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viz. the holiness of God, and the wickedness and that the sacred writers had embraced of man. Neither can we see any cause for a cause which was most strikingly open to the impeachment of divine justice, but persecution and death, with not the least must rather admire the astonishing for prospect of worldly advantage. Their bearance and mercy visible in both in- credit as historians then cannot be justly stances.

impeached. With respect to the New Testament, Several arguments in favour of the inspi. many of the arguments before adduced will ration of the New Testament might be still apply. The transactions recorded adduced. We may mention, the necessity therein, are such as we might have reason of a correct knowledge of facts the most ably expected, if we had placed any con- important, and of the discourses, actions, fidence in the Hebrew Scriptures. The and even thoughts, of our Saviour. These Jewish prophets continually foretold a Mes- could uot be known, or at least but doubtsiah, the time and place of his birth, the fully asserted, without a knowledge obtained manner of his death, and other attendant by inspiration. Likewise, the profound vecircumstances; and the character of God, neration paid to them by the most pious as described therein, completely agrees and learned Christians from the primitive with the information received beforehand. times, in supporting doctrines and cereWe need scarcely argue for the antiquity monies, which would have been trifling, if of the writings of the New Testament, since the writers were only considered as illiterate manuscripts are now in the possession of men, instead of inspired apostles. The many learned bodies and individuals, as a preservation of the New Testament during sufficient testimony; and of some of these the most violent and exterminating persethe language has for a long time ceased to cutions, while all spurious Christian writings be spoken.

were utterly lost, is wonderful. With reThe Alexandrian manuscript, in the spect also to its repeated transcription, we British Museum, was written probably in may mention Dr. Bentley's observation : the fourth or fifth century. Pliny, Tacitus, “there never was any writing, in the preand others, occasionally mention circum- servation and purity of which the world stances concerning Jesus Christ and bis was so interested or careful." In these religion, which indicate that it is of no arguments we see no mean evidence of modern invention. Ignatius and Polycarp, the protecting hand of Providence stretched who lived in the days of the apostles, with over the revelation made to man. others who immediately succeeded them, Finally, we have the authority of St. have preserved many passages of the New Paul himself, in saying, "all scripture is Testament, which shew their great antiquity. given by inspiration of God," whether our Dr. Lardner asserts, “That in the remain assent is yielded to the Old or New Tesing works of Ireneus, Clement of Alexandria, tament. If the New Testament is inspired, and Tertullian, who all lived in the first two the Jewish scriptures must necessarily be so, centuries, there are more and larger quo- for we find them continually quoted as tations of the small volume of the New prophecy afterwards fulfilled, and as eviTestament than of all the works of Cicero, dence in favour of the religion of Christ. by writers of all characters, for several Should we believe in the inspiration of the ages.” And in addition to these we might Old Testament, we must be prepared, by add, that Celsus, who lived in the second, the prophecies written therein, to believe and Porphyry, who lived in the third cen in the inspiration of the New. St. Paul tury, celebrated as opponents to Christianity, was an extraordinary man, converted from both cited passages from the New Tes. the blindest obstinacy to the Christian retament. This is gathered from the writings ligion, and sent forth as its most ardent of those who refuted them, as their own are teacher. His attainments in holiness have not now extant,

never been contradicted, and his life of Now, if the Gospels are histories written piety adds an irresisitble force to what he by men of unblemished reputation, who wrote. We are constrained to confess, that were eye-witnesses of the facts therein stated, his conversion was attended with the most or received them from those who were ; and astonishing circumstances ---circumstances, if we find nothing contradicted in any in whose credibility has never been impeached dependent history, but rather confirmed, by valid contradictions. We are constrained we have some reason for crediting the Evan- to believe, that he voluntarily gave himself gelists. Let us likewise reflect, that the up to poverty, persecution, and death, in gospels were written at a time when most order to support the cause of Christianity. of the Jewish nation were living witnesses In perusing his epistles, we cannot but of facts they did not attempt to contradict; acknowledge that his piety was extraor


dinary-that something superior to enthu- mament as indurable as time itself. The siasm had thus directed his mind, and huge mass of atoms becomes many masses, supported him for years under the greatest each assorted and disposed, by infinite persecutions. Yes :- we feel convinced, wisdom, into a sphere, and placed each in that be must have been under the influence an orbit, at such distances from the central of the Spirit of the Most High ; and thus orb, and from each other, as would form we place unshaken confidence in his know. due balances, each to each, and a perfect ledge and veracity, when he asserted, “ All equipoise to the whole system. A word scripture is given by inspiration of God.” is a work with God: He pronounces, “Let

J. A. B. there be an expansion !" It is formed -Beaconsfield.

the vast fabric is erected--this universe is furnished with orbs. He surveys the whole, and pronounces it beautifully perfect !

We must stop for a moment, in order to Elohim having created the materials, and consider the firmament or expansion thus brooded over them, maturing the whole brought into existence. Prior to the cremass in the operation of creation, proceeds ation of the solar system, that portion or to the formation of spheres, atmospheres, space assigned for its reception, was void ethers, &c. &c. and to the erection of this

or empty space. It afforded room for the universe.

reception of this universe, but it did not It was the second day, “ And God said, furnish any suitable substance for the accomLet there be a firmament in the midst of modation thereof: all things, therefore, the waters, and let it divide the waters from genial thereto, must be provided by the the waters. And God made the firmament, Omnipotent; and these he produced, each and divided the waters which were under in its order, during the progress of creation. the firmament, from the waters which were Using the materials, already created, with above the firmament: and it was so. And light, a fine and pure ether is distributed God called the firmament heaven. And the throughout this space, in which the orbs, evening and the morning were the second now called into existence by the Creator, day,” Gen, i. 6, 7, 8. Or, as it may be and imbued with attraction, float securely rendered : Elohim pronounced, Anidst and unimpeded, surrounded each by its the terraqueous fluids, let there be an ex. own atmosphere, along its orbit, in serenity. pansion, and let it divide fluids from fluids !

This expanse, or ethereal, is a perfect And Elohim formed the expansion, dividing firmament. Adamant itself, piled up to the fluids below in the expansion, from the heaven, could not sustain the ponderous fluids above in the expansion : and it was orbs which roll therein, around their central done. And Elohim denominated the ex

sun, with greater security than these ethers, panse heaven. And Elohim surveyed the fine and subtile as they are, bave sustained expanse, and, behold, it was beautifully nearly six thousand years, and continue to perfect. The evening was, and the morning sustain them to the present hour. If, was, the second day. In Number III. of these essays, (p. 163.)

"In the thin air, without a prop.

Hang fruitful showers around," we left the created materials of the universe in one huge mass, occupying the centre of in these yet thinner ethers, needing no the system, in the state of individual atoms foreign aid, the stupendous orbs hang and or fluidity, while the broodings of the Spirit move, each in its orbit, with exactness, of God were in action, inducing a genial amidst sublime serenity, far from the wreck disposition therein, to receive and nourish of storms. the seeds destined to vegetate and adorn All the created atoms were, up to this the spheres. Light, also, being created, moment, individual, and in a state resembling was thereby diffused throughout the uni- fluidity, which afforded every facility to these

immense operations. Had solidity taken place All the materials already created are on previous to this great work, what an increase this day brought into use, and every portion of labour must have ensued, in order first thereof has its post assigned, in due order. to se parale, as well as afterwards to comThat powerful agent, light, called into ex- pound, these materials, in proportions meet ercise, in the hands of the Creator per to construct the spheres. Distinct atoms forms wonders; while affinity, attraction, or Auids are compounded with the greatest repulsion, gravitation, with all the progeny ease, in chemical and other operations of of light, co-operate, and, under the wisdom art, but, in order to compound solid bodies, and power of the great Operator, produce they must either be reduced to powder, or an expansion of the atoms, and form a fire dissolved in liquids, with great labour; 2D. SERIES, NO. 6.-Vol. I.

150.--VOL. III.


2 K

and, after all, must be rendered solid again, nations which resulted from the operations at a great expense of time and pains. of light.

The economy of the Creator, whether He The created atoms were destined to creates, or operates upon created matter, become the bases of all the solids in the is equally obvious. If the materials for universe ; yea, even the atoms of the gases, each orb in the solar system had been sepa as well as the rest. Every gas with which rately and distinctly created, in the very we have become acquainted, may be found orbit in which it was destined to move, in a solid state. Hydrogen is solid in coal, then must there have been as many cre ice, &c. &c. Oxygen in ice, and the ations as there are primary and secondary countless oxides which every where abound planets in this universe, besides one upon around us. Carbon is solid in coal, limea larger scale for the central sun. If these stone, diamond, timber, &c. &c., and so spheres had been formed from solid masses, on of all the rest. All the other atoms then it would have required great labour become solid by crystallization, cohesion, to fashion them into the precise form in combination, &c. &c., although, in the state tended; and the power required, in the first of individual atoms, they are fuid. The instance, to render the atoms into a solid, atoms, therefore, are the bases of all solids. would have been wasted. In the sacred Light is itself a fluid, incapable of convolume we read, “ If the iron be blunt, and cretion, and all the atoms owe to its opehe do not whet the edge, then must he put rations the modifications which we behold to more strength : but wisdom is profitable in them, in a nearer or more remote degree : to direct," Eccles. X. 10. To whet the it may, therefore, be denominated the base edge, is an act of wisdom, in this quotation, of the fluids. because thereby labour is economised ; and The aggregate of this day's operations, thus it is, that wisdom becomes power. by rarefaction and consequent expansion, Surely, He who inspired this advice into completely filled the space allotted to the the bosom of the sacred penman, could universe ; for the firmament is said to be avail Himself of the advice which He gives. in the midst of the fluids, viz., in the midst That He did avail Himself thereof, and that of the orbs and atmospheres, (which were the wisdom of the Creator is throughout on this day in a fluid state,) filling up every His work as obvious as His power, is so where all the spaces. But if all the spaces clear to my mind, that I must bear my un were filled up, then must the spheres revolve equivocal testimony to that solemn truth. in ether. When we take into the account The greatest care imaginable is taken to the revolutions of that immense central orb, remind the reader, that the materials on the sun, and, around tbis centre, the revowhich the Creator was then operating, were lutions of all the planets, primary as well fluid; for the word occurs no less than five as secondary, with their diurnal and mentimes in the sixth and seventh verses, strual, as well as annual motions, and con

There are errors also on the opposite side. template the wide and lofty orbits assigned Fluids are so frequently named, and, in the to these, vast as is the expanse, the whole authorized English version of the Bible, universe, from the unceasing rush of these rendered waters, that the outcry is, “ Nothing fleet and stupendous spheres and atmobut waters were created in the first instance.' spheres, must be the seat of universal and Then, in order to account for the solids incessant motion. What a scene do we which now appear, vegetation and ani behold-a scene enough to dazzle the most mation of fish and amphibious animals, steadfast eye, could it discern the minute upon a large scale, and of enormous size, of this vast action! are resorted to; and out of the solids of Space is infinite' in extent ; no lack, these, soils and strata are formed, in the therefore, exists of room wherein to place imaginations of geologists, of all dimensions. the most extensive system: of this the CreWonderful indeed! But the Bible does ator availed Himself, and took ample room not need the help of such men: it is clear for this universe. Had the orbs therein enough, without such scientific romances as been crowded into a smaller space, the these. Water is not an element, as it was attractions of each with each, and the rush long supposed to be; it is a compound of others from passing spheres, must have substance, and itself needed the forming induced disorder ; while the rapidity of hand of Elohim, after the atoms of the their motions, too near the human eye, creation were matured, to call it into ex would have disturbed, and perhaps disistence, in the use of His active agent, tracted, human kind, as well as the relight, upon the elementary substances, hy- mainder of aniination, and even vegetation. drogen and oxygen; and this day it was It is no disparagement to the great Crecalled into existence, amidst those combi- ator, after having created light, to use this,

His creature, in His future operations. If, controversy that ever lived in England, was on surveying creation, we behold attraction, born at Wasely, in Lincolnshire, in the year repulsion, gravitation, and the tenfold en 1683. His father was the Rev. Henry tities, perhaps children of this common Waterland, A.M. rector of that place. parent, light, although their generation has He received his school education in Linnot yet become obvious to us, which ac coln; and his academical, at Magdalen tively operate on created matter, and note the College, Cambridge, under the tuition of the almost universal use which the Creator made Rev. Samuel Barker, of that place. He of these in the modifications of the matter was first scholar, then fellow, and, comof the universe, in order to adapt that matter mencing tutor, he became a great ornament to the several purposes for which He origin and advantage to the college. In this latter nally created it, can we wonder at this ? capacity, he drew up a tract, under the Surely not. But there are who, beholding title of “ Advice to a Young Student, with these, pronounce that they alone formed the a Method of Study for the first four Years," universe! A greater absurdity would not which has gone through several editions. exist than this, if certain men, beholding In the year 1713, he became master of the marks of tools on a splendid edifice, the college, and obtained the Rectory of were to assert that the tools themselves had Ellingham, in Norfolk, and was soon after finished the fabric, instead of the workmen. appointed chaplain in ordinary to George I.

All the efformations of the Infinite bear in the year 1720, he preached the first the stamp of the Creator; they are at once course of lectures, founded by Lady Morgan, perfect and inimitable. Who can create for the defence of our Lord's divinity. He and form an universe ? Yea, who can was presented in the following year, by the create and form a single sphere? Nay, Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, to the who can create an atom? No man, no rectory of St. Austin and St. Faith, in number of men : no spirit, save Jehovah London, and soon after, was promoted to no, not all the other spirits in existence. the chancellorship of the church of York, Jehovah is Lord alone : He only can by Sir William Dawes, archbishop of that create, and alone He can destroy.

province. Elohim denominated the expanse, hea In the year 1827, he was collated by his ven. The beauty and loveliness of this diocesan to the archdeaconry of Middlesex, azure canopy, decked with astral luminaries, and His Majesty conferred on him a each wandering far and wide, yet ever and canonry in the church of Windsor; and anon returning, in its place, with a re that chapter presented him to the vicarage splendent sun; lord seeming he to lesser of Twickenham. He now resigned the lights around, serenity and order all, yet rectory of St. Austin, not being willing to variety-a changing scene, well portrays the hold two benefices at once, with the cure of Creator-Lord of all, while seen by man souls. He died in the year 1740, at the meet image of His loveliness, Himself age of fifty-seven years, and was buried unseen, save in these His works. If this, in the collegiate church of Windsor, leavthe gazer's soul exclaims, be heaven, what ing behind him a name that will ever be is that heaven of heavens where He delights an ornament to the Church of England. to dwell, who all created, and who over all A collection of his sermons was published sways, Lord-Himself the glory of the after his death. As a controversialist, he was glorious scene, imparting to his sons, and firm and unyielding, but he was accounted in each spirit living, the life, the joy of all? fair and candid, free from bitterness, and Well may the soul of man devoutly cry, actuated by no persecuting spirit. O glorious Lord, to me disclose thy heaven

S. BURGESS. -the heaven of heavens—thy seat, where February 14th, 1830. thou delightest to dwell! There may my spirit live, and in thy presence taste those

TALE FROM THE BERMUDAS-SOMERS joys, for ever thine; nor thine to hoard from man, but, beneficent, to give; felicity creating where they fow, and glory inex. These romantic emeralds on the Western pressible, eternal as thy throne !

Ocean, so far as climate is concerned, have WILLIAM COLDWELL. a most Eden-like appearance. All is miKing Square, May, 1831.

niature beauty ; far, very far, from the wild and natural grandeur of America.

The violet is not more unlike to the sturdy oak, REV. DANIEL WATERLAND, D.D. nor the pink to the tall pine, nor a grain DANIEL Waterland, a very eminent divine, of sparkling sand to one of the huge Andes, and the ablest master of the Trivitarian than the Bermudas are to that gigantic




continent, in its majestic and boundless the only poor bed the cottage contained. forests. Yet, from these insulated isles, we The mother was between ninety and one select the following tale, for the readers of hundred years of age, and stone blind; the Imperial Magazine

I approached her bed, and, taking hold of Many of the houses in the Bermudas her withered hand, addressed her, and have a little garden, the avenues to which inquired what were her hopes of that solemn are fringed with jessamine and roses. The futurity, on the brink of which she seemed pride of China is often planted near the to totter. front, and, with its green and umbrageous Though dark and bed-ridden, the sound branches, forms both an ornament and a of such a theme seemed quite familiar. cooling shade. The buildings, which have “ Christ,” said the old woman,“ is my only no taste or symmetry, are perfectly white, hope ; I trust, through his dear merits, to and, when seen at a distance, rising in the depart in peace, and I am not afraid to midst of green, have an agreeable and pleas- die. He hath died for me, and I can trust ing appearance. Within the enclosure round my soul into his blessed hands." the mansion are fig-trees, bananas, pome " When," I asked, "did you find the granates, and, in some cases, orange, shad- knowledge of this Saviour, of whom you dock, and limes: but human art has done speak with such confidence ?" “Sixty odd little ; it is the beauty of the climate, that years ago," said the aged believer, “did chiefly makes December as pleasant as that venerable servant of God, Mr. WhitMay.

field, visit these islands; and, as he often Beneath skies for ever blue, the fig-tree stood in the open air, I, among others, puts forth its lovely blossoms, and the orange went to hear him. He preached on that and the pomegranate spread their swelling text. "Wilt thou go with this man? and fruit, The balmy air is scented by groves she said, I will go,' Gen. xxiv. 58. All of cedar, and in the fields and woods the were silent, till a negro called out, Will aloe plant attains the full measure of its none answer massa ?' My desires were growth. The tamarind tree, and mulberry, drawn with a cord of love ; his earnest expand their dark foliage over the sunny address, enforced by many tears, melted scene; and the tall and slender palmeto my poor stony heart, and from that time shoots up in the valley, with its broad I became a follower of the Lamb. Sixty diverging leaf. But what is far nobler years have rolled over my head since that than all the tiny beauties of nature on these period, but he hath been my comfort by lovely islets, the fair light of trath hath shined day, and my song in the night season. I with a serene ray; many a negro's cottage have long been a widow, but his promises has been made glad with the tale of the have been my support, and I know he will Cross, and the sweet little. landscapes have not forsake me in my old age, and now been rendered still more lovely by the my strength faileth.” After kneeling by beauties of holiness.

the bed-side of the old saint, and leaving At what time the gospel was first intro a blessing with the daughter, we resumed duced into these green dots on the ocean,

our ride. I cannot say. Mr. Whitfield visited them In musing upon the subject of this visit, in 1744, to recover his health, and at that Here, thought I to myself, is one of God's period preached with his flaming eloquence hidden ones ; the seal of a faithful ministry. the doctrines of salvation by faith; and that In the great day of final audit, how many some blessed fruit budded from the seed will be found who have received the word then sown, the following little incident will in the love of the truth, but of whose contestify.

version to God, the faithful labourer of the The writer of this narrative was one day cross will never know in time. They shall, riding through the cedar groves, on the road however, meet again, and shine as stars in that leads from Hamilton to St. George, with the crown of those holy men, by whom . Mr. W., a merchant belonging to the former they were gathered into the Christian fold. place, when his friend invited him to visit Here was one, who, having had no coma lowly and mean cottage in the bosom of munion with the visible church, was neverthe

grove, pray and converse with one of theless united to its Head ; living by faith the oldest female inhabitants of the islands, in the secret source of light, life, love, grace, a widow, and a Christian of the New and comfort, without the sanctuary, streams Testament school. They entered the habi- to water and fructify the good seed, not tation, where all things within bore the im- planted in the Lord's house, and yet bearing press of extreme poverty; an old woman, fruit in old age. Here was a jewel unknown nearly seventy, was waiting upon her mother, to the church, “ the world forgetting, by a remnant of mortality, who was laid upon the world forgot.” “ While pampered lux


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