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ADVOCATE AND MEDIATOR," sounds grand and solemn amid these Are Marias and Salve Reginas. And it means much in this strife. It is the honour of the one Mediator between God and man which is at stake in this battle; and England, in the name of her one High Priest before the throne of God did gird herself for this great battle of the Lord.

The Spanish preparations being now complete, the Armada sailed from the Tagus the last week in May. But a fierce storm dispersed it, and drove it back with no little loss into the harbours of the nearest coast. Rumour magnified the disaster; and it was confidently reported in England that the fleet would need a year to refit. Elizabeth, whose besetting sin, let us thank God, was parsimony and not extravagance or profligacy, sent orders to the Admiral to lay up the largest of his ships. Howard, wise and provident commander, by no means believed the danger over for the year. He wrote nobly to Walsingham, offering to keep the sea at his own expense rather than give up the defence of the coast. Nay, he resolved to sail down Spain-wards, and see if he could not do a little “singeing of the King of Spain" himself; who could tell but that he might find the ships all crippled, burn them in their own harbours, and finish the war at a blow. Running down before a north wind, he approached the coasts of Spain. There the wind shifted to the south. Then his ability as Lord HighAdmiral of England appeared. Drake would certainly have stood on. Nothing on earth would have held him back from another razzia in the Spanish ports. Howard remembered that the defence of England was his charge ; he reflected that with the south wind, the Armada might slip by him, and find the coast defenceless; and so at once he stood about and returned. Ignorant of the movements of the Armada, the fleet went into Plymouth ; and there, in those early July days, were gathered in that little western town, intensely excited, but finding time hanging heavily on their hands, the first seamen of the world. The Howards, Sheffield, Raleigh, Frobisher, Hawkins, Drake, Townshend, Fenton, and brave John Davis, just back from a harder battle with the Polar ice. In the list of ships the name of John Davis occurs as captain of a little boat of 20 tons-doubtless, the gallant Arctic mariner turning out in a fishing-boat, to strike a blow for merry England and the Gospel. One would like to be able to look into Plymouth, and to hear them talk in those days. Meanwhile, though they knew it not, the Armada had sailed finally from the Tagus on the 12th July. On the 19th, there was bowling on Plymouth Hoe. The idle but anxious mariners, casting many an eager gaze round the glorious horizon which that spot commands, were solacing themselves, Drake foremost, with a merry game of

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Admiral, closed the mouth of the English Channel with the TS body of the fleet. Amidst the hum of this vast preparation the new year's morning dawned. It is said that, a hundred year before, an astronomer of Konigsberg foretold that “1.5*8 be an admirable year, and the climacterical year of the world This was about right. Of the spirit of the English people w have the most abundant evidence. The Queen, in a letter tu ti. Lords-Lieutenant of Hampshire, puts the simple question:

“Every man's particular state in the highest degree will be touched, in respect of country, liberty, wives, childr-n, lani lives, and (which was especially to be regarded) the profes of the true and sincere religion of Christ.” Wherefore," iz a word, O Englishmen, “ QUIT YOU LIKE MEN, AND FIGHT." Ani nothing loth was England. Hear this testimony from Stav:

“It was a pleasant sight to behold the soldiers as they marche to Tilburie, their chearful countenances, courageous words ani gestures, dancing and leaping wherever they came. In the CEP their most felicity was in the hope of fighting the enemy, wbe. ofttimes divers rumours ran of their foe's approach, and that prezes battle would be given them. Then were they as joyful at si news as if lusty giants were to run a race.”

A country like that is impregnable to an invader. Spariares had to learn it. France may have to learn it yet.

I cannot refuse myself the pleasure of quoting from the forma prayer which was offered up in prospect of this great peril:

“O Lord, give good and prosperous success to all thon fight Thy battle against the enemies of Thy Gospel. Show or token continually for our good, that they who hate us mas a it and be confounded. And that we, Thy little and de flock, may say with good King David, 'Blessed is the p er whose God is the Lord Jehovah, and blessed is the folk whis. H: hath chosen to be His inheritance.' These and all graces new for us, grant, 0 Ileavenly Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, er only Mediator and Redeemer."

The Armada, too, had its Liturgy. The instructions to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who had succeeded Santa Cruz ss Admiral, are extant. They are clear and able, but painfaa elaborate. One feels that a little good sense and good saman..? would be worth them all. The orders against vice and pritisa were strict, and doubtless earnest; and there is this about prakt: The company of every ship every morning, at break of in day, shall, according to the custom, give the good tomu by the mainmast, and at night the tre Maria,' and some days the * Salce Regina,' or at least the Saturdays with a Litany." (2 is not once mentioned. “FOR JESUS CHRIST'S SAKE, OLE ULI

for this seatish preparatie last we know little lovelisaster ; an

t finch the war at a bts of Spain,-d High

ADVOCATE AND MEDIATOR," sounds grand and solemn amid these Are Marias and Salve Reginas. And it means much in this strife. It is the honour of the one Mediator between God and man which is at stake in this battle; and England, in the name of her one High Priest before the throne of God did gird herself for this great battle of the Lord.

The Spanish preparations being now complete, the Armada sailed from the Tagus the last week in May. But a fierce storm dispersed it, and drove it back with no little loss into the harbours of the nearest coast. Rumour magnified the disaster; and it was confidently reported in England that the fleet would need a year to refit. Elizabeth, whose besetting sin, let us thank God, was parsimony and not extravagance or profligacy, sent orders to the Admiral to lay up the largest of his ships. Howard, wise and provident commander, by no means believed the danger over for the year. He wrote nobly to Walsingham, offering to keep the sea at his own expense rather than give up the defence of the coast. Nay, he resolved to sail down Spain-wards, and see if he could not do a little “singeing of the King of Spain” himself; who could tell but that he might find the ships all crippled, burn them in their own harbours, and finish the war at a blow. Running down before a north wind, he approached the coasts of Spain. There the wind shifted to the south. Then his ability as Lord HighAdmiral of England appeared. Drake would certainly have stood on. Nothing on earth would have held him back from another razzia in the Spanish ports. Howard remembered that the defence of England was his charge; he reflected that with the south wind, the Armada might slip by him, and find the coast defenceless; and so at once he stood about and returned. Ignorant of the movements of the Armada, the fleet went into Plymouth ; and there, in those early July days, were gathered in that little western town, intensely excited, but finding time hanging heavily on their hands, the first seamen of the world. The Howards, Sheffield, Raleigh, Frobisher, Hawkins, Drake, Townshend, Fenton, and brave John Davis, just back from a harder battle with the Polar ice. In the list of ships the name of John Davis occurs as captain of a little boat of 20 tons-doubtless, the gallant Arctic mariner turning out in a fishing-boat, to strike a blow for merry England and the Gospel. One would like to be able to look into Plymouth, and to hear them talk in those days. Meanwhile, though they knew it not, the Armada had sailed finally from the Tagus on the 12th July. On the 19th, there was bowling on Plymouth Hoe. The idle but anxious mariners, casting many an eager gaze round the glorious horizon which that spot commands, were solacing themselves, Drake foremost, with a merry game of VOL. IU.

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bowls. Suddenly one Fleming, a well-known Scotch pter, the ders in among them, and declares that he has seen the Amesis off the Lizard, within four miles of his ship, and has hurried :: Plymouth with the news. All start up in livid excitement, in Drake, cool and humorous, and not to be hurried by a Spani will have the game played out to the end. Then every man ir himself to work. The wind was blowing stiffiy right into t harbour. None but English seamen probably could have got ". the ships. “But indeed,” says Camden, “with singular 1gence and alacrity of the seamen, whom he," the Lord-Admir.. “encouraged at their halser work, assisting them and the con: soldiers in doing it in person,” 54 of the ships were warpe-1 oz: : sea in the teeth of the gale, and started like hounds on the try i of their game.

The next day the Armada was discovered standinz up-chan under full sail, in the form of a crescent, the horns of which 3said to have covered seven miles. Lord Howard had already - ". tled, with consummate wisdom, the plan of the fight. Daring at: seamanship were the English characteristics ; speed, lightnes 3"." weatherliness the qualities of their ships. Howarl, determ... that these qualities should have the fullest play, an "en " his ships could turn about with incredible celerity and ni'nli " which way soever they pleased, to change wind and turk serie again," he resolved that it should be a running fight. The br. Spaniards were to be harassed by ceaseless attacks, stragazin #f to be cut off, and all which individual daring an! -kill mi! attempt with the likelihood of success was to be enterprie:1.' close fight and boarding were forbidden, as the rule of the for the size of the galleons and the troons on board would them in that case a great advantage over their nimble fresche fident in his sramanship, and his power to outmanquut : Spaniard at will, Lord Howard, with but fifty-four ships de gallantly into the fray. His Ark Royal singled out the Admiral ship at once and “thundered grievously upon her," while Drak. Hawkins, and Frobisher attacked the rear squadron under Reals so fiercely, that it was compelled to close up with the main body grievously battered, and with the loss of two great shine In One of these Drake found 555,000 ducats, which he abandoned men. After two hours' fighting, in which he had just breathed his men, and demonstrated his essential superiority, Human dry off to await the forty ships which had been unable to warp out of Plymouth in time to join the first day's fray. That night next day there was some confusion in the English tleet. Humare with two ships, the White Bear, Lord Edmund Sheffield, and to Mary Rose, Captain Fenton, held on in sight of the lights of the

a that it was d with the lats, which be had just

Spaniards, but the English Vice-Admiral's lanthors had disappeared. The truth seems to be that at sun-down Drake had caught sight of five sail in the distance, which had the air of Spanish galleons about them, and a flavour therefore-and Drake had a keen scent for such matters-of gold, spices, and Indian wares. Drake, not in the least hurry about the Armada, (remember he was as true a patriot as ever lived), knowing that he could overhaul the ships and catch the Armada again in good time for the fighting, slipped off in pursuit. To his infinite disgust, he found they were quiet Dutch merchantmen, and he crowded all sail to rejoin the fleet. But the loss of the Vice-Admiral's signals had entailed some confusion, and on the 22nd nothing was done.

On the 23rd, Tuesday, both parties set to work in earnest. During the night, Raleigh, unable to endure the suspense on shore, came off with a little squadron to join. His spirit was felt at once in confirming fully the policy of Howard. He observed that the Spanish shot from their lofty decks cleared, in most cases, the English ships; while ours, well aimed and low, crashed into the crowded Spaniards and did fearful execution. He advised, therefore, fighting loose and large,dashing in and out again wherever an opening in the enemy's array offered-keeping the Spaniard in ceaseless alarm and miserable perplexity. It was a battle of evolutions, in which the enemy, though brave enough at close quarters, was as helpless as a bear amidst a troop of agile hounds. It was merrily called “a morris dance on the waters,” and there was that of the old chivalry living still in English breasts, which made them enjoy the game. It was a well-fought day. Frobisher, with five London merchantmen, was set upon by overwhelming numbers, and sustained the assault with astonishing spirit and skill. Howard pressed to his rescue, signaling to all in sight to follow him. Recalde flung himself in the way with the largest galleons, and a most sanguinary fight ensued. IIoward reserved his fire till within musket-range, and it told terribly. In the end, the Spaniards were compelled to sheer off. Frobisher was rescued, and, as the result of the day's fight, a large Venetian Argosy and several transports remained in our hands. “One Cock, an Englishman, died, however, in the midst of enemies, in a small ship of his”—the only serious English loss. Next day was a day of repose. The Spaniards had had enough, and the English were unable to renew the fight. An English campaign would not be complete without a bit of English blundering; and by some great mismanagement of the Government, having its root probably in the parsimony of Elizabeth, the fleet was short of stores. There is a MŠ. letter of Drake's in the State-Paper Office, dated March 30th, 1588, in which he remonstrates against the parsimony

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