lately republished in this country by J. C. Riker in a neat 12mo edition, and by Harper and Brothers in a cheap

form.

What then is there new in the spirit of the present age? Development has mightily increased, but we can discern no change in the quality. Wisdom is but wisdom now, as it was in the earliest ages. The spirit of benevolence existed from the time that the first man possessed more provisions than he could eat, The benevolence grew in proportion as wants were supplied, and its retardation has been caused only by the wants outgrowing the supply. The aristocratic Greeks of old could be benevolent to each other; but the slaves of the mill who ground corn for their bread, they regarded only as lower animals. Benevolence in the present day has greatly increased, because intellect, discovering steam, has diminished wants, and the spirit of man speaks out more freely.

The title of this book is a manifest mis-[ture of the mind which assumes to do this, nomer of unphilosophic construction- —a is a proper subject for inquiry; for it must title indicative of the littérateur spirit which be a mind of no light capacity to be capaso commonly sacrifices meaning for the pur- ble of weighing and looking through so pose of catching the eye and ear-a book- many minds, to discover the spirit within selling title, not conveying the spirit of the them. Such a mind is in itself a great book itself. We turn to the preface, to en- spirit of the age, and we are disposed to able ourselves to correct the defect of the welcome its advent in a reverential mood. title. Such a mind would not enter on its task

It appears that Mr. Horne, thinking Hazlitt's Spirit of the Age' nearly obsolete by the lapse of twenty years, wishes to make the public aware of the peculiarities of

"A new set of men, several of them animated by a new spirit, who have obtained eminent positions in the public mind, the selection not being made from those already 'crowned' and their claims settled, but almost entirely from those who are in progress and midway to fame.

"The selection therefore which it has been thought most advisable to adopt, has been the names of those most eminent in general literature, and representing most extensively the spirit of the age, and the names of two individuals, who in this work represent those phi lanthropic principles now influencing the minds and moral feelings of all the first intellects of

the time."

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without due knowledge added to intuitive judgment. Knowing that men of even the highest powers are subjected to the occasional trammels of the mechanical routine

of the bookselling trade, we may assume that the philosophical perceptions of the editor were overruled by the title-making propensity of the bookseller, and acquit him of any intention of misleading.

Had the work been anonymous, we must have been content to form our estimate of the capabilites of the writer from its internal evidence. But we have a catalogue of works bearing the name of Mr. Horneprima facie evidence of an industrious writer-and abundant material to test his general capacity as a spirit of the age, and also of his fitness for estimating the spirits of the age. His first acknowledged work pub

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Further on Mr. Horne professes his in-lished in 1833, was entitled Exposition of tention at some future period to make the the False Medium and Barriers excluding present work complete-if the sale be good Men of Genius from the Public.' Subseby adding to it, 'The Political Spirit of quently he became editor of a periodical, the Age,'The Scientific Spirit of the The Monthly Repository.' In 1837 he Age,' The Artistical Spirit of the Age,' published Cosmo de' Medici, an Histori'The Historical, Biographical, and Critical cal Tragedy.' In the same year he put Spirit of the Age,' and the Educational forth the Death of Marlowe, a Tragedy in Spirit of the Age.' That is to say, the pre- One Act.' In 1840 appeared 'Gregory the face negatives the title, by showing that the Seventh, a Tragedy.' Subsequently he book is not the spirit of the age, but a se- edited a publication in monthly numbers, lection of certain literary men whom Mr. entitled The Life of Napoleon; and in Horne considers "the most eminent in gen- 1843 appeared an epic, entitled 'Orion.' In eral literature,' and "two individuals of his preface to the 'Spirit of the age,' Mr. philanthropic principles," whose "claims" Horne states that during the last seven or he proceeds to "settle," for the purpose of eight years he has "contributed to several crowning" them. The promised New quarterly journals," probably to monthlies Spirit' we must look further for. The also. In addition he has published a report 'Spirit of the Age' turns out to be, not the of his proceedings as a factory commissiongeneral progress of man on the globe we in-er, and was an occasional lecturer at the habit, not even the spirit of Europe, but the spirit of a very small class of men in a very small corner of Europe, and that not in "general literature," but in particular literature, chiefly confined to poetry and fic* An association composed of unacted dramattion, with a considerable infusion of theists and others, impressed with the idea that they drama. were unfairly treated by managers of theatres and Mr. Horne claiming to be an "author of others. One result of this association was the prothe last ten or fifteen years," assumes the duction of a rejected, tragedy, Martinuzzi,' at the Lyceum, where it was received by the public capacity to sit in judgment, and pass sen- in a manner to confirm the judgment of the mantence on contemporary writers. The struc-agers who had rejected it.

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meetings of the Syncretic Association, of which he was a zealous member. He has also edited an edition of Chaucer. There

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can, therefore, be no doubt that he is a ready and industrious writer.

dance, or work, for gain; but they will not pay to be taught philosophy. People will The first work, which, for the sake of also pay to be pleased; and those who have brevity, we shall call the False Medium,' pleasure to sell, find a ready market. A is dedicated "to Edward Lytton Bulwer, a man or woman may have a talent for dancpatriot and a man of genius." As Mr. Bul-ing, for singing, and working, in modes wer was at that time well known to the which people like; but if a man or woman public, it is evident that he had found some has a genius for inventing new dances, or means of thrusting aside the 'False Medi- songs, or work, of an intrinsically superior um.' The "exordium" in this work, is-kind, but which people have not been ac

"A common stone meets with more ready patronage than a man of genius."

to turn instructor without pay till the new customed to, the genius must be contented art is rendered popular. Genius varies in That is to say, the stone being placed in its quality. One man originates a new a cabinet, as a specimen, by some one who philosophy; another originates a new mode selects it from a heap of other stones, it is of cheapening pleasure. One will get putaken care of, whereas no one takes care of pils by units, the other gets customers by a man of genius; and Mr. Horne gives in- thousands. But were the originator of the stances of men of genius, "poets and phi- new philosophy to complain that he could losophers," from Homer down to Camoens, not sell his philosophy for current coin, we who have been buffeted about the world should be apt to suspect him of false phiduring their whole lives, and only valued losophy, and tell him he had mistaken his after their deaths. "Authors in general," genius. The popular thing is the paying from Demosthenes down to some individu- thing: the widest popularity is among the al not specified by name, have been an illused race; imprisoned when possessing property, and starved when possessing none. Sir R. P- -is accused of neglecting an author, scholar, and man of science, who had been of much service to him, so that "his wife is obliged to wash in one room while he translates Greek in another."

masses; and the greater the refinement, the less is the popularity. It is the essence of high genius to be in advance of its age. The genius of the Greek tragic poets was not in advance of their age. They had cultivated audiences to whom they presented the highest intellectual excitement of the time, but we doubt whether their popularity was great with the masses of uncultivated slaves.

"Dramatic Authors," Mr. Horne asserts, are as ill-used as all other authors, and but for the "barriers and false medium," the author of 'Paul Clifford' could produce a sterling comedy, in which the philosophy, wit, and humor could only be surpassed by its sound and beneficial moral tendency. Yet Mr. Horne would seem to set little value on the moral principle. Speaking of Edmund Kean, He says

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Now we object at the outset to a man of genius being made a dependant on "ready patronage." A man of talents may be subservient to those who require his talents, but a man of genius must be essentially original. He is a guide and not a servant; he points out new paths of excellence; unrecognised at the outset by any one but himself, and to appreciate which, in some cases, even the few require years of instruction, and the many require centuries. If he were not in advance of his time, he would not be a man of genius. We speak now of the genius for great things, the genius which elevates. To expect that people should rush in crowds, to worship that which they neither recognise nor comprehend, is an absurdity; to expect that they should pay for it in ready coin, is a conclusion that no man of great genius ever dreamed of People do not pay for being taught anything but what they can take to market and sell or exchange away to advantage, or such accomplishments as may tend to personal influence. They will pay Edinund Kean is a most unfortunate into be taught to dance, or sing, or work, instance for Mr. Horne to have chosen. order that they may be enabled to sing, or There is no doubt he possessed genius of a

They (certain tragedies) contain some of the elementary principles of tragedy, which he (Kean) only can feel and portray."

And in a note he remarks

"The great tragedian is no more; but he can never be dead so long as those live who have once awoke from ordinary existence to appreciate him. A deep continuous feeling is multitude can destroy or even disturb its saworth all your tombs; for no capricious moral

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peculiar kind. There is no doubt that by | MSS. offered for publication, who never personal energy he broke through all false judges rightly of the merit of a work; who mediums; and there is no doubt that he invariably rejects all works of genius, and was very highly paid for his services, by a only accepts or approves of the very worst. public to whom his peculiar genius gave This reader is always either "a fool or a great excitement. Unfortunately, also, there knave," and, "in either case, the author is is no doubt that his personal character was the victim." Unmeasured terms of abuse rather that of a savage than of a civilized are heaped on this "reader "-on all man. He was one to gaze on, but not to" readers." associate with. His stage powers were all that he gave to the public in return for bitter coteries he can bear down and impress "He lords it dogmatically over the gin-andtheir recognition and large pecuniary pay- with an idea of his knowledge, acute judgment. The "moral multitude" are as-ment, and literary importance. In the society suredly rather hardly dealt with by Mr. of capable men over their brandy punch, he is Horne. still as a mouse."

Composers and Musicians, Actors and Singers, all are alike ill-treated.

"Mrs

The Dramatic Reader at the theatres is

Jordan with a paltry salary of four pounds even worse, so bad, that Mr. Horne is surper week!" Claiming to be a man of prised none of the ill-used authors have genius, Mr. Horne has a strange propensity burned down the patent theatres.

to try things by money value. "Pasta furnished with old clothes by the wardrobe women!" "Miss O'Neil brought out at a low salary, the owlish managers doubting her success!"

Novelists, Painters, and Sculptors, fare no better. Men of Science, Original Projectors, and Inventors, still worse.

In treating of the causes of all this, Mr. Horne remarks:

"Napoleon was the greatest patron of genius and art in every possible class that ever lived. Those only who are conscious of superiority in themselves, apart from their station, who possess copiousness of intellect and power to do or suffer, can be above all petty jealousies and fears, and thus fit to govern others." "Shakspeare was treated by Eliza beth as an amusing playwright; and as he never meddled with public spirit or politics,

she suffered him to continue his labors unmolested."

We incline to think that Napoleon's patronage of any genius adverse to himself, is far from a proved case. He patronized talents that were useful to him. The genius of Carnot never succumbed, and was never forgiven.

Mr. Horne seems quite unable to comprehend that the genius of Shakspeare was above queen or court He would have had him made a duke at least, as a recompense for his writings, and a pension of course, though of pecuniary gains the great man had probably enough for his wishes.

The evil of men of genius who write books, is, according to Mr, Horne, the "false medium" employed by booksellers, in the shape of a "Reader," who peruses

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* * *

"The foundation of a 'Society of English Literature and Art for the encouragement and permanent support of men of superior ability in all deparments of human genius and knowedge.' The permanent advantages to be derived by those whose claims are alized by annuities for life, from 3007. downrecognised by the establishment, should be rewards; * * * this not to extend to genlemen who write novels and poems, for which they ought be hung."

When a man has written a fine epic and obtained the 3007. a-year for life,

"He has done enough; would

you

have a

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