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and of its causes. The following particulars themselves without assistance, which was imare chiefly extracted from the Manchester mediately rendered by their comrades. ; Guardian, with some additions from the The company consisted of seventy-four Manchester Chronicle.
officers and privates ; and of these about A very serious and alarming accident oc- sixty, including one officer (Lieutenant Fitzcurred on Tuesday, April 12th, 1831, in the gerald,) were upon the bridge at the time; fall of the Broughton suspension bridge, the remainder had not reached the bridge, erected a few years ago, by John Fitzgerald, and were left standing on the Broughton Esq. whilst a company of the 60th Rifles side, when the bridge gave way, Lieut. were passing over it; and, although fortunately Fitzgerald being on a line with the leading no lives were lost, several of the soldiers re file, had nearly reached the Pendleton side, ceived serious personal injuries, and damage where of course the inclination of the roadwas done to the structure, which will require way was not so great as it was nearer the a long time and a very considerable expense Broughton side. He, and a few of the men to repair.
near him, did not fall from the bridge, being It appears that on the day when this acci merely thrown down on the road-way, but dent happened, the 60th regiment had had upwards of forty men were either precipia field-day on Kersall Moor, and about 12 tated into the water, or thrown with great o'clock were on their way back to their violence against the side-chains of the bridge. quarters. The greater part of the regiment Of these, more than twenty received injuries is stationed in the temporary barracks in of different kinds, six were so much hurt that Dyche-street, St. George's Road, and took it was found necessary to procure two carts the route through Strangeways; but one (some of the men being taken out on one company, commanded, as it happened sin side and some on the other), for the purpose gularly enough, by Lieut. P. S. Fitzgerald, of sending them to the barracks. Four ofthem, the son of the proprietor of the bridge, being whose injuries are of a very serious nature, stationed at the Salford barracks, took the still (April 16th) remain in the hospital. road over the suspension bridge, intending As the bridge, in the inclined position to go through Pendleton to the barracks. into which it was thrown by the accident, Shortly after they got upon the bridge, the blocked up a considerable portion of the men, who were marching four abreast, found water-way of the river, and it would inevitthat the structure vibrated in unison with the ably have been carried away in case of a measured step with which they marched ; food,-a number of men were promptly and as this vibration was by no means un. set 10 work, to dismantle the flooring at the pleasant, they were inclined to humour it by end which had fallen down, which has been the manner in which they stepped. As they completely effected ; and preparations are proceeded, and as a greater number of them now making to repair the injury which the got upon the bridge, the vibration went on structure has received from this alarming acincreasing until the head of the column bad cident, and at the same time to remedy some nearly reached the Pendleton side of the defects in its construction, by which the risk river. They were then alarmed by a loud of future accident will be avoided. sound something resembling an irregular dis Causes of the Accident.--As we conceive charge of fire-arms; and immediately one the public have a right to be fully informed of the iron pillars supporting the suspension with respect to the causes of an accident of chains, viz. that which was to the right of the this alarming nature, we have made some soldiers, and on the Broughton side of the particular inquiries on the subject, the results river, fell towards the bridge, carrying with of which we shall lay before our readers; it a large stone from the pier to which it not only that they may form an opinion upon had been bolted. Of course, that corner of this particular case, but also that they may the bridge, having lost the support of the be enabled to judge how far it is calculated pillar, immediately fell to the bottom of the to render doubtful the security of structures river, a descent of about sixteen or eighteen of this kind,-a considerable number of feet; and from the great inclination thereby which have now been erected in different given to the road-way, nearly the whole of parts of the kingdom. the soldiers who were upon it were precipi Immediately after the accident, it was distated into the river, where a scene of great covered to have arisen from the breaking of confusion was exhibited. Such of them as one of the chains, by which the iron pillars were unhurt got out as well as they could, supporting the bridge are stayed and supsome by scrambling up the inclined plane ported; and which chains, as our readers which the bridge presented, and others by are no doubt aware, are carried to some diswading out on the Broughton side; but a tance on each side of the river, and secured number were too much hurt to extricale to a great mass of masonry sunk into the
ground. By the breaking of this chain, the But although the immediate cause of this pillar was of course deprived of its support, accident was, the vibration arising from the and the weight of the bridge immediately measured step of the soldiers, it is not at all drew it from its situation, as we have already probable that so small a number as were described. It remains, then, to ascertain the present on the occasion would have brought cause of the failure of the chain. There is down the bridge, unless there had been no doubt that the immediate cause was the errors of the most glaring description compowerful vibration communicated to the mitted in its construction, as well as somebridge by the measured and uniform step of thing very faulty in a part at least of the mathe soldiers. If the same, or a much larger terials of which it was composed. number of persons had passed over in a The main links of which the chains are comcrowd, and without observing any regular posed consist of two round bars of iron, two step, in all probability the accident would inches in diameter, and about five feet long; not have happened, because the tread of one these are joined together by means of three person would have counteracted the vibra- short links and two bolts. This is obviously tion arising from that of another. But the a very good and strong joint; for the bolts, soldiers all stepping at the same time, and being held both in the middle and at each at regular intervals, communicated, as we end by the short links, would resist an enormentioned in describing the accident, a mous tension on the main links, and could powerful vibration to the bridge, which went not easily give way, unless they were in a on increasing with every successive step; manner shorn asunder. This excellent mode and which, causing the weight of the bridge of joining the links, however, appears to to act with successive jerks on the stay-chains, have been strangely departed from, and one had a more powerful effect upon them than of a very inferior description adopted, prea dead weight of much larger amount would cisely where the strain was the greatest, and have had, and at length broke one of the where the greatest strength ought to have cross bolts by which the links of the chain been employed, namely, in each of the stayare joined together. Perhaps this accident, chains or land-chains by which the whole alarming and injurious as it has been, may weight of the bridge is supported. Those have the effect of preventing some more chains, as we have already mentioned, are dreadful catastrophe in other quarters. From fastened to large masses of masonry beneath what has happened on this occasion, we the surface of the ground, and this fastening should greatly doubt the stability of the great is made, in each case, by means of a large Menai bridge (admirable as its construction disk of cast-iron, to which the first link of is), if a thousand men were to be marched the chain is bolted. That link, instead across it in close column, and keeping regu- of being composed, like the others, of two Jar step. From its great length, the vibra- round bars of iron, and joined to the next tions would be tremendous before the head link in the manner above described, is of the column had reached the further side, posed of a strap of iron, about 3} inches and some terrific calamity would be very broad, and is joined to the second link by a likely to happen. If any considerable num bolt unsupported at the extremities. ber of troops should be marched across that Now, it must be very obvious to any perbridge (which, from its being one of the son who has the slightest acquaintance with principal routes to Ireland, is not improba- matters of this kind, that the bolt in this ble), we hope the commanding officer will link, not being supported at the ends as in take the precaution of dismissing his men the one above mentioned, could not offer a from their ranks before they attempt to cross: resistance nearly equal to the former, unless indeed, that precaution should be observed its dimensions were increased. But the bolt by troops crossing all chain bridges, how- used in each case was of the same dimenever small they may be. *
sions, namely, two inches in diameter. The
weakness of the latter joint was also greatly The following remarks on this part of the sub. ject are given in the Manchester Chronicle :-“ It
increased by a circumstance which we can has been stated by some scientific men, and we fully concur in the opinion, that the peculiar manner in rope, the ends of which being fastened to opposite which the soldiers marched whilst on the bridge walls, should be inuch agitated in the centre, its had no slight share in causing the accident. Before motion would be far more violent at the ends than they reached the bridge, we are told that they were in auy other part. walking at ease,' but when they heard the sound “It will not be irrelevant here to state, that the of their own footsteps upon it, one or two of them rifle party, when they passed over the bridge in the involuntarily began to whistle a martial tune, and morning, walked across it in an easy manner, withthey all at once, as if under a command from their out using the military march; that several waggons officer, commenced a simultaneous military step. traversed it the same inorning; and that the Royal This uniform motion naturally gave great agitation Artillery, under the command of Major Chester, to the bridge, the violent effects of which would be whilst stationed in this towni, regularly crossed it most severely felt at each end. As a familiar illus. with horses, guns, &c. when on their way to and tration of our meaning, we may remark, that if a from Kersall Moor."
probably explain to our readers. The bars the bridge, having been concealed under forming the link being round, only a very ground, was not seen by the author of the small portion of their surface touched the paper, and of course was not mentioned in bolt; and as they were two inches in diame it. In an appendix to his paper, Mr. Hodg. ter, the point of contact was an inch distant kinson strongly enforces the necessity of from the side of the iron strap to which they proving by a very high test, the chains used were joined by the bolt. The tension of the in the construction of bridges of this kind; chain therefore might be considered as act and he details a variety of experiments for ing on the bolt with a leverage of an inch; the purpose of showing that a test of this and, under those circumstances it was not kind does not, as is generally supposed, at all surprising that the bolt should give way. diminish the strength of the metal in any Indeed it is probable that, even had it been sensible degree. The accident which has iron of a fair average quality, the joint would just occurred will go far to bear out this sugnot have borne more than one-fourth, or per. gestion. If the different parts of the Broughhaps one-fifth of the tension which the ton bridge had been carefully and adequately other joints would bear.
proved before its erection, no such joint as that But the bolt, instead of being good metal, which gave way could ever have existed in it. was composed of iron which was either It has been suggested to us by a friend, originally bad, or had been rendered brittle that great advantage would probably result by mismanagement in the process of forging if a system of periodical inspection of susthe bolt. It broke with a granular and pension bridges by eminent engineers were crystalline fracture, exactly like that of cast- adopted by the proprietors of the bridges. iron, and did not exhibit anything of the In order to render the plan effectual, it would fibrous appearance of good iron. Under be requisite that the results of the periodical these circumstances, the wonder is, not that examination of every part of each bridge on the bridge should have given way now,
but which its stability depends, should be pubthat it should have stood a single week, after lished, on the authority of the engineer emits erection.
ployed, and for the correctness of which he We understand it is intended to remedy should be considered responsible. By this the defect to which we have alluded, not only means the attention of all parties concerned, in the chain which has given way, but in all to the most important points of construction the other stay chains, in which it equally in chain bridges, would be kept alive; acci. exists; and there can be then no doubt that dents arising from defective materials, or the bridge will be of abundant strength to accumulated strains upon them, would be bear any load which is likely to pass over it. anticipated, and great security attained by
A defect occurred a long time ago in the the constant responsibility of the inspectors. disk or plate with which the bolt was connected, and the necessary repairs were lately made, under the superintendence of Mr.
ON THE EVIDENCE FROM SCRIPTURE, THAT
THE SOUL, IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE Stephenson, a gentleman possessing exten
DEATH OF THE BODY, IS NOT IN A STATE sive knowledge in mechanics, and who resides on Mr. Fitzgerald's estate. It is due OF SLEEP, ETC.—NO. VI. to him to state, that the plate and bolt have
(Continued from p. 325.) been minutely examined, and the fact has III. “There are also particular doctrines been clearly established, that the accident was contained in the Sacred Writings, which caused solely by the fracture in the bolt, the lead to the establishment of this truth, that plate being as sound and firm as on the day the soul of man, immediately after death, on which it was attached to the masonry. enters on a separate state.” These are, the
Before closing this article, we may ob. doctrines of regeneration-sanctificationserve, that some very excellent papers on union to Christ-and the resurrection. chain bridges (one of them on this particular 1. Regeneration is expressed in scripture structure), have been read at the Literary by different metaphors.
It is called a and Philosophical Society in this town, by being." born again,” John iii. 3, "a new Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson, and, we understand, creation," 1 Cor. v. 17, “the new man,” are likely to appear in the forthcoming Eph. iv. 24.
These allusions evidently volume of the Transactions of that Society, imply a change of principle and practice In the paper on the Broughton bridge, some in the subjects of regeneration. As every defects in its construction were pointed out, practical doctrine has some reason assigned and particularly the insufficient strength of why it is enforced, so we find a convincing the stay-chains, as compared with that of reason why this doctrine is so impressively the suspension-chains; but the particular de inculcated in the word of God.
« Except fect which principally led to the failure of a man be born again, he cannot see the
kingdom of God," John iii. 3. Though work, which makes the believer meet for some critics translate the latter part of this heaven, can we indulge the inconsistent verse, “the reign of God,” yet, in the fifth notion, that the Author of our salvation verse it evidently means the heavenly state, would demolish this work at death, by “ Except a man be born of water and of the throwing the soul into a somniferous dunSpirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God;" geon, or by petrifying its ethereal qualities ?
- vice versa; if a man be born again, he can The apostle informs us, that sanctification is enter the kingdom of God. Understanding the the direct medium through which we must phrase "the kingdom of God” to mean the arrive at salvation, 2 Thess. ii. 13. But heavenly state, as St. Paul does in 1 Cor. vi. 9, by salvation he means, a deliverance from the legitimate inference is, that regeneration sin and hell, and the immediate enjoyment is an absolute requisite for that state ; or, of Christ and death; therefore, as soon as that the design of regeneration is to prepare the work of their salvation is complete, for the heavenly state. But those who are believers will enjoy the immediate presence regenerated do not enjoy that state while of Christ in heaven, without being subject to upon earth, neither can they enjoy it at an intermediate state of sleep or insensibility. death, if their souls, immediately after being 3. In speaking of the union between the separated from their bodies, fall on sleep, church and himself, our Lord says, “I am and become insensible. This state of sleep the vine, ye are the branches ; abide in me, would make a chasm between the fitness and I in you,” John xv. 4, 5. The perand the enjoyment; but as the oracles of manency of this union is expressed in these God mention no such chasm, the soul must, words, “ I give unto my sheep eternal life; immediately at death, enter upon that state and they shall never perish, neither shall for which regeneration fits it.
any pluck them out of my hand,” John 2. Sanctification is another doctrine, which x. 28. The continuance of this union after has a tendency to establish the truth of death, he also unequivocally asserts: “Ig go what is now advocated. By sanctification, to prepare a place for you, that where I am, is meant that progressive work of grace in there you may be also,” John xiv. 2, 3. the believer's soul, which commences in If the believer is united to Christ, and must regeneration, and fits it for the heavenly be where he is, that is, in heaven, then it evistate. This doctrine is implied in the dently follows, that as the body of the believer, seventeenth article of the church,“ They be after death, is deposited in the earth, his called according to God's purpose, by his soul must ascend to heaven, where Christ is. Spirit working in due season ; they, through 4. The doctrine of the resurrection miligrace, obey the calling ; they be justified tates against the sleeping system. All shall freely; they be made sons of God by be raised at the last day by the power of adoption ; they be made like the image of Jesus Christ : “Since by man came death, his only begotten Son Jesus Christ; they by man came also the resurrection of the walk religiously in good works; and at dead : for as in Adam all die, even so in length, by God's grace, they attain to ever Christ shall all be made alive. But every lasting life.”. “A man is said to be sanc man in his own order : Christ the first tified, when the Holy Ghost doth infuse fruits, afterwards they that are Christ's at into his soul the habits of divine grace, and his coming,” 1 Cor. xv. 21, 23. The make him partaker of the divine nature, allusion in this passage is to the Jews prewhereby he is inwardly qualified to glorify senting the first-fruits of their fields to God, God in a holy life."*
that they might ensure the safety of the This is unquestionably a scriptural doc- harvest. If the analogy be traced, it will trine : “ This is the will of God, even your lead to the conclusion, that, as the firstsanctification," 1 Thess. iv. 3. The agent fruits and the crop continued together till in this work is the Holy Spirit, “God hath the harvest; so believers and Christ will from the beginning chosen you to salvation, continue united till the judgment-day, the through sanctification of the Spirit,” 2 Thes. harvest of the world. Then, by virtue of ii. 13. The instrument which the Spirit this union, the bodies of the saints will be uses, is the word, “ Sanctify them through raised, to be united, together with their the truth, thy word is truth,” John xvii. 17. souls, to their Saviour. The continuity of The progress of this work is compared to this union would be broken, if the soul the increasing light : “The path of the just either slept, or became insensible, immeis as the shining light, which shineth more diately after the death of the body'; for it and more unto the perfect day,” Prov. iv. 18. would be absurd to suppose, that there Believing sanctification to be a preparatory can be any union between a Divine Being
and an insensible spirit. • Bishop Hopkins on Baptism.
ANECDOTES OF THE CALIPH HAROON AL
not the elect to remain in error*, the sparks RASHEED, THE GRAND VIZIER GIAFFAR, of truth were lighted up in his mind, and AND THE FAMILY OF THE BERMEKI. the glory of his state received new splendour
from the refulgent graces of Islaam. With Who has not heard of the Caliph Haroon his family and effects he emigrated to Daal Rasheed, even in this cold foggy western mascus, then the capital of the Ommiad climate of ours, of his adventures and mid- Caliphs. When he was introduced to Solinight rambles through Bagdad, with his man, the colour of the prince changed, and constant attendants, the Grand Vizier Giaffar, he commanded Jaffier to be turned out of and Mesroor, the chief of his eunuchs ? the palace. The courtiers inquiring the What Charlemagne is to the French, Arthur reason of this order, the Caliph said, “ He to the English, and Orlando to the Italian, has poison about him, and therefore I Haroon al Rasheed is to the Eastern story- ordered him to be dismissed. I have two teller. His name forins the talisman of stones in a bracelet upon my arm, which, attention, from the sandy desert of Arabia if any one near me has poison with him, to the fertile plains of Syria; the camel- from their peculiar nature have a tremulous driver cheats the desert of its gloom, and motion.” Jaffier was questioned, and owned the road of its length, by a legend of Haroon; that he had under his seal ring a subtle the peasant of Syria forgets his bondage, poison, for the purpose of destroying bimand eats his hard fare with a double relish, self, by sucking it, in any case of intolerif seasoned with a tale of Haroon. From able distress. Hence he obtained the surthe Nile to the Indus, and from Constan
name of Bermek, from the Persian verb, tinople to Mocha, his praise is on the lips bermukkeedun, which means to suck. of the poets. Haroon is spoken of in the After this explanation, Jaffier was taken tent of the Bedouin, and the gilded halls of into great favour by Soliman, who made Istamboul ; in the thirsty deserts of Kohes- him master of the mint, in which office he tan, and the well-watered gardens of Da- brought the national coin to such a state of mascus; the coffee-houses of Cairo, and purity, as to exceed that of all the surrounding bazaars of Aleppo, equally resound with his nations. The family of the Bermeki were name; and Arabs, Copts, Jews, Persians, held in high respect during the reigns of the and Turks, unite in listening to the adven- Ommiads, and the house of Mirwaun ; tures of this hero. Notwithstanding all this under the Abasside princes they were pro. celebrity, Haroon al Rasheed was a mere moted to the highest offices in the state, but tyrant, as the following short history of his did not rise to their greatest eminence till chief favourite, most affectionate friend, and the reign of Haroon al Rasheed, the 24th brother-in-law, the Grand Vizier Giaffar, Caliph, and fifth prince of the house of will shew.
Abbas, who succeeded to the throne in the Giaffar or Jaffier, equally celebrated with year of the Hegira, 170, A.D. 786. his master, in that popular collection of Khalid, son of Jaffier, had only one son, Oriental tales, known throughout all Europe Yiah, who was renowned for his munifiunder the title of the Arabian Nights Enter cence and integrity, and became preceptor tainments, was descended from an illustrious to the young Haroon. Yiah had four sons, Persian family, one of whom took shelter Fuzzul, the celebrated Jaffier, more comin the court of Soliman, the 12th Caliph, at monly known under the name of Giaffar, the commencement of the 8th century, and Mahummed, and Mouseh. Fuzzul was esgave origin to the family of the Bermeki, teemed the most generous, but was of so celebrated all over the East for their baughty demeanour; and it is related, that generosity, magnificence, and distinguished a confidential friend once asking him how he patronage of literature and the arts. The could join offensive pride with such boundfollowing is the account given by various less liberality, he replied, “I learned in my Arabian historians, and especially by Akh- youth both qualities from Amara Bin Humwund Meer, (called by European writers When my father, before his promotion, Khondemir,) in his work. entitled, “ Hub- farmed the revenues of certain provinces, beeb al Seer," i.e. The Beauties of History, the then vizier suddenly summoned him of the origin of this illustrious family : to Bagdad, and demanded of him the ba
Jaffier, the father of Khalid, surnamed lance of his accounts before they were due. Bermek, traced his descent from the an. He raised all the money in his power, but cient monarchs of Persia. He, like his still four millions of deenars were wanting. ancestors, was in the early part of his life My father knew that no one could advance an adorer of fire, and officiated at the firetemple in the city of Balkh; but suddenly,
• The Mohammedans universally liold the docby the decree of divine mercy, which suffers trine of election, like the Calvinists of Europe.