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3. A firm conviction, that at death the happiness or misery of the soul at the death soul must appear before the judgment-seat of the body;" it may, therefore, be legitiof Christ, will influence men's political mately inferred, that he enforced his preconduct. It will make rulers merciful and cepts with the certainty of this doctrine. just; subjects, submissive and dutiful. It And as the sacred writings are still the will influence kings, as they must soon be standard of morality, the most effectual accountable to the King of kings. What method of exciting men to do their duiy, king ever did so much for his subjects as and to deter them from crime is, to enforce Alfred the Great? Contrast his reign with the certainty that the soul, immediately that of Nero, who boasted in denying these after the death of the body, is not in a truths which were the spring of Alfred's state of sleep, or insensibility, but of hapactions. Accountableness at death, will piness or misery.make a judge act impartially upon the Huggate.

T. R. bench. Under the influence of this belief, acted the justly celebrated Sir Matthew Hale. Contrast his conduct with the

ORIENTAL CUSTOMS, ILLUSTRATING VARIpartial decisions of time-serving Felir. Influenced by the same prospective doc

(Continued from p. 470.) trine, the amiable Addison regulated his 8. Fig Leaves, Gen. iii. 7. “They sewed politics in the cabinet; and when he was fig-leaves together, and made themselves called to terminate his career, he com

aprons.”—“ We observed some of the posedly left this world for a better. Con- sailors, who happened to have lost or worn trast bis end with that of Cardinal Wolsey, out the very simple vestment which is conwhose moving-spring was ambition. With sidered necessary in this country, supply regard to practical politics among the poor, its place by a cincture of acacia leaves, it is an undeniable fact, that ihose who attached to the cord worn round the waist : have a good hope of reigning with Christ a very primitive covering, though less effecimmediately after death, commit the fewest tual than the original fig-leaf.”— Waddingerrors.

ton and Hanbury's Journal of a Visit to 4. A constant belief in the immediate some parts of Ethiopia, p. 111. rewarding or punishing of the soul at death,

9. Funeral Feast, Gen. xviii. 7. “And will influence the morals. The systems of Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a morality compiled by the sages of Greece calf tender and good.”—“At a wedding a and Roine, had no sanctions. They had no

cow or a calf is killed; for to eat mutton ligature to bind them to the conscience. One urged the fitness of things; another upon such an occasion, would be a great

scandal to the spouse.”

Burckhardt's contradicted him, and said, there is neither

Travels, p. 34. fitness nor unfitness in things, but that the multitude must be kept in awe.

“In passing the village of Endhana, in The

Upper Egypt, we were invited to a funeral morality of the gospel derides such sub- feast, by the inhabitants of a house belong. terfuges. It rests upon the will of God.* ing to some relation of the Nubian princes. It encourages the observance of its precepts; The possessor had died a few days before by holding to view a future reward; and

at Derr, and, on receiving the news of his deters from the violation of its injunctions, death, his relations here had slaughtered a by threatening a future punishment. “ When the obligations of morality are

cow, with which they were entertaining the

whole neighbourhood. At two hours' distaught, let the sanctions of christianity never

tance from the village, I met women with be forgotten; by which it will be shewn plates upon their heads, who had been that they give strength and lustre to each receiving their share of the meat. Cows other: religion will appear to be the voice

are killed only by people of consequence, of reason, and morality the will of God.”+

on the death of a near relation; the common St. Paul urged the rulers and subjects, people content themselves with a sheep or the masters and servants, the husbands and wives, the parents and children, at Ephesus, buted.”Ibid. p. 39.

a goat, the flesh of which is equally distrito do their duty one towards another, from the consideration that they were answerable 10. Hospitality, Gen. xix. 2. “And he to Jesus Christ. Now, it has been proved said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray before, that St. Paul, in his writings and you, into your servant's house, and tarry all public discourses, taught “ the immediate night, and wash your feet, and


shall rise

up early, and go your ways."_" In this • Paley's Moral Philosophy.

country no inns are any where to be found, consequently the necessity of the case, as

Dr Johnson.

p. 141.

well as common humanity, urges every 12. Cuttings for the Dead, Deut. xiv. 1. christian-like colonist to open his door to “ Ye are the children of the Lord your the hungry or benighted traveller. And, God, ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make as this hospitality becomes reciprocal, by any baldness between your eyes, for the their occasionally passing each other's dead.”—“A short distance farther, I met houses, they feel no hesitation either in ask- an old woman, who, having heard that I ing such favours, or in granting them. was desirous of knowing every thing relaThus a boor is never at a loss for a meal tive to their customs, very good-naturedly on the road : and as the customary time of stopped me, to shew her hands, and bade dinner is about noon, he, without much me observe that the little finger of the right ceremony, unsaddles his horse at any door hand had lost two joints, and that of the where he may happen to come at that left, one. She explained to me that they hour. If he arrive later, he is supposed to bad been cut off at different times, to exhave dined at some other place on the road, press grief or mourning for the death of and the question, whether he may be in three daughters. After this I looked more want of refreshment, is considered super- attentively at those whom I met, and saw fluous : but in most parts of the country, a many other women, and some of the men, cup of tea is generally presented to him, with their hands mutilated in the same without any regard to the time of day. It manner.”- Burchell's Travels in Southern is therefore a boor's own fault, if he lose his Africa, vol. ii. p. 61. dinner. Those who travel in wagons, and who most frequently carry their provisions the elders of that city shall bring down the

13. Councils, Deut. xxi. 4-9. “And and cooking utensils with them, are looked heifer unto a rough valley, which is neither upon as not standing in need of assistance, eared nor sown and all the elders of that though such persons freely make use of those houses where they have any acquaint- city that are next unto the slain man shall

wash their hands over the heifer."_" In ance with the family.”Burchell's Travels in Southern Africa, vol. i.

the days of Ina, king of the West Saxons,

who, according to Sir H. Spelman, began 11. The river Nile, Exod. vii. 8.

to reign, ann. 712. and died 727, councils “The Egyptians shall loathe to drink of fields, on the bank of some river, for the

in England were generally held in open the water of the river."--This was a severe

conveniency of water. This custom we infliction, especially when we consider the

find from Matt. Westm. (ad. ann. 1215.) great estimation in which the water of the Nile was held, and the peculiar delight continued even to the time of king John, which the Egyptians expressed in partak

in whose 17th year a famous parliament

was held in a meadow between Staines ing of it. Of this circumstance the follow

and Windsor, called Runemed, the mead ing is a remarkable instance. The water

of counsel, or of the council : from the is immediately fresh, without any brackish intermixture : but the overflowing stream

Saxon word roedan, to consult."— Hody's being then at its height, was deeply im

English Councils, p. 34. pregnated with mud : that, however, did 14. Salutation, Matt. X. 13.—“If the not deter the thirsty mariners from drinking house be worthy, let your peace come upon of it profusely. If I were to live five hun- it; but if it be not worthy, let your peace dred years, I shall never forget the eager- return to you.”—“My guide informs me, ness with which they let down and pulled that in this country, I must not give the up the pitcher, and drank off its contents, Mohammedan salutation ; that if I do so whistling and smacking their fingers, and to a strict mussulman, he has a right to spit calling out tayeep, tayeep, good, good, as in my face, or even to shoot me, and that if bidding defiance to the whole world to if he did happen to return my salutation, produce such another draught. Most of and was afterwards to discover his mistake, the party, induced by their example, tasted he would insist upon my revoking or also of the far-famed waters, and, having returning the peace that he had given me. tasted, pronounced them of the finest relish, This is the law, and it was upon this that notwithstanding the pollution of clay and the Cahir Bey issued the sanguinary promud with which they were contaminated : clamation, (see p. 2010) on finding that he a decision which we never had occasion to had saluted a christian. Even our Saviour, revoke during the whole time of our stay in in opposition to the general tenor of his Egypt, or even since. The water in Alba- doctrine, says, If the house be worthy, &c." nia is good, but the water of the Nile is the — Notes during a Journey to Egypt, Nufinest in the world.”- Richardson's Travels bia, &c. by Sir F. Henniker, &c. p. 267. along the Mediterranean, vol. i. p. 33.

S. B.


account, to follow the example, as if they DUELLING, A CODE OF DISHONOUR.

were real, Wuen the single combat of pugilism and Those who say duelling is a necessary wrestling, or with spears, lances, arrows, evil, to prevent a continual harassing by axes, clubs, and swords, was refined into insult, which the law does not punish, pistoling, it was intended that the diminu. though it deprives a gentleman of the tive and weak should be put on a par with honourable respect which he holds dearer the large and strong man : but an equality than his existence, should refer to the most has not been attained. The knack of hitting polished nations of antiquity, where duelthe mark, acquired in practised firing, toge- ling was unknown, unless solemnly sancther with the natural tone of nerve which tioned by especial order of the king, on a gives one man more steadiness than another, perfect equality. This being abolished, and the yet more unjust inequality in the the modern duellist may as well throw blood-thirsty cruelty, by which one man cogged dice, to see which shall commit may conspire to deprive another almost suicide, be deprived of Christian burial, inevitably of his life, if he is humane and forfeit his estate, and leave an attainder on unsuspecting, place the latter in a situation his posterity. decidedly disadvantageous.

When duellists are to fire together, the humane, raising his arm and firing at once, it is most probable, according to human judg- I have lately witnessed a new effort, conment, that he does not hit his opponent: tributing to raise the poor of Ireland from the murderous villain is deliberate; he their miserable condition. Dr. Adam glances his eye on the sight of his pistol, Clarke, supplied with means by benevolent and covers his mark; he has practised friends in England, has opened six schools firing, and been in former duels, which for about seven hundred children, in the gives to him a mechanical courage. A neighbourhood of Port Stuart, as the comtruly brave man may not possess such mencement of a great work, which will be steady coolness in his first duel, from the extended when the funds are enlarged, on novelty of the situation ; besides, a gentle- experiencing the utility of the plan. man of humanity, who is forced into a duel, The Catholic Schools in Ireland are considers the death of his opponent as a chiefly confined to the ritual and ceremonial misfortune, which would always recur to acts of their religion.— The Kildare Place his memory with unspeakable anguish, both Institution, supported by Parliament, is on for the individual and his family; and he the Quaker form, of excluding catechisms, probably fires wide of his mark, or care or stated comments on the Scripture. lessly, giving his opponent a great proba The London Hibernian Readers of the bility of escape, or perhaps he does not fire Scriptures, in the Irish language, sow the at all. The deliberate aim of the blood- good seed; but they have not opportuthirsty may be still more certain, when one nities to attend to its growth and fruitfulis to fire after the other.

ness; and the Sunday-school Society have The inexperience of a second may cause but a short time from the duties of the his friend to be murdered by the art of the day, and have also six days to one against other second, who arranges the signal, and them. gives his friend an advantageous explana The education wanted in Ireland is, to tion of it. Duelling is no longer a lottery— make the idle industrious ; the careless there can be no fair play, for the most punctual ; the dirty feet and face to be honourable parties have an unfair inequa- washed ; the matted hair to be combed ; lity.

the ragged clothing to be repaired; the If this fact be established, that there can habit of indulging the imagination, often not be equality in duelling, that the oppo- producing lies with intent to deceive and nents are not on equal terms, and are liable defraud, to be supplanted by an accuracy to treacherous assassination by foul play, of speech, from the proper exercise of the duelling will fall into disuse, as pugilism on memory and judgment, under the influence wagers, which has been declining, since it of the fear of God, which is called telling appeared that the victory may be decided, truth. They want also to be taught to avoid not on the ability of the competitors, but stealing, doing mischief, robbing, quarrelling on a secret conspiracy to defraud the gam- and fighting, cursing, and slandering. All blers on one side, by a fictitious termina- depart from these vices, who are under the tion of the contest.

influence of true religion : but a loving Many duels are fictitious, yet they lead obedience to the precepts of the gospel, foolish young men, by the newspaper can only be impressed on infant minds by


those who experience it themselves. This Iis usual sleep of six hours is frequently is the first principle of Dr. Clarke's schools; abridged one half

, and his food often seems and accordingly he selects young men, who less than would support life. When to are not only qualified to teach the course his taste, in his native land, it is of the which is most useful to the advancement of plainest kind, such as boiled meal and milk the children in this life, but, by prayer and for breakfast, fish for dinner, and for supper, exhortation they become acquainted with potatoes peeled by his own hand. He has their · Father which is in Ileaven, pray to purchased a bathing lodge in Port Stuart, him, and sing those thanksgiving, suppli- from whence he can visit those schools, cating, and penitential verses, which out and extend his labours. The only use of of the mouths of infants are ordained unto this communication is, to invite your praise.

readers to share more immediately in the These teachers are not only regular pleasure with which they peruse it, by conMethodist local preachers, by which means sidering whether their bounty, which very each school becomes a chapel, but they properly extends to the ends of the earth, visit the parents, and hold prayer-meetings may not also be usefully dispensed to their in all the neighbouring hamlets of this po- destitute fellow-countrymen, who are for pulous country, which seems alike deserted the most part fellow-protestants; but who by a christian ministry and by school are destitute, because they are scattered masters, in consequence of the habitations and remote from the places of instruction, being scattered thinly over a wide-extended and have no hope but from those who surface of desolate moors, unreclaimed peat have zeal to penetrate the recesses of their moss, or ranges of broad stony mountains, neglected districts, and humility to gather whose valleys of peat seldom afford a shrub, two or three in the name of the Lord, who tree, or thorn-bush ; and the unfrequented has promised to be in the midst of them. roads, perilous to the frail car, which is the Colerain, May 1831.

S.T. best vehicle in use, make these neglected regions almost inaccessible.

The establishment of these schools was eminently aided by the Rev. Mr. Harper, CONSIDER a slight cold to be in the nature an indefatigable friend to education, in of a chill, caught by a sudden contact with the Methodist connection. No sectarian your grave, or, as occasioned by the damp bigotry opposed this divine work; the finger of death laid upon you, as it were to gentlemen who own the estates offered mark you for his, in passing to the more houses, and some are building school- immediate object of his commission. Let

this be called croaking, and laughed at as As soon as the most necessitous and such, by those who are wearied of the populous situation was chosen, a house painful round of life, and are on the lookgranted, a schoolmaster selected, and books out for their dismissal from it; but be were provided, Dr. Clarke appointed a day learned off by heart, and remembered as to open the school, and admit the children. having the force and truth of gospel, by all As the cars approached, the children were those who would measure on their span upon seen pouring down the hills, and crossing the earth, and are conscious of any constithe boos, to the place appointed, attended tutional Haw or feebleness ; who are disby their parents and neighbours. These, tinguished by any such tendency deathDr. Clarke addressed on the duties of ward as long necks, narrow chicken chests, parents and children, in such appropriate very fair complexions, requisite sympalanguage as riveled their attention. When thy with atmospheric variations, or, in the school or barn could not contain the short, exhibit any symptoms of an asthassembly, they were collected in the open matic or consumptive character, if they air, and, if circumstances allowed, there was choose to neglect a slight cold. Let not prayer, and hymns were sung; and when those complain of being bitten by a reptile Dr. Clarke invited them to enter the school which they have cherished to maturity in of Christ, in which he had been a scholar their very bosoms, when they might have for fifty years, the sound of the gospel, un crushed it in the egg! Now, if we call a heard before in such places, produced many slight cold, the egg; and pleurisy, inflamweeping eyes and believing hearts. mation of the lungs, asthma, consump

Dr. Clarke, who is about seventy years tion, the venomous reptile-the matter will old, retaius the activity of youth; his white be more than correctly figured. There are hair, vermil complexion, blue suit, and many ways in which this egg may be delong black boots, add to his characteristic posited and hatched. Going suddenly, figure a singularly venerable appearance. slightly clad, from a heated into a cold




1 Cor. xiii. 12.

atmosphere, especially if you can contrive the most delicate and refined emotions of to be in a state of perspiration ; sitting or one mind can be transmitted, or, if we may standing in a draught, however slight; it is so speak, transfused into another.” By the the breath of death, reader, and laden with movements of the tongue, and the modulathe vapour of the grave ! Lying in damption of the organs, certain articulations are beds--for there his cold arms shall em- produced as symbols of external objects, brace you ; continuing in wet clothing, and and of the ideas passing in the mind. neglecting wet feet-these, and a hundred These symbols, or, as we call them, words, others, are some of the ways in which you are understood and recognized in their may slowly, imperceptibly, but surely che- several distinct societies. The word, as rish the creature, that shall at last creep soon as uttered by the speaker, enters the inextricably inwards, and lie coiled about ear of the person addressed, and instantayour very vitals. Once more again !- neously awakens the idea intended to be again-again- I would say, attend to this, conveyed. Here is first a vibration caused all ye who think it a small matter to 'neg- by the tongue in its articulation, and then lect a slight cold !Diary of a late Phy- its action on the membranes of the ear, by sician.

which thought is with the rapidity of lightning communicated from one mind to another.

With respect to the words of a language, they seem originally to have been borrowed from a supposed resemblance in sound to

those objects they symbolize. From the “Now we see through a glass darkly.".

root whence they sprang, they have rami.

fied so amazingly, and with such nice disMan is compounded of mind and matter. tinctions, that it is often difficult to discover Each of these, though essentially opposite their origin. Such then being the rise of in their nature, blends with the other in a languages, it is evident that not only the mysterious though beautiful union. The passions and feelings, but the operations of mind is the great agent in this material the mind, can only be described by those machine, giving animation to an otherwise articulations which bear a supposed resemsenseless, though exquisite organization. blance to sensible objects. Thought is emOn the other hand, the material frame of bodied in a material form when we would man is the vehicle of the mind; and, communicate with others, or obtain infor. through the various sensations and agencies mation ourselves. By this it is evident how of matter, mind holds communication with incomplete must be the transfer of thought mind, opening a grateful intercourse to that in the first place, and how comparatively nobler part of our being, which would indistinct must be its comprehension ! Yet otherwise be imprisoned during its pro. habit has so reconciled us to this defect, batory state. We cannot then sufficiently that we scarcely perceive it. adore the wisdom and goodness of Him of thinking, likewise, being carried on in who created us, mingling mind and matter, those vehicles of speech we most use, must that man might not be an isolated being, suffer in some degree from the shackling and so forming us, that our passions, seated influence placed upon it. But it seems in a material frame, might be regulated inseparately connected with our being, that by reason in that manner which would best we should understand nothing but by mapromote our happiness. Reflecting on the terial representation, and that we should importance and consequence of this union; not be able to convey our ideas to one anin the present essay we will glance at the other, but through the same medium. connection now existing between mind and Sallust, when speaking of the soul and matter, and the influence of the latter upon body of man, says “ Alterum nobis cum the former.

diis, alterum cum belluis commune est." In the structure of languages, we may Indeed, his mind imparts to him a conobserve a remarkable exemplification of this nection with the Deity, while his material union. Completely enclosed in its ma form chains him to the earth as a part, terial receptacle, one mind could hold no though the lord, of the animal creation. intercourse with any other, and the know With the latter be leads a sensible existence, ledge of every one would consequently be and goes through all the gradations of naexceedingly limited ; but a most facile and ture, subject to the same passions, though ingenious communication is opened by different in refinement and degree. But means of speech. In the words of Blair, with the former he is enabled to compre. “ Language is become a vehicle, by which hend the relation between cause and effect, 2D SERIES, No. 11.- VOL. I.


155.--VOL. XIII.

The process

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