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with crimson damask, bordered with green fringes; but these are in a decayed state. There are also some chairs, covered with crimson velvet, once belonging to this unfortunate princess.

In the wainscot, strangers are shewn a portion, which, turning on hinges, opens a communication with a secret passage’ leading to the rooms below. Through this passage Lord Darnley and the conspirators are said to have rushed, to murder the unhappy Rizzio; and large dark coloured spots, visible on the floor, are believed to have been occasioned by his blood.

In a room assigned to Lord Dunmore, is a fine painting, by Vandyke, representing Charles I. and his queen, in their hunting costume. Some rooms above the royal apartments, are occupied by the Duke of Argyle, as hereditary master of the household. The singular privilege of affording an asylum to insolvent debtors is yet allowed. It extends as far as the limits of the environs of the Castle, including within this sanctuary a field called St. Anne's Yards, the extensive enclosure called the King's Park, the Duke's Walk, Arthur's Seat, Salisbury Craigs, and St. Leonard's Hill.

Among the disasters which Holyrood Palace has been destined to sustain, that which occurred at the time of he Revolution in 1688 deserves to be distinctly noticed.

No sooner was it known that the Prince of Orange had landed, and that the regular troops were withdrawn to reinforce the English army, than the Presbyterians, and other friends to the Revolution, flocked from all quarters to Edinburgh. About the same time that the king withdrew from London, the Earl of Perth, chancellor, retired from Edinburgh, leaving the provincial government in the hands of such of the council as chose to remain. At this moment the mob broke loose, and, after parading the city with drums beating and colours flying, proceeded in great numbers to demolish the chapel at Holyrood House. Here they were opposed by a party of about a hundred of James's adherents, by whom they were fired on, and repulsed, with the loss of twelve killed, and thrice that number wounded.

“ In a short time, however, they returned, headed by the magistrates, the town guard, trained bands, and heralds at arms, with a warrant from the privy counsellors, ordering Wallace, the commander of the royal party, to surrender ; and, upon his refusal, another skirmish ensued, in which he was defeated, some of his party killed, and the rest made prisoners. The populace then proceeded to demolish the royal chapel, which they despoiled of its ornaments, at the same time pulling down the College of Jesuits, and plundering the houses of several Catholics."

Not content with thus injuring the living, and demolishing a splendid mansion, in which their political antagonists had found an asylum, their unholy zeal led them to violate the sanctuaries of the dead. They broke into the sepulchres of the kings, and, dragging their relics with sacrilegious hands from the slumbers of the grave, exposed and dispersed them with savage wantonness. Nor did this brutal act of momentary frenzy terminate with the impulse of passion that gave it birth. To the scandal of common decency, the ribs and bones thus torn from the tombs, long formed a part of the curiosities exhibited to all strangers who visited Holyrood House. Among these were the thigh-bones of Darnley, which, from their great length, indicated his unusual height. This disgraceful exhibition bas, however, been at length prohibited. The bones have again been consigned to silence and darkness, and the sepulchres have been repaired.

In the cellars of the Earl of Perth, which at this time were well stocked with suitable materials, the mob soon found an additional stimulant to their furious zeal against popery.

But no national characteristic can be inferred

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from an infuriated and drunken rabble. The instability of human purposes and resolutions, may be gathered with much greater certainty from the conduct of those in more exalted stations. At this eventful crisis, the town council of Edinburgh, who had only a few months before declared to King James, that “ they would stand by his sacred person on all occasions,” were now among the foremost in “ offering their services to the Prince of Orange, and in complaining of the hellish attempts of Romish incendiaries, and of the just grievances of all men, relating to conscience, liberty, and property." Such, however, is friendship, loyalty, and man!

Early in the year 1796, Charles X. the late king of France, then Count D'Artois, and his son the Duke d’Angouleme, found an asylum in Edinburgh, and took up their abode at Holyrood House. These royal fugitives were received with every mark of respect due to their rank; and having been driven about from one part of the continent to another, in imminent danger of their lives, this favourable reception must have been peculiarly gratifying to their feelings. At Holyrood Palace they resided about three years, during which time they held levees, and had mass regularly performed in the gallery. Edinburgh exhibited at this time a constant scene of activity, bustle, and gaiety. In addition to its inhabitants, vast numbers repaired thither from various parts, to have a view of the illustrious exiles, to sympathize in their destiny, and to join in anticipations respecting their future fate.

But it was not merely in expressions of commiseration, that the inhabitants of Edinburgh displayed their kindness. By the politeness and courtesy of their behaviour, the royal exiles ingratiated themselves with all ranks, and this was amply repaid by more substantial proofs of hospitality and kindness. Of this marked attention Charles was not insensible, nor can any one who reads the following letter, written to the Lord Provost and magistrates, at the time of his departure in 1799, accuse him of ingratitude.

“ Gentlemen, “ Circumstances relative to the good and service of the king my brother, making it requisite that I should leave this city, where, during my residence, I have received the most distinguished marks of attention and regard, I should reproach myself, were I to depart without expressing to its respectable magistrates, and through them to the inhabitants at large, the grateful sense with which my heart is penetrated, for the noble manner in which they have seconded the generous hospitality of his Britannic Majesty. I hope I shall one day have it in my power to make known, in happier moments, my feelings on this occasion, and express to you more fully the sentiments with which you have inspired me; the sincere assurance of which, time only permits me to offer you at present."

“ CHARLES PHILIPPE." Of the visit paid by his late Majesty George IV. to the Scottish metropolis, and his official residence in Holyrood Palace, the papers of the day gave minute and circumstantial accounts. This event is too recent to have been forgotten; in addition to which, it is now incorporated in the history of our country. Nevertheless, an epitome of its more prominent features may not be unacceptable to many of our readers.

His Majesty having honoured Ireland and Hanover with his royal presence, resolved to confer on Scotland, also, a similar mark of his distinguishing regard. He accordingly embarked at Greenwich, on board the Royal George Yatch, on the 10th of August, 1822, and without any accident reached the port of his destination. Having landed, and passed through the ceremonials 'observed on these occasions, his Majesty, in an open carriage

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drawn by eight horses, advanced in the procession towards Holyrood House, which had been prepared for his reception.

Arriving at the city boundary, below Picardy Place, where the magistrates in their robes were assembled to receive him, a herald came forward, and knocked thrice at the gate, after which Sir Patrick Walker, usher of the white rod, advanced, and required the gates to be opened in the name of the king. This demand being complied with, Sir Patrick went forward to the lord-provost, and claimed admission for the procession. These ceremonies being finished, the whole train entered, amid the loud and reiterated acclamations of the multitude, which his Majesty repeatedly acknowledged by taking off his hat and bowing. When the royal carriage entered the barrier, the lord-provost advanced, and delivered the keys of the city, which his Majesty graciously returned with a compliment. The procession now moved on towards Holyrood Palace, where a formal introduction of the magistracy took place. After going through this ceremonial, the King returned to the carriage, and, accompanied by the same noblemen, set out for Dalkeith, where he remained the whole of the following day, absorbed in grief at the melancholy intelligence of the death of the Marquis of Londonderry.

“ On Saturday morning his Majesty set out for Holyrood House, where a levee was held at twelve. Along the streets, in the line appointed for carriages, were placed divisions of the Scotch Greys to prevent interruption, and the court-yard was occupied by the archers, while three bands of music played national airs on the lawn. All the officers of state, judges, and law officers of the crown, had precedence, by a different entrance from that to the public. One hundred and forty carriages conveyed the nobility and gentry to the royal presence. The greater part of the company appeared in military uniform. After the levee the King had a select party at dinner, and in the evening he returned to Dalkeith.

“The next day he spent in retirement, which greatly disappointed the people of Edinburgh, who fully expected that he would have attended the High Kirk. On Monday his Majesty held a court and closet levee, to receive upon the throne various addresses. At ten minutes after two o'clock the King reached Holyrood House, and, having changed his dress for that of the Highland uniform, took his seat on the throne, surrounded by a number of chieftains arrayed in the same national costume. The first address presented to the monarch was that of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; next came the senior bishop of the Scotch episcopal church, and his brethren; after whom followed the representatives of the different universities and public bodies. At the close of this long and fatiguing scene the King returned to Dalkeith, the guards being stationed on each side of the carriage, to prevent the obtrusive familiarity of the crowd. On the 20th his Majesty held a drawing-room at Holyrood, and, after the lapse of nearly two centuries, this ancient edifice, where often feasted the chiefs of Scotland's power, became again the seat of splendour and chivalrous gaiety. The company, who began to assemble as early as eleven o'clock, consisted of the principal nobility and gentry of North Britain. The gentlemen were mostly in military dress ; and the ladies in white satin. The King arrived at halfpast two, in his travelling chariot drawn by six horses. He wore a full field-marshal's uniform, and was received at the private entrance by all the officers of state. On this occasion it was observed that he appeared in better spirits than he had shewn since his coming into Scotland. *Crowds of well-dressed persons were in waiting to greet him; to whom he repeatedly bowed and smiled with the utmost affability and condescending grace.”

But these days of returning festivity and grandeur at Holyrood House

were of transcient duration. Its sun of earthly glory appears to have set, to rise no more.

His Majesty reached England in safety, and at the opening of parliament on the 4th of February, 1823, the commissioners said, “They were commanded by his Majesty to state, that the manifestations of loyalty and attachment to his person and government, which he had received in his late visit to Scotland, had made the deepest impression upon his heart.” This public testimony of his Majesty's approbation must have been highly gratifying to all ranks on the northern side of the Tweed; and no doubt can be entertained, that it will be long cherished with grateful recollections by the present generation, and carefully transmitted to posterity.

From the time of his late Majesty's departure in 1822, Holyrood Palace remained without any distinguished inhabitant until the year 1830, when it became the abode of exiled royalty, under circumstances which almost make it a refuge for the destitute. Through the late revolution in France, into the causes of which it is not our province to enter, Charles X. whose letter, when Duke D'Artois, we have already inserted, was compelled to quit his throne, and once more seek an asylum in a foreign land. The hospitality of Great Britain he had already experienced, while residing in the metropolis of her northern dominions, and, urged to seek his safety in flight, he again landed on her shores. Without entering into the policy which had driven bim from his country, or receiving him in his regal character, the refuge which he sought was readily afforded. After a partial abode in South Britain, he was again directed to the north, and the doors of Holyrood Palace were once more opened to receive him. Here he still resides, participating in the civilities and soothed by the sympathies, of the Scottish metropolis, whose inhabitants have too much magnanimity to suffer political considerations to triumph over that politeness and humanity which are ever due to the unfortunate in all the ranks of civilized society.

For the materials incorporated in this account of Holyrood Abbey and Palace, we acknowledge ourselves indebted to Buchanan's history of Scotland, continued by Dr. Watkins; to the Scottish Tourist and Itinerary; published by Fairburn, Edinburgh, and Whittaker, London ; and to Picturesque Views of Edinburgh, by Lizars. But, above all, our obligations are due to Jones's Views in Edinburgh, now publishing in parts. In the plates of this work, the skill both of the designer and engraver are displayed with consummate advantage; while the topographical descriptions, accompanying them, evince the fidelity with which the whole is executed.

CHURCH ESTABLISHMENTS INDEFENSIBLE, unless stimulated by the necessity of supplying

ANTICHRISTIAN, AND A RELIC OF PO their physical and social wants. Now, it is PERY AND JUDAISM.

the very vice of religious establishments, not

only to call into the ministry men who would (Concluded from p. 72.)

not be deemed admissible even as private SECONDLY. All church establishments, be- members of a gospel church, but, when they ing founded in a principle of monopoly, are inducted, to deprive them even of the deprive the sanctuary of the benefit which stimulus of physical necessity to laborious competition infallibly produces in every de- diligence in their calling. partment of human life, and, like all mono That able and ingenious sophist, Dr. polies, whether civil or commercial, force Paley, has said, that to make the support of into the market the worst commodities, at a the ministry dependent on the voluntary offar greater cost to the public than the best ferings of the church, or on pastoral exertion, could be obtained for. "It is a principle of would be to rob the preacher of that indehuman nature not to be overlooked, even in pendence which he ought to possess, and sacred matters, that men will not labour, convert him into the stipendiary expositor


We an

of his hearers' opinions. But the sophistry afford to live without labour, and have not
of such an assertion is abundantly proved by from two to twenty or thirty thousand a year
the fact of the unflinching fidelity and zeal to paralyze their energies, and raise them
with which the sacred office is discharged above their calling, to roll in luxury and
among the great body of dissenters, and es. And if the system of monopoly and
pecially the Wesleyan Methodists. And secular patronage thus degrade the episcopal
considering the proneness of our nature to office, will not the same causes, aided by
degenerate, we are bold to contend, that the example of their superiors, render the
even if it were practicable for a church es inferior ramifications of the clergy as a body
tablishment to exclude all improper candi- altogether corrupt? If there be any con-
dates from admission to the desk, it would nexion between cause and effect, such a re-
be highly impolitic and unsafe to destroy the sult is inevitable; while daily observation
natural motives by which the purest minds furnishes abundant, though melancholy,
require occasionally to be roused from evidence of the fact.
apathy and indolence; or, to cut off so obvi Hence we find men thrust into the church,
ous and proper a bond of union between the who deny in the pulpit what they have ut-
pastor and his dock, as the voluntary plan tered in the desk, and sworn at their ordina-

tion, such as the able and sophistical defen-
But how much more necessary is it to der of ecclesiastical establishments, Dr. Pa-
preserve to the people this check upon mi- ley, who says, “ If any one asks what the
nisterial neglect or indifference, if, as we have expressions in scripture, regenerate, born of
shewn, the ecclesiastical system furnishes no the Spirit, new creature, mean?
adequate guarantee for the personal piety of swer, they mean nothing !-nothing to us !-
its ministers ? For if the clergy be rendered nothing to be found or sought for in the

preindependent of the people, such indepen- sent circumstances of Christianity.* Yet dence will in general be most fatal to pas- this very individual subscribed again and toral diligence and fidelity, or there will be again the articles and liturgy of the church of a servile dependence or expectancy else England, whenever a good benefice fell in where; and which has often been kept alive his way, accumulated preferment to the by the promotion, to the highest and most amount of nearly £2000 a year, and endearesponsible offices in the church, of men voured to pacify the consciences of himself noted chiefly for their abhorrence of evan and his brethren in the ministry, by maingelism and methodism, and for seldom taining that the clergy might profess their troubling the flock with their presence, ex assent er animo to the articles as articles of cept in the collection of the fleece. From

peace, though they should disbelieve many the sources then of a corrupt patronage, and of the individual propositions they contain, the ecclesiastical monopoly which renders and thus recommending a general system of the incomes of the clergy independent of prevarication! Dr. Paley, we have reason active zeal and usefulness, spring the nume fear, is, in this matter, the authority and rerous evils of pluralities, non-residence, and presentative of a very numerous class of a secular and negligent priesthood ; while ministers in the establishment; and even, if the church is converted into a mere engine his talents as a writer were more common of state—an heir-loom of the lay nobility and than they are, we should consider them as gentry-and a lure to the avarice and am- infinitely too poor a substitute for moral bition of worldly men.

honesty in the clergy, or an efficient and To advert to the episcopal order, is it to faithful discharge of the pastoral office. be supposed that the sole business of a To confirm our observation, that monopobishop, who, in the primitive and apostolic lies, whether civil, commercial, or religious, church, was an overseer or pastor of a cou invariably produce the worst commodities, gregation, and not of other ministers, and

at a far greater cost to the public than the exhorted to preach the word, be instant in best could be had for, let us look at the season and out of season, give himself enormous expense of the system. Not only wholly to the work of the ministry, and do are a vast many inefficient, morally unfit, the work of an evangelist,-is to ordain and pernicious clergymen thus brought into ministers, hold confirmations, consecrate the church, but the number of candidates is churches, and dance attendance at court and

far greater than can find employment, or the the senate? The supposition were a libel establishment, in its present deteriorated upon Christianity. Look at the American

state, can demand. To reform the discipline bishops, and say, if their example should and regenerate the real and spirit of a not shame the supineness of our mitred church, we should be far more solicitous to lords? The fact is, that the former, independently of higher cosiderations, cannot

• Paley's Sermons.

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