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ROYAL BIRTHDAYS IN APRIL.-It is remarka- [boat reached the group of granite rocks near Asble how many Royal personages now living date souan, which form the cataract. The first gate their births in the month of April. The 25th was easily passed; but in the second, owing to ult., the day on which her Majesty celebrated the violence of the current, it hung for ten minher birthday, is the anniversary of the births of utes, vibrating, but almost stationary, and in dantheir Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Glouces-ger every moment of being dashed on the rocks, ter and the Princess Alice. In other Royal fam- only four paces distant. It was a fearful strug ilies of Europe, several birthdays occur during gle: but at last, by carrying out rope in a small the month of April-viz., her Majesty the Queen boat, the pasha himself and three sailors obtainof the French was born on the 26th of April, ed a purchase on an island, and succeeded in 1782; the Queen of the Belgians on the 3d of bringing the laboring vessel through. Three April, 1812; Queen Christina of Spain on the hundred Nubians witnessed, and some of them 27th of April, 1806; the Emperor of Austria on with poles assisted in this triumph. The third the 17th of April, 1793; the Queen of Portugal gate (as these narrow passes are called) was suron the 14th of April, 1819; and the Sultan on mounted, and the anchor dropped off the village the 19th of April, 1823.-Court Journal. of Messid, within sight of the famous island of Philo. The exploit was attempted in 1838 by SOMNAMBULIST.We give the following almost Mahomed Ali, but defeated at the second gate; incredible account of a somnambulic exhibition and now the passage is shown to be practicable from the Paris Globe. After noticing some pre- it will often be repeated, and produce important vious exhibitions of the same nature by M. Mar-effects in this part of the world.—Lit. Gaz. cellet with the somnambulist, the “young Alexis," the Globe says:-" We will now speak of the exhibition at the hotel of the Viscountess de RAFFAELLE TAPESTRIES.-Of the two sets of Saint-Mars. M. Victor Hugo, who was present, tapestries from the Cartoons, wrought under the had prepared at home a sealed packet, in the cen inspection of the artist and his pupils Von Orlay tre of which he had placed a single word, print-and Coxis, one is in the Vatican; and that now ed in large characters. The somnambulist, after before the public is the second, sold from Engturning over the packet every way, spelled land into Spain after the martyrdom of Charles slowly-p-o-1-i, poli, and then exclaimed, 'II., and now happily restored to us, at least for a do not see the letter that immediately follows, season. Mr. Tupper, the British consul, obtainbut I perceive those which come afterwards, -ied the series from the Alva family twenty years -q-u-e; eight letters;-no, I now see nine; ago, and from him they became the property of it is at, politique, and the word is printed on their present exhibiter. light green paper. M. Hugo cut it out of a pamphlet, which I now see at his house.' Similar experiments were frequently repeated, and always with the same success, at the house of M. Charles Ledru, where they took place especially, in order that Lord Brougham might witness them. His Lordship was quite astounded at seeing Alexis playing at cards with his eyes bandaged, and reading through several sheets of paper. But the last experiment was of a nature to remove all doubt. 'What word have I written there?' said Lord Brougham, presenting his closed hand. 'Chester,' replied the somnambulist. The Hon. The Stoning of St. Stephen is the smallest of Mrs. Dawson Damar then said, 'Can you tell me these productions, being only 13 feet wide and what I placed on the guéridon of my salon before 12 feet 10 inches high. The martyr is on his I left home? Yes, madam, I see there a medal-knees, and his earthly suffering radiated with the lion.' 'What does it contain?' Hair.' Whose hope of immortal glory. One of his barbarous hair?' 'That of three personages-the Emperor executioners stooping to lift a large stone is a Napoleon, Wellington-as to the third, I cannot grand piece of drawing; and another figure casttell his name, but he died before Napoleon, anding a rock at his devoted head is equally a splenwas an Englishman-a sailor.' The Hon. Mrs. did anatomical and expressive study. Other Damar then named Lord Nelson. Some days parts are almost as remarkable for skill, beauty, afterwards, Viscount Jocelyn having presented a and contrast. box well wrapped up to the young Alexis, the latter instantly said that it contained only one object, that it was red, and came from a distant country. He ended by saying that it was a piece of coral cut into a death's head.--Court Jour


They are in wonderfully fine preservation, faithful to the originals, fresh in color, and spirited in every thread and stitch. Of the nine in existence, there are here seven corresponding to the Cartoons at Hampton Court, and two others, viz. the Stoning of St. Stephen and the Conversion of St. Paul, of which the Cartoons are lost; but as the death of Ananias and Paul preaching at Athens could not find room, we have the former novelties in their stead, and to these we would direct the marked attention of visitors.

The Conversion of St Paul ranks among the six largest tapestries, being 18 feet 3 inches in width, by 13 feet in height. It is a glorious composition, full of stirring life, passion, and energy. The supernatural light from heaven, the prostrate Roman leader, the amazement of his soldiery, the confusion of man and horse, the anSTEAM ASCENT OF THE FIRST CATARACT OF tique architectural forms of Damascus, the variety THE NILE. We have mentioned the accomplish- and richness of Oriental costume, and the angelic ment of this great feat, an epoch in science and group over all, render this representation admiraits African power. It seems to have been effect-ble even among those wonderful works its comed principally through the energy and presence of panions, with whose astonishing mastery over mind of Achmet Menikli Pasha, the new gover-every difficulty and perfection of art we have benor of Soudan, who was ascending the river to come familiar. Of itself it would be a great exhithe seat of his rule. In six days from Cairo the [bition for every lover of the fine arts.-Lit. Gaz.



with a request that those gentlemen would kindly undertake the necessary superintendence of the work; a request to which they acceded with alacrity; and the obelisk, in packing cases, arrived in Table Bay in the month of August, 1841, where it was safely landed under the guidance of Colonel Lewis.

HERSCHEL OBELISK AT THE CAPE' OF GOOD HOPE" An Account of the Erection of the Herschel Obelisk at the Cape of Good Hope, accompanied by the Report of Colonel Lewis, and a Plan of the same," by Thomas Maclear, Esq. The following is an abstract. Sir John Herschel, during his residence at the Cape, was President of the South African Literary and Scientific In- The following is the report of Colonel Lewis stitution. When he was about to leave the colo- on the erection:-"In excavating the foundation, ny, the members expressed a desire to present which was of black sand, it was found necessary him with some token of remembrance; and, at a to go down 4 feet 10 inches to arrive at the ironfull meeting, a few days before his departure, a stone gravelly bed, the substratum of the country gold medal was presented, with the impress of about Feldhausen. The masonry foundation was the institution on one side and a suitable inscrip- formed of concrete, built up in courses of 12 or tion on the reverse. The feelings excited on that 14 inches, and composed of iron-stone gravel, and interesting occasion strongly evinced how much lime-mortar, well grouted together. On this mathe members regretted the loss of their president sonry bed a granite platform 9 feet 6 inches square and their admiration of one whose talents place was laid, and the small column fixed by Sir John him so far above ordinary men, and whose private Herschel on the site of the 20-feet reflector. This life was a pattern of every domestic virtue. The mark was removed for a few days, in order to sum subscribed having exceeded the expense of bring the masonry foundation to a proper height, the medal, another subscription-list was opened but the mark was relaid with mathematical corwith the intention of raising a fund for the pur-rectness by Lieut. Laffau, Royal Engineers. Prepose of placing a substantial structure on the site viously, however, to relaying the Herschel mark, of the 20-feet reflector in the garden of Sir John's the suggestion of the Committee of Construction late residence at Feldhausen. The proposal was was adopted of placing under it several silver and accordingly laid before Sir George Napier, who copper coins, a few inscription medals, and medals entered warmly into the project, and placed his of the South African Institution, struck in silver name at the head of the list annexed to a hand- for the occasion; and on the obverse were ensome subscription. In the course of a few days graved some notices, statistical and geographical, the sum subscribed amounted to £190. At a of the colony; the discoveries of Capt. Ross in general meeting, held on the 28th of November, the South Polar Regions in 1841; and the opera1838, the erection of the obelisk was finally de- tion of remeasuring the arc of the meridian in termined on; and a committee was appointed to 1842. These subjects were beautifully executed carry its erection into effect. A fruitless attempt by Mr. Piazza Smyth, assistant-astronomer, and to procure a granite column at the cape, of proper hermetically sealed in glass bottles. Also there workmanship and within the resources of the Com- were deposited a map of the colony and engra mittee, led to the adoption of a suggestion that one vings of nebulæ observed at Slough from 1825 to of Craigleith stone, from the quarry near Edin- 1833, by Sir John Herschel, and a plan of Mr. burgh, might be obtained without difficulty, and Maclear's triangulation connecting the site of Feldof superior finish. A resolution was accordingly hausen with the Royal Observatory, and the site passed by the Committee, which, together with a of La Caille's observatory, in Strand-street, Cape plan of the proposed obelisk, was forwarded to Town. The bottle was carefully fixed in a block Professors Forbes and Henderson, of Edinburgh, | of teak-wood, scooped out on purpose. When the

granite platform was brought to its level, and the | be distinct in the stormiest night; but as the conHerschel mark refixed and filled in with cement, stant connexion of such apparatus would neither it was necessary to erect heavy shears of large be desirable as concerns the action of the clock, spars, to place the stones of the obelisk, composed nor pleasant to the ear as a companion, a mode of large blocks of Craigleith stone, some weighing has been introduced of readily detaching it altotwo tons. This was accomplished with some gether. By a certain method, which shall be extrouble and expense, and the base of the obelisk plained, the hammers are raised from the tables was laid with the faces corresponding with the at one end, and the arms at the other entirely four cardinal points. The whole was completed disengaged from the anchor at the pallets, without on the 15th of February, 1842, in presence of inconvenience or disturbing action to the clock some of the Committee and several of the sub- itself. The apparatus within is immediately, and scribers and friends of Sir John Herschel, who at pleasure, acted upon through the agency of a attended on the occasion of placing the top stone bolt, which is placed vertically, immediately over of the obelisk. The obelisk has the base 6 feet the 60 minutes, or about two inches back, suffisquare by 6 feet in height, and the pyramidal part ciently long to reach a spring of hard brass, which stands 12 feet above the base. On the east face is about half an inch wide, and which passes is an opening showing the Herschel mark, desig- transversely over the frame-work of the clock, nating the site of the 20-feet reflector. The and is fixed securely to the backboard of the clockopening will be closed with a bronze plate, con- case. Now the mode in which the spring unites taining the inscription of the purpose for which its action with the rest of the apparatus is by slight the obelisk is erected."-Athenæum. cross-bars, which extend to the extremities of the sides of the frame, so that the ends are immediately over the hammers, with which they are connected by silk threads. Therefore, by pressing down the bolt before named, the hammers are allowed to fall into action, and do their duty simultaneously with the teeth of the wheel upon the pallets. While the little hammers are in action, the teeth of the wheel are no longer heard.

"ON LOUD BEATS OF CLOCKS USED IN OBSERVATORIES.—A simple and easily applied method of obtaining very loud beats for the astronomical clock. The mode of constructing the apparatus is as follows:- Two pieces of thin brass are placed at the sides of the frame-work of the clock, in length the same as the space between The Astronomer Royal declares by letter, that the pillars; in width, about two inches or more he has examined the plan, and is enabled to say at pleasure; these pieces of brass are placed hori-that it answers completely for its proposed purzontally, at about the same altitude from the base pose; and that it appears likely to be very useful. as the axis of the escape-wheel pinion, and at the Moreover, that the rate of the clock will not neright angles to it, or nearly so. They should be cessarily be disturbed during the time of its conmade of such a size as would insure a sound, dis-nexion-though that will greatly depend on certinct, sharp, and short. The little tables can be tain conditions.-Athenæum. made to any size. Upon these tables or plates two hammers ply, supported by arbors at the same MICROSCOPE IN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH.-' On elevation as all the others. The pivots should be the application of the Microscope to Geological made small for easy motion. The hammers are Research,' by Dr. Carpenter, F. R. S. Dr. Carintended to beat upon the middle of each brass penter pointed out how much the progress of table simultaneously with the drop proper of the science depends upon the perfection of the instru escape-wheel through the agency of the pendu-ments employed in the observation of its phenolum, they are lifted alternately by the heels of mena; and that even to geology, whose facts are the anchors of the pallets, assisted by a passing for the most part obvious to the unassisted senses, spring similar to that used in the chronometer the achromatic microscope has afforded, of late escapement. It has just been observed, that the years, the most efficient aid. He noticed the rearbors which support those little hammers are searches of Messrs. Witham, Nicol, and others, placed at the same elevation from the base of the on the structure of fossil woods, and the light brass frame-work of the clock as the escape-wheel which these had thrown on the origin of coal. arbor, but at the sides, and as near to the edge as The investigations of Prof. Owen on the structure possible. About the centre, or midway between of teeth were next glanced at, and illustrations of them, are affixed brass collets, about 1-8 of an their application to the determination of fossils inch in thickness, and 1-4 of an inch in diameter. were given. The identification of the LabyrinTwo slender pieces of spring are secured to the thodon as the gigantic Batrachian, whose footcollets by screws passing through square holes steps are preserved to us in the sandstone of the formed longitudinally, to secure power of adjust-Stourton quarries, was noticed as one of the most ment for bringing the arms into proper contact interesting results of this kind of investigation; with the anchor of the pallets. The little ham- and a sketch was given of the train of reasoning mers beat upon the plates or tables at one end, by which Prof. Owen has established the true and at the other the lifting action takes place, as- character and habits of the Megatheroid quadrusisted by the passing spring. The strokes upon peds. Dr. Carpenter then gave a summary of the these brass tables bave a peculiar sharpness of researches, on which he has been himself entone, which can be accounted for in some measure, gaged, on the structure of the shells of the Molwhen it is considered that they are very different lusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. With the from the sounds produced by the teeth of the aid of highly-magnified delineations, he explained wheel itself; in the dead-beat escapement the the cellular organization of the shells of Pinna, teeth have a sliding motion in the moment of and other allied genera belonging to the family drop, but not impulse, for it is well known that Margaritacae, by which the fossil forms of that that is subsequent to the sound. By such appli- group are at once distinguished (even by the excation it is proposed to obtain sound, so loud as to amination of the minutest fragment) from all

mercury is now to be polished. With a ball (tampon) of cotton and saturated with oil and rouge, this coating is rubbed just sufficiently for the plate to be of a fine black. This being done, the plate is again placed upon the horizontal plane, and the solution of gold and platina is poured over it. The plate is to be heated, and then left to cool, and the liquid having been poured off, the plate is dried by means of cotton and rouge. In doing this, care must be had that the plate be merely dried, not polished. On this metallic varnish, M. Daguerre has succeeded in taking some very fine impressions of the human figure, which were exhibited.—Athenæum.

others; the very curious plicated membranous ( and forms a white covering. The plate is allowed structure, which is characteristic of Terebratula to cool a little, and after having poured off the and its allies, and distinguishes them from all, liquid, it is dried by the usual process of cotton others; the true character of the lines upon na-and rouge. The white coating deposited by the cre, to which its iridescence is due;-and the tubular structure, analogous to the dentine or ivory teeth, which is found in certain other genera, and is distinctive of them. After describing the peculiar cancellated structure of the shells of the Rudistes, and stating that, by his microscopic test, the perplexing Cardium hibernicum should be referred to that group, he briefly explained the structure of the shells of the Crustacea, the inner portion of which is tubular, and strongly resembles dentine, whilst its surface (beneath the horny structureless epidermis) is covered with a layer of cells, in which the coloring-matter is deposited; and gave a brief account of the structure of the shells, spines, &c. of the Echinodermata, pointing out the difference of pattern between the stems of different species of Pentacrinus, which rendered the microscope a very easy means of distinguishing them. The lecture concluded with a notice of the researches of Ehrenberg on Fossil Animalcules; of which the siliceous remains form a large proportion of the chalk-marls of Southern Europe, besides abounding in other deposits; whilst the calcareous species make up a great portion of the chalk itself in many localities. Of these species, whose minuteness is almost inconceivable, many of those now living appear to be identical with those which existed at the early part of the tertiary epoch.-Athenæum.


that one half are united with the zinc, and the

FORCE.-In No. 538 of the Institute is a paper by Mr. Poggendorf, in which he proposes a method of increasing the electromotive force of a voltaic pair, or which in the old phraseology would be effects into those of intensity. He ranges a certermed a method of converting the quantitative tain number of pairs of platinum electrodes, so other with the platinum of a Grove's battery. He then, by an arrangement which he does not parand unites them in series; they thus form a secticularly describe, detaches them from the battery, ondary pile, whereby the intensity of the reacting currents arising from the polarization is increased, with reference to that of a single pair, as the sum PARIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCES --M. Blondeau of the pairs of electrodes employed. We believe de Carolles gave an account of an experiment at analogous experiments have been made in Engwhich he was present, and in which he saw the land soon after the publication of Mr. Grove's sugar of the cane transform itself into acetic acid, gas-battery, by Mr. Grove and others; in which, under the influence of caseum, without change of for convenience of charging, a number of cells volume either by loss or absorption.-M. Cowere united in a quantitative arrangement to a chaux, civil engineer, presented to the Academy small battery, and then detached and arranged in a large and well-executed model of a drag-ma-series. The point offers no economy of material, chine, which, having been long and successfully used in foreign countries, be recommends for adoption in France, for the harbors, rivers, and canals. The machine differs from those in ordinary use by the judicious combination of all its parts and the comparative ease and rapidity with which it acts. A communication was made by M. Daguerre, relative to some improvements in the Daguerreotype process, chiefly for the purpose of taking portraits, the ordinary mode of preparing the plates not being found sufficient to enable the operator to obtain good impressions. The improvement made by M. Daguerre requires a rather complicated process, but it is a very regular one, and has one decided advantage, for the artist is now enabled to have a good stock of plates on hand, as the new preparation will remain for a very long time in a perfectly fit state for use. The new substances of which M. Daguerre makes use are an aqueous solution of bi-chlorule of mercury, an aqueous solution of cyanure of mercury, oil of white petroleum, acidulated with nitric acid, and a solution of platina and chlorure of gold. The process is as follows:-the plate is polished with sublimate and tripoli, and then red oxide of iron, until a fine black be obtained; it is now placed in the horizontal plane, and the solution of cyanure previously made hot by the lamp is poured over it. The mercury deposits itself,

as the same amount of zinc is consumed by this method of producing intensity as would be if an ordinary battery of the like intensity were arranged and charged in the ordinary way; but it may, in certain cases, add to convenience of manipulation.-Lit. Gaz.

ORIENTAL MSS.-A letter from Mr. N. Bland was read before the Royal Asiatic Society, on the subject of a valuable collection of Oriental Mss. in the library of Eton College, which appears almost entirely to have escaped the notice of Orientalists. This collection was presented to the College above fifty years ago, by Mr. E. Pote, who had been a scholar on the foundation, and who afterwards went to India. It reached England in 1790, together with another collection, of equal value, which was presented by the same gentleman to King's College library, Cambridge, where his education was completed. The Eton collection is rich in historical and lexicographical works, both Persian and Arabic; and contains also many writings on the jurisprudence, theology, traditions, and ecclesiastical history of the Mohammedans, and a few poems. The whole number of volumes is above 200, and altogether constitutes a very valuable Oriental library.Lit. Gaz.

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DON AUGUSTIN ARGUELLES.-March 23. Aged | Queen gave insecurity to the head of the govern 68, Don Augustin Arguelles.

This most eminent personage of the Spanish Revolution was born in the Asturias in 1775, the younger son of a noble family. He was educated in the university of Oviedo, and proceeded to practise in the provincial court: but, finding this sphere too narrow, he betook himself to Madrid. Too young for legal functions, he became employed in the secretary's office for the interpretation of foreign languages, from which post he was taken and sent on a mission to Lisbon. He afterwards went to London on a diplomatic mission of a similar nature.

He was at Cadiz on the French invasion in 1808, and was appointed member of the first Cortes; and he was unanimously selected as the person to draw up the Constitution. This document, with his report preceding it, are both too famous to need being characterized. He was rewarded, like other patriots in 1814, by a condemnation to the galleys at Ceuta. The tribunal indeed refused to sentence him, but Ferdinand VII. volunteered to inscribe the sentence with his own hand. During six years the illustrious Arguelles partook of the labor of the galley-slave. When a statue is erected by his countrymen to their greatest name, the fetters of Arguelles will prove the fittest decoration.

ment, and the Queen-mother, who had adopted a line of government not liberal enough to please the citizen class, though too liberal to suit the Legitimists, fell from want of any support in any class or party. The Liberals triumphed, and, in want of better, chose Espartero to be Regent.

His elevation displeased the more ambitious and younger men of the Liberal party, who were anxious for a regency of three, and for thereby leaving open many avenues to ambition. Arguelles was one of those who opposed this repetition of the French triple Consulate. When the Duke of Victory became Regent, the care of the young Queen's person and education was entrusted to Arguelles, who dismissed the mere courtier tribe, and endeavored to accustom the infant ear of Royalty to some other language than the whispers of flattery and intrigue. These arrangements, more than all else, offended the court of the Tuileries, and the overthrow of Arguelles and Espartero became the great aim and effort of that court and its agents. Nearly three years were taken to effect it. An attempt to carry the palace by a coup de main, under the patronage of the French Chargé d'Affaires, Pageot, failed. Slower modes of operation were adopted. More than a score journals were founded by the French in Madrid and in the provinces, all uttering the most nefarious calumnies against England and the Regent. French emissaries circulated them in every garrison town, and insinuated them

The revolution of 1820 liberated Arguelles, and opened a scene for his eloquence. He became Home Minister, and, as such, took that position which he ever since maintained, of a mod-selves into every officer's mess. The republican erate and practical statesman of the thoroughly liberal or Exaltado party. But the French Bourbons stepped in to crush those liberties which the Spanish Bourbons wers not alone able to stifle; and Arguelles became an exile in England. The death of Ferdinand again opened to him a return to his country, and the voice of Arguelles was once more heard in his native Cortes. Age and events had now still more tempered his youthful ardor and though a stern opponent of Zea's despotismo illustrado, as well as of Toreno's aping of and leaning upon France, the views of Arguelles were as far removed from wild republicanism as from the servile and impracticable aim of setting up a constitution in the likeness of absolutism.

His principles and party prevailed, attained power, enforced its views of internal government in the constitution of 1837, and persevered in those efforts which finally expelled Don Carlos and his party from Spain. But it is seldom that the party which conquers and establishes freedom is allowed to profit by it. The minority of the

party at Barcelona and elsewhere were taken into pay; the political rivals of the Regent were cajoled, and won over in Paris and in Madrid; and, when all was ripe for execution, the batteries were unmasked. Barcelona again rose in insurrection. Committees were formed at Perpignan and Bayonne. Money in great abundance was forwarded from Paris, whilst the funds which the Regent expected from bankers there were cut off. In short, the conspiracy succeeded. The Duke of Victory was driven from the kingdom, and Arguelles, appointed tutor by a decree of the Cortes, was deprived of his office by the simple order of General Narvaez. In the few months which have since elapsed Arguelles lived retired; he saw the interment of the constitution by Narvaez; and might say, with Gratian, he had watched over the cradle of his country's liberties, and had followed them to the grave.Morning Chronicle.

The funeral of Arguelles took place at Madrid on the 25th of March. The multitudes that assembled and accompanied his remains in solemn

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