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shown in supplying the feet, and prophesies what befel. Her ever, Howard sent light ships into the coast, and got tolerat supplied. The 25th, St. James's-day, was another great dar battle. They were then off the Isle of Wight. Hawkins secure a great galleon, and then it fell calm. A breeze soon springen: up, the fight became general. The Spanish Admiral's main was shot away, and Recalde, with difficulty, rescued him fre capture. The English ammunition again failed ; and Home". stood out of cannon shot, still following closely on the enem tracks. On the 26th he summoned Lord T. Howard, Lord Edmu: Sheffield, Captains Townshend, Hawkins, and Frobisher on boari. and knighted them with his own hand. And now the coasts ar lined with eager spectators. The nobles and peasantry, fired not a high enthusiasm, which levels all distinctions but qualities manhood, come off in coasting ships, fishing smacks, anything the will float, to have their share in the bloody game. Burleigh's a are there with the rest. A strange report now spreads on to continent. Mendoza enters Notre Dame, in Paris, waring 19sword and shouting “victory.” Alas, for them! 130,000 Englat soldiers, and 200 English ships, and a courage which never : higher than at that moment, were between them and rietur Lord Howard resolved to suffer them for the moment to sa peacefully on their way, to follow them to Calais Roads, being joined by Seymour, make the decisive struggle there.
So the Armada pursued its course, with what steadin might, being already not a little battered and disheartened, w* the English bloodhounds, gathering courage, hope, and nurk! daily, baying in its tracks. On the night of Saturday, the Pith, ** cast anchor in Calais Roads, and messengers were sent to Porta entreating him to join at once with all his force. But, alas! tb storm which delayed the Armada more than a month had defeated all the arrangements of Farnese ; his stores were spent, his arm was sick, his sailors had slipped away, his boats were all encara
-and, to crown all, the dogged Dutch were watching the call harbours from which he could get out to sea. Sidonia wasta of perplexity and dread, as the fleet lay that Sunday in Calar Roads, with the resolute English enclosing their anchorage. st. threatening to drive them ashore. The Salve Reginas had need be potent to help them now. Then that night Lord Howard moved it is said by Elizabeth, she herself moved-men bekende that day-by God, “made ready eight of his worst ships, besine them with wildfire, pitch, and rosin, and filled them with brip stone and other cumbustible matter, towed them towards Armada, and, firing them,” sent them sailing down the wind in their midst. “ The Spaniards," as Camden sars, “xrink
whole sea glittering and shining with the flame thereof, raised a sad outcry.” Then arose one of those fearful panics-was it that dread of God's people with which God promised to afflict their foes?—with which great masses are sometimes visited, and in which man becomes more foolish and helpless than the brute. Slipping their cables in their fright, they stood pell-mell out to sea. When the panic a little subsided, it is said Sidonia endeavoured to rally them—as became a Guzman, a grandee of the blueest blood in Spain. But the English were amongst them. The hour of crowning victory had come. There was no order in the fight. The English ships went crashing through the confusion of the Spanish host, dealing destruction at every broadside. A prisoner, afterwards examined, estimates their loss, on that day alone, at 4,000 men. The Spaniards then gave up all hope of victory, and Sidonia, gathering the wreck of his great Armada, steered for the Straits, in the faint hope that he might escape by that way to Spain. But the south wind met him, and turned him northward, where lay his dreaded and now victorious foes. Baffled on every hand, hemmed-in by perils, he adopted, after hasty counsel, a desperate resolution; and the fleet, scattering, pressed up the German Ocean, if by chance, rounding the wild coast of Scotland, they might gain the broad ocean and get back to Spain. Then writes Drake with grim exultation, “we have the army of Spayne before us, and mind, with the grace of God, to wrestle a fall with them. There was never anything pleased me better, than the seeing the enemy flying with a south wind to the northward. God grant they have a good eye to the Duke of Parma, for, with the grace of God, if we live, I doubt not but, ere it be long, so to handle the matter with the Duke of Sidonia, as he shall wish himself at St. Marie among his orange-trees.”
The whole country was in intense excitement. It was still by no means sure that they might not, in very despair, attempt a landing on the eastern coasts. Then came the Queen to Tilbury, armed in stcel, with a marshal's truncheon in her hand, and mounted on a noble war-horse, Essex and Leicester holding her bridle rein—and spake those martial words which raised to a white heat the enthusiasm of the whole people.
“My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my loving and faithful people. Let tyrants fear! I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and, therefore, I am come among you at this time, and not for my recreation or sport, but being resolved in the midst and the heat of the betiz to live and to die among you all ; to lay down—for my God kingdom, and my people - my honour and my blood, even in .. dust. I know that I have but the body of a weak and for woman, but I have the heart of a king, aye, of a king of Engig. too; and think it great scorn that Parma, or Spain, or any pri of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realms. I which, rather than that any dishonour shall grow by me, I my. will take up arms—I myself will be your general, the judge: rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know alres. by your forwardness that you have deserved rewards and cro and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be du paid you. In the meantime, my Lieutenant-General shall be. my stead, nor will I suffer myself to doubt, but that by your dience to my General, by your concord in the camp, and s. valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory in these enemies of my God, my kingdom, and my people."
Meanwhile, the Armada was flying to the north, pursued b's by the English fleet. It seemed likely at that moment that : one of those proud ships would ever return to the shores of Sun But again the English stores failed, and at the most end. moment. Effingham watched them as far as Flamborough-bre. where it was resolved, “on the Thursday, to have a new fight them, as a farewell; but it was found on counsel that we had : munition enough for a half-fight, and, therefore, it was condo: that we should let them pass and return.” It was a bitter din pointment to the English commanders. Walsingham eren wika thus significantly about it: "I am sorry the Lord Admiral wa forced to leave the prosecution of the enemy through the rant b sustained : our half-doings doth breed dishonour, and leaveth ) disease uncured.”
Drake took a sorrowful farewell of them, but enough had bees done for honour, enough for the liberty of religion, and the sal fare of mankind. The proudest fleet which Europe had ever se forth was flying in defeat and confusion, with a loss to the Engis of one small ship, and less than 100 men.
But Heaven seemed to lift the warder which the English, satec with victory, cast down. Three days after the English left the Drake writes, “We were entertained with a great storm, eunsidering the time of the year, which, in our judgment, hath not: little forced the enemy away." This storm was the comment ment of a series of tremendous hurricanes, which kept them e distress and misery, knocking about in those northern seas till tb middle of September. Ignorant of the coasts, used only to t calm and straightforward navigation of the region of the Trade
orced the es of tremendo about in the
short of water, food, and stores, with an iron-bound, harbourless shore, and a fiercely-hostile population under their lee, they suffered, during those weeks, the extremes of misery. There is something heartrending in the tale of the prisoners who survived from the wrecks which were strewn along the shore. Sick, starving, worn-out by storm and cold, they struggled on through the Straits of the Northern Seas, leaving the fragments of their great Argosies daily as their spoil.
Off Ireland, it is said, 17 ships with 5,300 men went down, either dashed into fragments against the iron-bound coast of Antrim, or sinking bodily with their living freights of 1,000 men into the depths. Sidonia, better stored than the rest, struggled on, but even his ship ran short of water, and the bread became so mouldy that they could hardly bring themselves to partake of the nauseous food. At length, having strewn the fragments of his huge Armada along the shores of the country he came to conquer, from Weymouth round to Antrim, with 53 ships and those so battered and cut to pieces, and the crews so worn with sickness, hunger, and cold, that we are told they were pitiful to look upon -he regained the harbours of Spain.
The English celebrated the victory with thanksgivings to Him by whom it had been ordained. There was but one feeling throughout the whole realm ; that God had most marvellously interposed to defeat the designs of the foes of His Gospel. “ Afflavit Deus et dissipantur," was the inscription on the medal struck to commemorate the victory. The banners taken from the Armada were hung over London-Bridge on the 8th of September. The 19th of November was “kept as a holiday throughout the realm, with sermons, singing of Psalms, bonfires, &c., for joy; and thanksgiving unto God for the overthrow of the Spaniards, the citizens of London appearing that day in their liveries, heard another sermon at St. Paul's Cross."
On the 24th the Queen herself attended in state the “Thanksgiving" at St. Paul's. She and all the Protestant leaders regarded the overthrow of the Armada as a special mercy from His hand, who of old upheld His people in many a desperate struggle with overwhelming foes. And if ever one may confidently trace the great Hand of Providence, surely there is ample reason to trace it here. A series of trifling accidents, each of them slight in itself, woven together in the great loom of Providence, entangled the greatest enterprise which ever aimed at the Divine supremacy, in inextricable confusion and defeat. The death of the Marquis Santa Cruz, an able leader and an experienced seaman, while Sidonia was both timid and incapable : the storm which met them when they first emerged from the Tagus, and necessitated
a six weeks' delay, whereby the junction of the Duke of Parts was rendered impossible : the near approach to the English cres, whereas the orders of Philip were to steal up-channel as quen as possible : the fortunate presence of the Scotch pirate Flemia: whose swift craft had the heels of the Spaniards who gave chas, and enabled him to bring the news, and prevent the surprise of ne captains in Plymouth Harbour : the variable weather in the channel which gave such immense advantage to our light erolutions : the sudden panic at the assault of the fire-ships : and the awful hurricanes in the calm August weather in those Northers Seas—these form a catalogue of accidents, which, strung together on the string on which Sir W. Monson was able to unite them. “It was the will of Him that directs all men and their acties that the fleets should meet and the enemy be beaten as thet were," furnish one of the grandest scenes in the great drams God's Providence in history. But there is something to my mind beyond the simple fact it was the will of God; it is always the will of God that gigantic and splendid assaults on the liberties man should fail. From the history of this past combination, let us derive courage to face with cheerfulness, and even hope, am future combination with which Europe may threaten this palladius of the liberties of mankind. I do not allude to the insensate frat which really disgraced us some time ago, as though the will os despot as ruthless and as self-blinded as Philip could, without any noticeable preparation, in some forty-eight hours pour 100,000 met: from Cherbourg on our defenceless coasts. I attach far more importance to the thoughtful apprehension of such a friend of England as Count Montalembert, that the deepening despotism of Europese governments, hating bitterly the great witness which, in the AS of God, our very existence bears against their principles and the deeds, may desperately endeavour, by some gigantic combinatis. to sweep us from the earth. It is not our religion only, but that liberty which has been nursed by it to such robust proportions that they hate with a malignity which daily deepens-and it may be that we shall again have to gird on the sword to defend not to country only, but the dearest hopes of mankind. I do not think there is likelihood enough of this to lead us to dread it. I think our anxious sympathizers abroad too little appreciate the fact that if the despots are against us, the peoples are with us, and at the first signal call of such a combination, would raise such a storm ** would leave few despotic thrones standing in the world. Bet granting the combination formed, the army organized, the TSI assembled, this Spanish history has two great lessons to teach us which should save us from a mad expenditure in costly stand defensive preparations, and spare us all dread as to the resul.