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memory of the

say service. The rules given for the eleva. Origin of Titles of Distinction of Classes, &c.- From

Bracion, Selden, and Blackstone ) - Dukes, Duces, Com lion and depression of the voice, are simple manders or leaders of armies. Marquises : From the

Teutonic word marene, limit or frontier; Officers of and easily to be understood, and this is no

dignity commanding on or guarding the frontiers. contemptible recommendation.

Earl: Ealderman, senior, or senator. Schireman, go

vernor of a county. Comes : also vice-comes, or vis13, A Discourse on the Death of the Baron : the most general and universal appellate Rev. Robert

lation or title. In our elder law books, husband, or Hall, M.A., by the

master of a house, as baron and femme; afterwards Rev. F. A. Cor, LL.D., (Westley, Lon citizens or townsmen, about 700 or 800 years ago.

The citizens or townsmen, for instance, of London don) like several we noticed in our pre and the Cinque Ports, were called barons. After

wards it became confined to lords of a manor, or posceding number, is ably written, and renders

sessors of an estate. in king John's time, we learn a well-earned tribute of respect, to the by Magna Charta, that all lords of manors, or barons, deceased. This sermon,

had seats in the great council. About that time tho confluence of lords of manors, or barons, to the great

council became so large and troublesome, that the king surveys the late worthy minister in various

was obliged to divide them, and summon oply the lights, but in all he shines with a lustre pe great barons in person. By degrees the term came to

be contined to ihe greater barons, or lords of parliaculiarly his own; and from the pen of Dr.

ment. It was not till the reign of Richard II, that it Cox, it has sustained no tarnish.

became a mere title of honor. 14. A Sermon on the Death of the Rev.

Singular Circumstance.-A £5 Bank of England note

was sometime since received by a mercantile house Andrew Thomson, by Thomas Chalmers, in Liverpool, on the back of which was written the folD.D., (Whittaker, London,) would seem

lowing words :-"If this pote gets iuto the hands of

John Dean, of Longhills, near Carlisle, his brother Anto demand more notice than we have time drew is a prisoner in Algiers." The paragraph was

read by a person in Carlisle who knew Andrew to devote to it. Dr. Thomson was well Dean, and is acquainted with his brother John Dean's known when living, and his sudden death,

family, who are residing at Longtown. John Dean's

BOD was in Carlisle on Thursday last, and heard of by creating a sensation which was felt the paragraph from the person alluded to; he called

at this office, in company with a friend, and, from throughout the kingdom, will cause his

what he related of his uncle, there is every reason to name to be remembered through years

apprehend that he is the Andrew Dean" whose

imprisonment in a distant country has by these_sinwhich are yet lodged in futurity. Dr. gular means been made known to his friends in Eng. Chalmers is too well known, to have any

land. Andrew Dean, it appears, was formerly in the

British navy, which he left some time ago, and setthing mentioned but his name. This dis tled in business in Algiers. Communications will be

made to the Liverpool house, and also to Sir James course places the character of the deceased

Graham, to ask his assistance in the interesting in. in an amiable light, both as a theologian

quiry ; but of course the matter cannot be decided

for some time yet.-Carlisle Patriot. and a man. The occasion was one of

The Nightingale.-He that at midnight, when the peculiar solemnity, and as such it has been very labourer sleeps soundly, should hear, as I have

often heard, the clear airs, and the sweet descants, the duly improved.

natural rising and falling, the doubling and redon. 15. The English and Jewish Tithe Sys

bling of her voice, might well be listed above earth,

“Lord, what music hast thou provided for tems, compared in their Origin, Principles, thy saints in Heaven, when thou afførdest bad men

on ? moral, and social Tendencies, by Thomas

Definition of Gentlemanliness."-If I were asked to Stratten, (Holdsworth, London,) points out detine, what this gentlemanliness is, I should say, in almost every respect, a striking dissimi

that it is only to be defined by eramples, of those who

have it, and those who have it not. In life, I should larity between the two systems.

This is

say, that most military men have it, and few naval;

that several men of rank have it, and few lawyers; what the author undertook to establish ; and that is it more frequent among authors than divines in this he has been completely successful.

(when they are not pedants ;) that fencing-masters

have more of it than dancing-masters, and singers The English tithe system he considers as than players; and that (if it be not an Irishism to say

80, is it far more generally diffused among women injurious to agriculture, impolitic, and un than among men. In poetry, as well as writing in favourable to religion. These truths, we

general, it never will make entirely a poet or poem ;

but neither poet nor poem will ever be good for any must admit with the author, have been thing without it. It is the sale of society, and the

seasoning of composition. Vulgarity is far worse than long obvious to all, who have not had some downright blackguardism; for the latter comprehends interest in its preservation; and hence the

wit, humour, and strong sense, at times; while the

former is a sad abortive attempt at all things, “sig. indubitable inference, some reformation is nifying nothing." It does not depend upon low

themes, or even low language, for Fielding revels in necessary.

both; but is he ever vulgar? No. You see the man of education, the gentleman, and the scholar, sporting with his subject ; 'its master, not its slave. Your vul gar writer is always most vulgar the higher his sub

ject, as the man who showed the menagerie at Pid. GLEANINGS.

cock's was wont to say, "This, gentlemen, is the

Eagle of the Sun, from Archangel, in Russia : the Cholera Morbus --The Bengal Chronicle gives the

orterer it is, the igherer he flies."- Lord Byron. following prescription for the cure of cholera: One Merit – Mr. Thom, the Ayrshire sculptor, has reoubce cinnamon water, one grain ipecacuanba, 35

ceived from the Hon, Board of Trustees for manufacdrops of tincture of opium, one drachm spirits of tures and improvements in Scotland, twenty guineas, lavender, and two drachms tincture of rhubarb.

in consideration of the great ingenuity and inventive To be taken at once, and the complaint will be

talent displayed by him in the formation of the statues instantly relieved. We also add the following state.

of Tam O'Shanter and Souter Johnny, ment, given in the words of the Captain of an India Burning of more than Seven Millions of Bank Notes inan, and for the truth of which we are ready to In the repository at Woolwich, among the curious vouch : “ The ship's crew being seized with the relics, may be seen a clinker, which is all that re

cholera, four died in a few hours. To arrest its mains of the badk-notes consumed when the oneprogress, twenty drops of laudanum were given in pound notes were put down. They were destroyed

å wine glass of brandy, as soon as the men felt in a furnace built for the occasion. The number " the attack. In violent cases the dose was speedily repeated; and the happy result was, that out of

burned daily averaged 144,000; it occupied thirteen

months, and the nominal value of the bank notes wag sixty individuals affected, only two died !"-Editor. £7,500,000.- Sunday Times.

and say,

Dreams.-Dreams are sometimes exceedingly ob. scure, and float like faint clouds over the spirit. We can then resolve them into nothing like shape or con. sistence, but have an idea of our minds being filled with Jim and impalpable imagery, which is so feebly impressed upon the tablet of inemory, that we are un. able to innbody it in language, and communicate its likeness to others. At other times, the objects of sleep are stamped with almost supernatural energy. Indeed, they are usually represented with far greater strength and distinctness than events which have had an actual existence. The dead, or the absent, whose appearances to our faculties had become faint and obscure, are depicted with intense reality and truth. We see them stand before us: and even their voices, which had become like the echo of a forgotten song, are recalled from the depths of oblivion, and speak lo us as in former times. Dreams, therefore, have the power of brightening up the dim regions of the past, and presenting them with a force which the mere efforts of upassisted remembrance could never have accomplished in our waking hours. lo speaking of the dead, we have a striking instance of the absence of surprise. We almost ever wonder at beholding individuals whom we yet know, in our dreams, to have eveo been buried for years. We see them among us, and hear them talk, and associate with them on the footing of fond companionship. Still the circumstance does not strike us with wonder, nor do we attempt to account for it. Frequently, however, we are not aware that the dead wbo appeared before us are dead in reality. They still seem alive as when they walked on earth, only all their qualities, whether good or bad, are exaggerated by sleep. If we hated them while in life, our animosity is now exaggerated to a double degree. If we loved them, our affection becomes more passionate and intense than ever. Under these circumstances, many scenes of most ex. quisite pleasure often take place. The slumberer supposes himself enjoying the communionship of those who were dearer to him than life, and has far more intense delight than he could have experienced, had these individuals been in reality alive, and at his side.- Macnish's Philosophy of Sleep.

Bell Rock.-During the late gales, it has not been possible for the tender to approach the Bell Rock dur. ing four weeks, or two sets of spring-lides. On being visited the other day, the light keepers report that large stones (which they term travellers) have been thrown upon the rock from deep water, and that a con. siderable shelf, of eighteen inches in thickness, has been lifted off Smith's Ledge." Since the comple. tion of the lighthouse in 1810, several such indications have been given that this sunken reef has at one time been an island, and that its wasle is still in progress. -Scotsman.

Provoking Carefulness.- Linnæus, the celebrated botanist, conceived the idea of propagating the cochi. Deal insect in Europe ; and, after many fruitless efforts, he at length succeeded in obtaining, through the medium of one of his pupils, who was in Mexico, a nopal, (a species of fig tree on which the insect is bred.) covered with cochinellus. The plant arrived at C psal, at a moment when he was busily engaged; but his gardener immediately planted it, and cleaned it so effectually of what he imagined to be vermin, that when Linnæus hastened to view this rare acqui. sition he did not find, a single insect alive.- History of Ancient Institutions, &c.

Origin of the Phraise" Spick and Span New."-But. ler in his Hudibras," says," Mr Ray observes, that this proverbial phrase, according to Mr. Howel, comes from spica, or ear of corn; but rather says he, as I am informed from a better author, spike is a sort of nail, and spawon the chip of a boat; so that it is all one as to say, every chip and nail is new, But I am humbly of opinion, that it rather comes from a spike which sigoiies a nail, and a nail in measure is the sixteenth part of an yard; the span, which is in measure a quarter of a yard, or nine inches; and all that is meant by it, when applied to a new suit of clothes, is, that it has been just measured from the piece by the nail and span.

Wholesome Advice.- Beaus: When bent on matri. mony, look more than shin deep for beauty, dive far. ther than the pocket for teorth ; and search for temper beyond the good humour of the moment;-remember. ing it is not always the most agreeable partner at a ball, who forms the most amiable partner for life

“Their virtues open fairest in the shade.” Belles : Be not led away by each gay meteor of a spark, or too readily yield your hearts to an elegant and agreeable exterior ; for the serpent is often am. bushed beneath the fairest flowers. Let not your reason be blinded by love, or your sense enslaved by passion. After all, seek not to make captives by personal accomplishments alone, nor trust too much ioan enchanting face," for recollect

“Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul."

An American Monster.-The " Baltimore Patriot" mentions that the skeleton of an animal of prodigious size was lately discovered, at the Big Bone Lick, in Kentucky. The editor has received the following particulars from a friend, who received them from a gen. tleman who resides near the Lick :-" There are ten or twelve sets of tusks, about four feet loug and three broad ; the tusks were arranged in circular order, as if by the hand of man; within the circle the bones were deposited, which, when placed together, showed the animal to have been, at least, 25 feet high, and 60 feet long. The skull bone alone weighed 400 pounds. They were found by Mr. Finney, about 14 feet below the surface of the earth, who has refused 5,000 dollars for them. The skeleton is said to be complete, saving only one or two ribs. When and how this animal existed, remarks the above paper, must batile all speculation. The mammoth himself, 80 long the wonder of these latter times, must dwin. dle into comparative insignificance before this Dewly. discovered prodigy. If carvivorous, a buffalo would scarcely serve him for a meal; and if gradivorous, trees must have been his tender herbage.' - American paper.

A Lake of Genera - The" Furet de Londres" says: “ There was consumed in England last year 24 mil. lion gallons of Gin. An amateur has calculated that, had this immense quantity of liquor escaped from the barrels, it would have former a river a yard deep, 20 yards wide, and five miles in length.

A Chapter not to be found in the Apocrypha.--And in those days there was a great nation, yea, a nation mighty in battle. 2. And the people ihereof were skilful in the working of wool, and of cotton, and of silk, and moreover cunning artificers in brass and in iron. 3. And the land was as the Garden of Eden for fruitfulness, and the numbers of the people were as the sands upon the sea shore. 4. And they had a king to rule over them, and he was called the Father of the People. 5. And besides the king there was a great council, like unto the council of Babel, and it did rule over the king and the people. 6. And the men of the council did call themselves the chosen of the people.

7. Yet the people chose them pot, Deither did they care for the people. 8. And they made a spoil of the people, and laid upon them bur. thens too grievous to be borne. 9. And they listened Dot to the cry of the needy, neither did the prayer of the wretched find favour in their sight. 10. But they made light of their sufferings, and would not stretch forth the hand to help them. 11. Therefore the people of that country came to the king of the country, and said unto him, "Art not thou our father?" 12. " How long wilt thou suffer those men to spoil and to oppress 08? Come thou up to our help that we may rid our. selves of them. 13. And the king of the constry was wroth because of the oppression of his people, and he rose up hastily, to sweep the evil-doers from the face of the land. 14. And all the people followed him crying out with a loud voice, "God save the king!

Breakfast in the Reign of Henry VIII-Some cen. turies since, ale and wine were as regularly a part of a breakfast, in England, as tea and coffee are at present, and even for ladies. The Earl of Northumberland, in the reign of Henry VIII. lived in the fol. lowing manner :-"On flesh days through the year, breakfast for my lord and lady was a loaf of bread, two manchets, a quart of beer, a quart of wine, half a chine of mutton, or & chine of beef, boiled. On meagre days, a loaf of bread, two manchets, a quart of beer, a quart of wine, a dish of butter, a piece of salt fish, or a disli of buttered eggs. During Lent, a loaf of hread, two manchets, a quart of beer, a quart of wine, two pieces of salt fish, six hacoped herrings, four white herrings, or a dish of sproits.'

Sociability-The Eddystone Lighthouse is built in the British Channel on a rock, which is totally inaccessible in winter, from the boisterous character of the sea in that season, therefore, for the two keepers employed to keep up the lights, all provisions for the winter were necessarily carried to them in autumn, as they could never be visited again until the return of the milder season ; and, on the first practicable day in spring, a boat put off to them with fresh supplies. A boatman once met at the door one of the keepers, and accosted him with a " How goes it, friend?"- Very well." " How is your companion :"-"I do not know." "Don't know! Is not he here?"-1 can't tell." " Have

you seen him to-day?": "No." " When did you see hiro ?"-Not since the last fall." “You have killed him?"- Not I indeed. They were about to lay hold of him as having certainly murdered his companion; but be desired them to go up stairs and examine for themselves. They went up, and there found the other keeper. They had quarrelled, it seems, soon after being left there, had divided into two parties, assigned the cares below to one and those above to the other, acd had pever spoken to por seen one another since. - Jefferson s Memoirs.

Railway Passengers. This portion of the husiness pertaining to that great national undertaking, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, has increased to an extent far beyond the most sanguine expectations of the Company. Last week, including the short distances, 20,000 passengers went along the railway, and of those 16,000 passed along the whole distance between Liverpool and Manchester; and this week, from Sunday to yesterday evening, the astonishing number of nearly 36,000 were booked as passengers, including those at each end.-Manchester Chronicle, June 1th, 1831.

Benevolence.-The Bible Society's income last year was not far short of £100,000. The receipts since its institution excued seven millions.

Extraordinary Peruvian Relic.-There is now exhi. biting in Back King-street, a Peruvian relic of an extraordinary nature, being the entire body of a female, who is supposed to have been buried alive several hundred years ago. The body was accidentally discovered by a Captain Wood, and one or two other English gentlemen, while exploring the country on horseback, about a hundred miles from Arica

The opper part of the head was projecting above the sur. face of the ground, and, on the body being exhumed, it was found to be in a state of the most perfect preservation, although bearing indubitable evidence ihat it must have been interred at a remote period of time. The body, which is that of a full-grown woman, was placed in an inclined position, and was covered with a coarse kind of cloth or matting, which immediately fell to pieces on being exposed to the air. The arms appear to have been pinioned by means of broad bandages, the impressions of which still remain. The legs were folded over the stomach, and bandaged in the same manner. From the distorted state of the muscles of the hands, wrists, ankles, &c. it is sup. posed that she must have been one of those numerous victims to a cruel superstition, who, it is well known, were buried alive on the death of the Incas of Peru, in order, as was blindly imagined, that they might be attended in the other world with the same pomp as before death, and by the same attendants. The features are perfect, and convey a distinct idea of what they were when animated. The hair on the head is abundant and finely preserved, being ingeniously plaited over the shoulders. It seems to have been changed into an amber hue, probably by the action of the sun, The eyebrows and eye lashes are perfect, they teeth firm in their places, the finger and toe-nails entire, the skin whole, and the flesh firm and dry. Several curious relics were dug up along with the body. There is no doubt it must have been preserved by the operation of some natural process; and one conjecture is, that the soil in which is was deposited being much impregnated with saltpeire, the body had also become so thoroughly imbued with that mineral, as to be enabled to resist both the ra. vages of time and the action of the external air.

Dick's Suspension Railcay.-The public have lat. terly heard a good deal respectiog this new application of the tram road principle; the most truly sur. prising point in the novelly being the velocity at which the inventor proposes to carry light vehicles (such as might be found convenient for the transit of a mail) over his aerial road. This velocity he calculates to be sixty miles an hour, at which rate, communications and two individuals would reach London from Liverpool in three hours, reckoping the distance to be conside ably shortened by the straight direction of the road! It may be presumptuous in us to hazard any opinion as to the practicability of this scheme, hnt we will venture to state our thorough conviction, after a minute investigation of the model, and consi. deration of the plan, that it is possible, if not to the extent contemplated above, yet to an extent which will exhibit it as fully deserving of being classed with the common railway. as to the swiftness of conveyance, whilst it has other great advautages over the common road, by not interfering with agricultural and other pursuits (which may be carried on beneath the suspension railway) by the saving in the cost of land, and the decided impossibility of any accident occurring.-Liverpool Chronicle,

To the Labouring Classes. One glass of whiskey per day,.commonly called, by drinking men " their morning," costs (at three halfpence per glass) fico pounds die shillings and screnpence haljpenny yearly! which slim, if laid by, would provide the following clothing, vis --

£. $. d. 'Three yards of cloth, for great coat, at 1s. 4d. per yard

0 7 0 Tko yards and a quarter of cloth, for coat and waistcoat, at 5s. 4d. per yard

0 19 0 Three and a half yards of fustian for trowsers. at ls, per yard

( 3 6 Two neck handkerchiefs

0 171 One hat

.0 5 0 One pair of shoes

0 7 0 Two pairs of stockings

.0 30 Two shirts

0 6 6

Literary Notices.

Just Published.
Part V. Baines's llistory of Lancashire.
Part XXVII. National Portrait Gallery.

Part II. Watkins's Life and Times of England's Patriot King, William the Fourth.

Daily Communiogs, Spiritual and Devotional. Ry Bishop Ilomne. In a small pocket volume.

A Text Book of Popery : comprising a brief history of the Council of Trent. By J. M. Cramp. 1 vol. 12mo.

The Constitution of the Bible Society Defended, in a Letter to the Hon. and Rev. Gerard T. Noel. By Joseph Fletcher, D.D.

A Letter addressed to the lion, and Rev. Baptist W. Noel, occasioned by his speech, deliverea by him at the Anniversary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, on Wednesday, May 4th, 1831. By Fiat Justitia. 8vo.

Second Edition. Recognition in the World to Come, or Christian Friendship on Earth perpeluated in Heaven. C. R. Muston, A.M. 19mo.

The Gardens and Menuserie of the Zoological Society delineated, : vols. 8vo,

Oriental Customs, &c. By Samuel Burder, A.M. Selections from the Poems of W. Wordsworth, Esq. Ecclesiastical History, in a course of Lectures. By William Jones, M.A.

The Life of the Rev. John Wesley, M.A. By Richard Watson.

Omnipotence, a Poem. By R. Jarman. Qd. edition. A Trip to Paris, in verse, By T. S. Allen. Epitome of English. Vol. . Locke. Family Classical Library Vol. XVIII. Horace. Lardner's Cyclopedia. Vol. XIX. Oprice, Brewster. Topography and llistory of the United States of America. Parts 13, 14, 15. By 1, Howard Hinton, A.M.

Anti Slavery Reporter. Nos, 80, and 81.

A Letter, addressed to the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel, occasioned by his Speech at Exeter Hall, May 11th, 1831.

Memorials of the Stuart Dynasty. By R. Vaughan. Divines of the Church of England. By the Rev. T. S. Hughes. Jeremy Taylor, D.D.

Tales of a Physician. By W. H. Harrison. 2d Series. The Pulpit. No. 414.

Authentic Account of the last Illness and Death of the late Rev, Robert Hall, A.M. By J. M. Chandler.

Observations on the probable Cause of Madaess in the Dog. By H. W. Dewhurst, Esq.

Invention of an unfailing Method of Communication in Shipwreck. By J. Murray, F.S.A. &c. &c.

In the Press. Vol. II. of a Concise View of the Succession of Sacred Literature, in a Chronoligical Arrangement of Authors and their Works, from the Invention of Alphabetical Characters, to the Year of our Lord 1415. By J. B. B. Clarke, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Chaplain to H.R.I. the Duke of Sussex.

A Voice from Wellclose.equare. By Joseph Mead, late Secretary to the British and Foreign Seaman's Friend Society.

In one volume, a Series of Tales, describing some of the principal events that have taken place at Paris, Brussells, and Warsaw, during the late Revolutions, with a few other Miscellaneous Pieces. By J. W. N. Bavley, Esq.

A Translation of the New Testament into Hebrew, printed with the Points. Other editions of the same: -lbrey and Elishi, llebrew and Greek, liebrew and German, and lebrew and French.

The long expected Prolegomena, by Professor Lee, in Quarto, is ready for delivery to the Subscribers. Errata-Page 280, line 34, for falls read pallg. 1 col.

51 for did read could, 2 col.

26, for destruction read dis.

traction.

Is not this a much better mode of expending the inoney?

Drunkenness Teught.---The selling of spirits to children has of late become so important a branch of trade in the metropolis, that in some of our splendid and crowded gin shops, glasses for their separate lise are in constant readiness, and "halfpenny and farthings' worth of gio" are regularly applied for by the infant customers.

LONDON: PRINTED AT THE CAXTON PRESS, BY 1. FISHER, SON, AND CO.

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