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second year.

consent, for framing certain resolutions, to “ 10th. That in the register to be kept by be carried into effect for the eventual Eman- the constable, an entry shall likewise be cipation of children born of slaves, held at made by him of the death of every free-born Colombo, on Monday the 15th July, child, upon the information to be given by 1816-thirteen gentlemen present the heads of the family within the same Resolved unanimously—

space of time aforesaid ; and a monthly “ 1st. That all children born of slaves, list thereof shall be transmitted to the sitting from and after the 12th of August next en magistrate's office, to be entered accordingly suing, shall be considered free.

in the general register. “ 2d. That if a female slave be sold, who 11th. That of both the general registers has a child or children born free, they shall of births and deaths, quarterly returns shall go with her into the hands of the new be made to the chief secretary's office. master, if they have not completed their Lastly, resolved unanimously

“That the foregoing resolutions be for“3d. That of all children who have warded to the honourable the chief justice, to passed their second year, it shall be at the be submitted to his excellency the governor, option of the master to return them, not- in order that the same may be made a rule, withstanding the sale of the mother.

under such alterations, amendments, and “ 4th. That all children who are born modifications, as his excellency may deem free shall remain in their masters' house, and expedient for the furtherance of the beneficial serve them without any wages, save and object in view, except their food and raiment, which shall « An additional article proposed, but not be at the expenses of the masters—a male consented to unanimously, with this protill the age of fourteen, and a female till the vision, that it shall be inserted at the end of age of twelve.

the foregoing resolutions, with the signatures “ 5th. That when free-born children have of the members voting itcompleted the fourteenth and twelfth year of “That the free-born children shall, as a their age, as aforesaid, they shall, from that token of their freedom, be brought up in the day since, be emancipated from their habit of their native ancestors, and not wear masters.

any European dress; and be farther taught, “ 6th. That if a master manumits his by such as may be capable of affording it, female slave, who has a free-born child, or to read and write some native language.” children, above two years of age, it shall be Signed by three persons.. at the option of the masters to retain themnamely, the female till the age of twelve, No. 4.-Copy of the answer of the Hon. and the male till the age of fourteen-or Sir Alexander Johnston, to the address allow such child, or children, to follow the of the Dutch special jurymen. mother; in which latter case the mother

Colombo, 21st July, 1816. shall be obliged to support the child or “ Gentlemen ---I have had the honour to children.

receive the resolutions which you have sent “7th. That in case any master, through me by Mr. Kierkenbeek, and by Mr. Prins, manifest poverty, or from the incorrigible and shall with pleasure present them, as you depravity of the free-born children, or for desire me, to his excellency the governor. any other causes, finds himself unable to “ I beg leave to offer you my warmest retain them any longer under his care, ap- congratulations on this interesting occasion. plication shall be made by such masters to The measure which you have unanimously any charitable funds, or the magistrates, adopted does the highest honour to your that they may be otherwise disposed of. feelings. It must inevitably produce a

“ 8th. That, in order to prevent any fraud great and a most favourable change in the to the prejudice of the free-born children, moral habits and sentiments of many diffeall heads of the families in whose houses rent classes of society in this island; and any child of that description is born, shall generations yet unborn will hereafter reflect have the birth of such child registered by with gratitude upon the names of those perthe constables of his division, at least within sons, to whose humanity they will owe the three days thereafter.

numerous blessings which attend a state of “ 9th. That every constable shall, for the freedom. same purpose, open a register, in which “I return you my sincere thanks for the shall be specified the sex and names of the honour you have done me, by making me parents and masters ; and a list thereof shall the channel through which your benevolent monthly be transmitted to the office of the intention is to be communicated to his sitting magistrate, to be entered in a general excellency the governor. As an Englishman, register of the free-born children.

I am bound to feel proud in having my

name associated with any measure which secures the sacred right of liberty to a number of my fellow-creatures.

“I have the honour to be, gentlemen, your most obedient and humble servant,


No. 5.-Copy of the Answer of the Hon.

Sir Alerander Johnston, to the Address presented to him by the Jurymen of the different castes of Natives at Colombo.

Colombo, 220 July, 1816. “Gentlemen-I have had the honour to receive the resolutions which you have respectively passed, declaring your unanimous acquiescence in the measure which has lately been adopted by the Dutch special jurymen.

“ I take the liberty to enclose you, as the best

way of conveying to you the sentiments which I entertain upon the subject, a copy of a letter which I have written to those gentlemen.

“ Allow me to add, that I am fully aware of the anxiety which the jurymen of all castes have shewn to emulate the example set them by the Dutch special jurymen; and that it will be gratifying to the friends of humanity to know, that whatever difference of religion, or whatever difference of caste, may prevail among the persons who are enrolled on the list of jurymen of this place, no difference of opinion has for a moment prevailed among them as to the propriety and justice of the measure in question.

“I have the honour to be, gentlemen, your most obedient and humble servant,


Yes, let us hail the Cocoa-tree,

And all the joys it gives;
To laugh and drink is to be free,
The thought my heart revives.

Oh let us not the gist abuse,

Nor thank the powers amniss ;
Our FREEDOM rightly let us use,

Intemperance is not bliss.
Our groves of Cinnamon we prize,

No islands such possess;
They send their fragrance to the skies,

Their sweets our labours bless.
Yet there's balm of nobler end,

Our spirits to recruit ;
ENGLAND, fair FREEDOM's choicest friend,

Conveys the Sacred FRUIT.
One Tree of sovereign virtue grows,

All other trees excelling;
This Tree all joy and peace bestows

Where'er it makes its dwelling.
Its root is deep, its branches wide,

A Tree to make one wise ;
Beneath its shelter sinners hide,

Its head is in the skies.
There is a Book, contains the leaves

Might heal a dying nation ;
This Book who faithfully receives,
Secures his own SALVATION!

O give us, then, this friendly Tree,

This healing Book produce ;
So shall we give all praise to thee,
If thou wilt shew their use.

Not that rich jaice our Cocoa lends

Such sober joy imparts;
That many a life untimely ends,
This beals the broken hearts.

With riddles puzzle us no more,

But tell us what you mean ;
What is that Tree, what is that Book,
Which you I trust have seen?

Your tree's sweet juice, drunk to excess,

Produces hate and strise;
That Tree which more than all can bless,

Is called the Tree of Life.
The Cocoa's juice distracts the brain,

You crave it o'er and o'er ;
But who this Tree's fair fruit obtain,
Shall thirst, my friends, no more.

Silva, holding out a Bible.
This is the Booy which England sends,

It breaks the chains of sin;
O blest excbange for fragrant groves,

O barter most divine !
It yields a trade of noblest gain,

Which other trades may miss ;
A few short years of care and pain,

For endless, perfect bliss.
This shews our FREEDOM how to use,

To love our daily labour ;
Forbids our time in sloth to lose,

Or riot with our neighbour.
Then let our masters gladly find

A FREEMAN works the faster :
Who serves his God with heart and mind,

Will better serve his master.
When soul and body both are free,

How swift will pass the days:
The sun our cheerful work shall see,
The night our prayer and praise.

Chorus of Cingalcse.
O give us Silva's precious Tree,

We join with one accori;
We'll shew that we indeed are FREE,

Because we serve the LORD. 2 R

151.-VOL. XI.

The lines which follow were written by Mrs. Hannah Moore, to commemorate the abolition of slavery in Ceylon. They are entitled, “ The Twelfth of August, or the Feast of Freedom."

(The three first Stanzas are sung.)

Let's be merry, sing, and play:
This is FREEDOM's holiday.

Bless the day that set us FRRE !
Hail the morn of LIBERTY!
Our children's children still shall meet
Fair FREEDOM's birth to celebrate.

Spread the blessing far and wide;
Care and thought be laid aside ;
Let us drink, rejoice, and sing,
Till with our mirth the valleys ring.

Let's be merry, sing, and play ;
This is Freedom's holiday.

[Song ends.
But e'er our joyful sports begin,

Aright of FREEDOM think; "Tis not a liberty to sin,

A liberty to drink. 2D. SERIES, NO. 7.


In high

O give us Silva's Holy Book,

viewing the motions of the planets, all of With transport we will read ;

which move in the same direction. Consi. There we shall see, where'er we look, The Freeman's Tree indeed!

dered as a sphere, no reason existed, on the SILVA.

day it was formed, why it might not become The Twelfth of August then shall be By us forgotten never ;

as prolific, in respect of vegetation and aniFrom this blest period we are FREE,

mation, as any other orb in the solar family: For ever and for ever! Chorus.

for on this day it did not become the sun, but Bless the day that sets us FREE!

was the central sphere of the system. ConsiHail the moru of LIBERTY!

derably more than a moiety of the created atoms being retained in the centre, where it is probable they were created, economized the

labour in the construction of the universe In Essay No. IV. p. 257, we stated as fol. most materially. If considerably more than lows: “That powerful agent, light, called into half of the materials created by Elohim were exercise, in the hands of the Creator, per consumed in the construction of this single forms wonders; while affinity, attraction, sphere, it is not probable that so large a repulsion, gravitation, with all the progeny portion of this creation would be doomed of light, co-operate, and, under the wisdom to continue, throughout the ages of time, a and power of the Great Operator, produce lump of dead matter, subservient in toto to an expansion of the atoms, and form a fire the other dead matter of the system; and, mament as endurable as time itself. The as will hereafter appear, no such alteration huge mass of atoms becomes many masses, took place in the body or in the atmosphere each assorted and disposed, in infinite wiss of this immense sphere, when the Creator dom, into a sphere, and placed each in an converted it into a great light or sun, as to orbit, at such distances from the central orb, subject this orb to perpetual sterility. It and from each other, as would form due may, therefore, be as fertile, and possess as balances, each, to each and perfect equi- rich abundance of animated creation, as any poise to the whole system.” It now be of the planets. comes our province to particularize these The first planet we shall notice, is that orbs. If all the materials already created whose orbit is nearest to the sun. were on this day brought into use, and every antiquity this wandering orb was called portion thereof had its post assigned, in due Mercury, and it still retains the name. The order, that order ought to be pointed out. diameter of this planet is about three thou

“In the beginning," the sacred volume sand two hundred miles; it is supposed to declares, “God created the heaven and the revolve round its own axis from west to earth. The earth was without form, and east, but in what time, owing to the uniform void, the expansion divided the fluids from smoothness of its surface, has not yet been the Auids, and Elohim denominated the clearly ascertained; and it moves, in the expanse heaven.” Ilere, then, we have the same direction, in an elliptic orbit, round the heaven above, and the earth beneath-a sun, in somewhat less than eighty-eight of division of matter into spheres, and a sepa our days. Its mean distance from the sun ration between these by others, terrestrial is about thirty-seven millions of miles. and celestial. In whatever sphere the ob Launched into the ethereal, by the Great server stands, this is terrestrial; and what- Creator, on this second day of creation, the ever sphere he beholds at a distance, that is day on which He constructed the universe, celestial. The whole expanse, the ethereal, hitherto this nearest neighbour to the sun containing the universe, would therefore be has undeviatingly kept its course; and celestial or heaven, to an observer at the small as it is, compared with that huge mass extremity of any one atmosphere.

of matter, the laws of creation, established The sphere destined to become the Sun of by Infinite Wisdom and Power, have stood the whole system is the largest body in the fast; and it has neither been, by the vast universe; indeed, such is the magnitude of attraction of the immense matter of the sun, this central orb, that it contains a much absorbed by that sphere, nor even impeded larger portion of matter than all the other in its course. That planet which is nearest spheres therein. The attraction of this im. to, and that planet which is the most distant mense mass of matter is calculated to be from, the sun, appear to us in the greatest amply sufficient to retain all the planets in peril : the first, from its immediate vicinity, their several orbits. It moves round its own of being attracted to, and absorbed, in the axis, from west to east, in somewhat less stupendous central orb; and the last, from than twenty-six of our days, and the influ- its immense distance, of losing this attracence of the immense vortice created by tion in so great a degree as to endanger its this motion ought not to be lost sight of, on stability, and leave it, if it moved at all, to

wander at large. But, no; the edifice, al- about two thousand one hundred and eighty though founded on ether, is stable in all its miles; it revolves round its own axis in parts ; and to this day remains as at the twenty-nine days and nearly thirteen hours, beginning.

and round the Earth in the same time; The second planet in the system bas for hence the same face is always towards the ages been denominated Venus ; and it is earth. The mean distance of the moon from the only primary orb which, from high an the earth is two hundred and forty thousand tiquity, received a female name. Perhaps miles, and its mean distance from the sun, the beautiful appearance of this evening and seeing the earth is nearly in the centre morning star induced the ancient sages to of its orbit, may be deemed the same as crown it with a female appellation, as the that of the earth. most lovely of the heavenly train. This Here we behold the first example of complanet is nearly seven thousand seven hun- plex motion in the solar system. The modred miles in diameter; it revolves round tions of the two planets, Venus and Mercury, its own axis, from west to east, in nearly the already noted, are simple—they individually same time as the earth; and it moves in the move round their own axis and round the same direction, in an elliptic orbil, round the sun, in elliptic orbits, without impediments; sun in somewhat less than two hundred and while the earth, revolving on its axis, carries twenty-five of our days. The mean dis- round the sun a large orb, distant from its tance of Venus from the sun is about sixty- centre two hundred and forty thousand nine millions of miles.

miles, which moves round it about thirteen Mercury and Venus are the only planets times every year, and round its own axis which move in orbits between the earth and nearly the same number of times. The the sun. To us, therefore, they form a con. centre of gravity in Mercury and Venus is trast with those planets whose orbits are within and near the centres of these planets, more distant from the sun than ourselves; but the centre of gravity, amidst this comaffording together a rich variety, and, when plex motion, is neither in the earth nor in the whole are contemplated in their vast. the moon; but lies between these two orbs, ness, presenting scenes of sublimity which at that point where the relative weight of none but the heavenly orbs can furnish to each is in perfect equipoise. The moon mankind. These two planets, now behind being smaller, and of course lighter, than the central orb and now beside it, anon the earth, the centre of gravity is considera. passing over its face, and presently on the bly nearer to the earth than to the moon. other side, not together, but in swifter and In the progression of these two spheres in slower motions, as the orbit of the one round the sun, the earth being accelerated exceeds the orbit of the other in its circum- and retarded in its progress by the ceaseless ference, separately, yet jointly, form the changes in the position of the moon, which quick time of that mystic dance composed is then on that side and now on this, in its inby all the orbs which move in measured cessant revolutions round the primary sphere, mazes, one unison to music of ethereal com- is acted upon in contrary directions, and conpound,“ the music of the spheres." siderable eccentricity is induced in the pro

The next planet which claims our notice gression of the earth throughout its orbit. Yet is the Earth ; so called by Elohim and by here we behold the laws of creation operate us, because it is our terrestrial—the terra upon the universe with as much regularity firma of our abode : yel firm as we experi- as amidst the simple motions of the former ence it, and stable, like the other planets, planets ; for the earth fulfils its appointed it moves, unknowing rest. The Earth is task, complicated as it is, with a precision nearly eight thousand miles in diameter; similar to Venus and Mercury. Superior it revolves round its own axis, from west to all that is adverse or inert in matter, by to east, in somewhat less than twenty-four His manifold wisdom, the Great Creator, in hours; and it moves in the same direction, rich variety of modes and forms, erected the in an elliptic orbit, round the sun in three universe; and the wisdom of every age, in the hundred and sixty-five days and about experience of its working together in all its six hours. The mean distance of the Earth parts, confirms the omniscience and omni. from the sun is more than ninety-tive mil- potence which created and formed the lions of miles.

whole. With the Earth begins that variety of orbs In our notices of the planets, we have which we term secondary, viz., a planet re hitherto progressed from smaller to larger volving in an orbit round a planet, and spheres, but the time is come when we must these two in one orbit round the sun. The retrograde, for the orb next in succession is secondary planet which revolves round the smaller than either Venus or the Earth. Earth we call the Moon; its diameter is This planet is called Mars; which name it



received from the ancients, probably in the larger spheres; yet do they seem to us consequence of its red or fiery appearance sprung up yesterday, so completely have at certain seasons. Mars is nearly four they for ages been hidden from us.

More thousand two hundred miles in diameter; it of the Great Creator's works yet may lie revolves round its own axis, from west to concealed, which, when they are discovered, east, in twenty-four hours and nearly forty will yield to us, or to succeeding ages, like minutes; and it moves in the same direction, wonder and admiration; and, with the in an elliptic orbit, round the sun in about psalmist, we or they may say,

“ When I twenty-six minutes less than six hundred consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy finand eighty-seven of our days. The mean gers; the moon and the stars, which Thou distance of Mars from the sun is more than hast ordained; What is man, that Thou art one hundred and forty-five millions of mindful of him ? and the son of man, that miles.

Thou visitest him? O Lord our Lord, how The planets Mercury and Venus, whose excellent is Thy name in all the earth!” orbits are within that of the earth, are called,

WM. ColdweLL. by astronomers, inferior; while those planets King Square, May 25, 1831. whose orbits are without that of the earth, are called, superior: Mars is, therefore, the first in the order of superior planets, his or.

TUTIONS IN THE METROPOLIS. bit being next in succession to the earth from (Resumed from page 279, and concluded.) the sun.

This distinction arises out of the circumstance of all the astronomers, whose The annual meeting of this institution was works have reached us, being situate upon held at Exeter Hall, on Monday, May 9th, the earth. If an astronomer situated in W. Allen, Esq. in the chair. Mercury had noticed this circumstance, all It was numerously attended, and happily the other planets would have been denomi- exempted from that turbulence and commonated superior, because they are all more dis tion which, at some other anniversaries, a tant from the sun than Mercury; and if an few intolerant and restless spirits excited. astronomer situated in the Georgium Sidus Among the numbers who attended, it is had noticed it, all the other planets would not improbable that many were allured have been denominated inferior, because thither from an expectation that Lord John are all included in its orbit; and so on of Russell would preside. His engagements, the rest.

however, occasioned by the election, ren. In our progression from the sun, we dered this impracticable, and an apology for now arrive at a group of spheres, which, his absence was candidly and peaceably although they are severally primary pla- received. nets, are diminutive, compared with any The report stated, that his Majesty Wilother in the system ; indeed, so dispropor. liam IV. had condescended to become the tionate are they from all the rest, that they patron of the society, and had engaged excite peculiar interest in the contemplative to subscribe one hundred pounds annually mind. Owing to their distance when in towards its support. On a general survey certain portions of their orbits, and their which the report took of the various schools minute size, the ancients seem to have over- standing on this broad foundation, the aclooked these planets altogether, seeing we counts were pleasing and satisfactory. To have no notices of their existence which children, both at home and abroad, it had bear an earlier date than the present cen extended its operation; and that its labours tury; for it was in the year 1801 when the in foreign parts were not unnecessary,

the first of these was discovered. These planets following fact will most forcibly prove. It have been named Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and has been extracted from the memoirs of the Vesta; their orbits lie between Mars and pious and Rev. John Frederic Oberlin, Jupiter, from two hundred and fifty to three minister of a mountainous canton in the hundred millions of miles in distance from north-east of France; and perhaps parallel the sun; and their diameters are severally cases may be found in many villages much from about one hundred and ten to about nearer home. one hundred and sixty miles, while their “When Stouber, the predecessor of Oberdistances each from each are about fifteen lin, first went to the Ban-de-la-Roche, he bemillions of miles; whereas the nearest of gan by inquiring into the manner of educathe other primary planets, viz. Venus and tion there. Asking for the principal school, the Earth, are upwards of twenty-six mil- he was conducted to a miserable hovel, where lions of miles apart.

there were a number of children crowded Launched into ether, these minute orbs together without any occupation, and in so have survived the rush of ages equally with wild and noisy a state, that it was with some

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