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each three spoonfuls; half a grated nutmeg, four ounces of fine sugar; a little salt and rose-water ; put it, with a slight layer of butter under it, into a shallow pewter dish, and bake it ; scrape over it loaf-sugar, sprinkle rose-water, and serve it
up. Tansy cakes were formerly eaten at Easter; and there was an old rural charm, that “if maids will take wild tansy, and lay it to soake in butter-milke nine dayes, and wash their faces therewith, it will make them looke
Treacle Water (corrupted from Triacle), in great repute in the last century as a universal antidote, was compounded thus : Boil one ounce of hartshorn shavings in three pints of carduus-water, till it come to a quart; then take the roots of elecampane, gentian, cyprus, tormentel, and of citronrinds, of each one ounce; borage, bugloss, rosemary-flowers, of each two ounces ; a pound of the best old treacle, dissolved in six pints of white wine and three pints of rosewater; infuse all together, and distil it. Another receipt is: Take four handfuls of the husks of green walnuts; juice of rue, carduus, marigolds, and balm, of each a pint; green perasitis roots, one pound; angelica and masterwort, each half a pound; leaves of scordium, four handfuls; old Venice treacle, and mithridate, each eight ounces ; six quarts of canary; vinegar, three quarts ; lime-juice, one quart ; digest two days in a bath in a close vessel, and distil in sand.(The Closet of Rarities, 1706.) The addition of treacle in these receipts is thought to have been added from a misinterpretation of the name.
Truffles are found in almost every part of France, and in many departments their collection and sale is a great resource to the poor in winter. Truffles have been found in England on the downs of Wiltshire and Hampshire, and in the sandy districts of Norfolk, as at Holkham ; but as drought and heat are necessary to their perfection, Britishgrown truffles are worth but little. Where the vine thrives, there thrive truffles. Roman Truffles and Morels, in their green state, have a very rich flavour, and materially improve some dishes; or they make a fine stew by themselves. In France they are used for stuffing turkeys, partridges, etc. ; but as they are sometimes met with in England, dried up and shrivelled, they are little better than useless.
Umbles is a hunting term for part of the inside of a deer, the liver, kidneys, etc. The old books of cookery give receipts for making Umble pies : hence the flat proverbial witticism of making persons 'eat umble pye,' meaning to humble them.
Warden pies were made of the large hard baking pear. They are now generally baked or stewed without crust, and coloured with cochineal, not saffron, as in old times : hence in Shakspeare's Winter's Tale, 'I must have saffron to colour the warden pies.' Ben Jonson quibbles upon churchwarden pies.
Vinegar flavoured with herbs may be very easily prepared. Put into a wide-mouthed bottle fresh-gathered tarragon leaves, fill it up with vinegar, infuse a month, and filter for
Elder vinegar may be made as above, substituting for the tarragon fresh elder-flowers. Shalot, garlic, and chilies may be similarly used. Parmentier's Salad Vinegar is made as follows :—Shalots, sweet savoury, chives, and tarragon, of each three ounces; two tablespoonfuls of dried mint-leaves, and the same of balın; beat these together in a mortar, and put them into a stone gallon bottle ; fill up with strong white wine vinegar, cork it securely, and let it stand a fortnight exposed to the sun, when filter it through a flannel bag.
EARLY RISING-TIME TO SLEEP.
LARGE volume might be filled with the names and
experiences of early risers, and the benefits which accrue from proper periods of rest. Dr. Franklin
wrote an ingenious essay on the subject, which he termed An Economical Project; and he calculated the saving that might be made in the city of Paris, by using sunshine instead of candles, at no less than £4,000,000 sterling. The gains are indeed great. Yet all who have written upon the subject have not been alike sincere. Thomson the poet, who has so eloquently advocated early rising, was himself an indolent man : he usually lay in bed till noon, and his principal time for composition was midnight. Yet he wrote:
• Falsely luxurious, will not man awake,
To meditation due, and sacred song ?' Against this ill-regulated practice we have to set the practical Dr. Doddridge, to whose habit of early rising the world is indebted for nearly the whole of his works. And he inculcates the practice by this text: “The difference between rising at five and seven o'clock in the morning, for the space of forty years, supposing a man to go to bed, at the same hour at night, is nearly equivalent to the addition of ten years to a man's life.'
*Up with the sun' implies very early habits, of difficult attainment; but, wrote Southey, who loved to enjoy “the sweet breath of morn' in his happy home among the mountains of Cumberland, 'we rise with the sun at Christmas : it were but continuing to do so till the middle of April, and without any perceptible change, we should find ourselves then rising at five o'clock; at which hour we might continue till September, and then accommodate ourselves again to the change of season, regulating always the time of retiring in the same proportion. They who require eight hours' sleep would, upon such a system, go to bed at nine during four months.'
Our forefathers regarded early rising of such importance, as to encourage it by bequest and endowment. We gather from the 32d Report of the Commissioners on Charities, that in 1664, one Richard Palmer, of Wokingham, in Wiltshire, granted to that parish in trust half an acre of meadow land, the rents and profits of which were to be paid as a salary to the sexton, or such other person as the trustees should appoint, to ring the great bell of Wokingham church half an hour every evening from eight o'clock, and every morning at four o'clock, as near these hours as might be, from the roth of September to the 14th of March in each year, for ever.
The benefactor's object was not only that as many as might live within the sound might be thereby induced to go early to rest in the evening ; early rise in the morning to their labours and duties; and that strangers and others who should happen in winter nights, within hearing of the ringing of the said bell, to lose their way in the country, might be informed of the time of night, and receive some guidance into their right track ; but also, by the ringing of the evening bell, all might therefore take occasion to think of their own passing-bell and day of death; and at the ringing of the said morning bell, might also think of their resurrection and call to their last judgment. And that should the ringing of the said bell be wilfully hindered or neglected, the trustees of the said close should pay the rents and profits of the close to the right heirs of the said Richard Palmer. There are two small pieces of land in the parish of Eversley, about half an acre each (that on the Berkshire side being called Bell Mead), in respect of which £2 has always been paid yearly to the sexton of Wokingham by the Palmer family, at the date of the commission, represented by Charles Fysche Palmer, Esq.
Then, with regard to the period of rest, mankind in all nations and ages take their principal rest once in twentyfour hours; and the regularity of this practice seems most suitable to health, though the duration of the time allotted to repose is extremely different in different cases. So far as we can judge, this period is of a length beneficial to the human frame, independently of the effect of external agents. In the voyages made to the Arctic regions, where the sun did not rise for three months, the crews of the ships were made to adhere, with the utmost punctuality, to the habit of retiring to rest at nine and rising at a quarter before six; and they enjoyed, under circumstances the most trying, a state of salubrity quite remarkable. Again, sleep is more easy and more salutary, as we go to bed and rise every day at the same hour.
Dr. Johnson has thus naturally described the recurring period: Whatever may be the multiplicity or contrariety of opinions upon the subject of sleep, nature has taken sufficient care that theory shall have little influence on practice. The most diligent inquirer is not able long to keep his eyes open; the most eager disputant will begin