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Since, therefore, at a depth of thirty-two feet, a cubic inch of water will have yielded to this extent only, we may consider that for all practical purposes the liquid is incapable of condensation.

On the other hand, if a body when carried down into deep water admits of reduction from the pressure of the fluid, or if its structure is so porous that the liquid can be readily forced into the interior, its gravity will be considerably, and it may be) grotesquely increased. A piece of wood once carried to the floor of the Atlantic would lie there like a piece of metal. Scoresby tells us of a boat which was dragged down by a wounded whale, and which required five-and-twenty men to raise it to the surface. It was found to be so heavy in consequence of the injection of water into its tissues that two other boats -one at each extremity-were necessary simply to support it; and splinters flung into the ocean sank as if they were strips of iron.

But here our discourse is interrupted by a slight shock. I don't like it at all. My nerves unfortunately are not in the best possible order for such an excursion, but I trust I am not going to be seriously frightened. You, too, begin to feel strongly impressed with the solemnities of our position. Quite reasonable that you should ! If Dr. Johnson refused to envy the man who could stand unmoved at Marathon or Iona, we may decline to be the individuals who could sit phlegmatically in the sea, and not experience an emotion of awe when we thought of the great abyss of waters in which we were immersed. Sir, we ought not to come down here like brute beasts. A little faltering in the voice, a little fluttering at the heart, a little perspiration on the brow, are but fitting expressions of homage to the majesty of the ocean.

The cause of the shock, however, is soon explained. The bell has grazed the side of a sunken rock, and, after a few concussions (which induce us to feel still more like the man at Marathon or Iona), it alights on the bed of the sea. Fortunately we have made our descent in a shallowish quarter. All divers are not equally happy in their landing, if it may be so termed. Triewald refers to one who came into contact with the bolt of a wreck, which pierced a hole in the side of his machine. The water began to rush in, the air began to rush out; and the big bubbles, gurgling to the surface, threw the attendants into great consternation. With remarkable presence of mind, however, the diver thrust his arm into the aperture, and, having given the signal, was drawn up in safety, thanks to this extemporaneous plug.

Once down at the bottom of the ocean, the diver may leave the bell if he is provided with aquatic armour, of which various kinds have been devised. These mainly consist of a stout helmet for the head, and of strong sheathing for the upper part of the frame, or else the person is protected by a sort of case from which the arms protrude for the purpose of gathering the treasures which somehow or other most people expect to find at the bottom of the sea. To supply the explorer with air a flexible tube is connected with the bell, or a sufficient allowance of breathing material is forced into a belt by means of a condensing pump. Thus equipped, I fancy that any sea-deity who may chance to fall in with one of these human monsters—foraging for like a band-box in the coils of a boa-constrictor. Or, to put the matter in a more pleasing form, let me recommend you to take a bottle of pure sherry (if such a phenomenon can be discovered in Europe, and, having corked and sealed it, send it into the depths of the ocean by means of a sounding line. Haul it up, and take a glass-I beg to decline for myself—and what will be the result? Why, you will find that a vertical voyage does not improve the quality of wine as a honzontal one is presumed to do. The liquid which went down price six or seven shillings the bottle will come up at considerably less than a farthing the barrel. The superincumbent weight of the ocean has, in fact, so compressed the cork that the contents will be little better than mere brine. Need I say, therefore, that no merman accustomed to sport in deep waters could ever wear such a head-dress as a terrestrul hat, for it would be forced down upon his skull like an empty egyshell; and certainly no sea-nymph would dream of employing garments stiffened by crinoline or expanded by slender steel hoops, like their sisterhood of the land.

But here you remind me that a curious question is sometimes raised -occasionally, too, amongst very intelligent people-respecting the effect of deep water upon sinking substances.

What excellent nerves you must have to propound a philosophical thesis at this depth below the surface ! Such composure of mind i exceedingly uncommon in a diving-bell. I will endeavour to wind up my courage to the height of your argument. Now, what is your difficulty ?

This : it has sometimes been contended that as the weight of wate constantly increases there must be a point, if the sea be deep enough, whero electric cables will float, and where even cannon-balls pas refuse to sink any further. This conclusion, however, arises from some confusion of idea in regard to pressure and compressibility. If water were a “squeezable" fluid, like the air in the bell, a givea quantity taken from the surface of the ocean-say, a pailful-would be gradually reduced in bulk the lower we descended, until it might be contained in a common tumbler. But in that case its density that is the quantity of matter included in a determinate space-would be proportionately augmented. Now, the only condition on which a cubes inch of iron or other heavy substance could remain in suspension any particular depth, would be that it weighed neither more nor lema than a cubic inch of the surrounding fluid. But it so happens that water is virtually an incompressible liquidl. Its particles won't con to be forced into closer proximity. The Florentino a domicians thought they could subduo its stubbornness by subjecting a sphere ! cold filled with the fluid to enormous pressure ; but the drop coa through the metal rather than compromise their chancter by the slightest concession. Subsequent experiments by Canton, Perkins, and Oersted have indeed shown that there is some small contractiva za bulk; but it is so trifling that the last-named philosopher estimaan it at one part in forty-six millions for cach additional atmolen

Since, therefore, at a depth of thirty-two feet, a cubic inch of water will have yielded to this extent only, we may consider that for all practical purposes the liquid is incapable of condensation.

On the other hand, if a body when carried down into deep water admits of reduction from the pressure of the fluid, or if its structure is so porous that the liquid can be readily forced into the interior, its gravity will be considerably, and it may be) grotesquely increased. A piece of wood once carried to the floor of the Atlantic would lie there like a piece of metal. Scoresby tells us of a boat which was dragged down by a wounded whale, and which required five-and-twenty men to raise it to the surface. It was found to be so heavy in consequence of the injection of water into its tissues that two other boats -one at each extremity_were necessary simply to support it; and splinters flung into the ocean sank as if they were strips of iron.

But here our discourse is interrupted by a slight shock. I don't like it at all. My nerves unfortunately are not in the best possible order for such an excursion, but I trust I am not going to be seriously frightened. You, too, begin to feel strongly impressed with the solemnities of our position. Quite reasonable that you should! If Dr. Johnson refused to envy the man who could stand unmoved at Marathon or Iona, we may decline to be the individuals who could sit phlegmatically in the sea, and not experience an emotion of awe when we thought of the great abyss of waters in which we were immersed. Sir, we ought not to come down here like brute beasts. A little faltering in the voice, a little fluttering at the heart, a little perspiration on the brow, are but fitting expressions of homage to the majesty of the ocean.

The cause of the shock, however, is soon explained. The bell has grazed the side of a sunken rock, and, after a few concussions (which induce us to feel still more like the man at Marathon or Iona), it alights on the bed of the sea. Fortunately we have made our descent in a shallowish quarter. All divers are not equally happy in their landing, if it may be so termed. Triewald refers to one who came into contact with the bolt of a wreck, which pierced a hole in the side of his machine. The water began to rush in, the air began to rush out; and the big bubbles, gurgling to the surface, threw the attendants into great consternation. With remarkable presence of mind, however, the diver thrust his arm into the aperture, and, having given the signal, was drawn up in safety, thanks to this extemporaneous plug.

Once down at the bottom of the ocean, the diver may leave the bell if he is provided with aquatic armour, of which various kinds have been devised. These mainly consist of a stout helmet for the head, and of strong sheathing for the upper part of the frame, or else the person is protected by a sort of case from which the arms protrude for the purpose of gathering the treasures which somehow or other most people expect to find at the bottom of the sea. To supply the explorer with air a flexible tube is connected with the bell, or a sufficient allowance of breathing material is forced into a belt by means of a condensing pump. Thus equipped, I fancy that any sea-deity who may chance to fall in with one of these human monsters—foraging for gold in his domains-will be well-nigh scared out of his wits by the uncouth apparition. Neptune himself would probably run away ve. he to catch a glimpse of a diver dressed after Klingert's fashion, with tin-plate pot on his head, a brass-hooped cylinder round his loins, i drawers with an iron framing to protect his legs.

But even adopting the best of these devices, it is found difficult to venture upon any extensive explorations. That pleasant old pratzer in science, Bishop Wilkins, who hoped to effect such wonderfu. discoveries in the bed of the sea by means of his "arks," wher families were to live, and where children were to be born, would hat been woefully disappointed had he learned how little man can stil. accomplish by his submarine gropings.

But as we have not provided ourselves with armour, and bar satisfied our curiosity already, and have no great expectation of findina fortune where Duke Clarence dreamt he saw such glorious Wa1 .: gold and heaps of pearls, you become anxious that the sine for return should be given. I pull the rope accordingly. But the m h does not move! I begin to feel very uneasy. Horrible thoughta i through my brain. Can the men above have run away, and left wie perish ? People have done strange things before, why may thryn.: do strange things again? There are scoundrels who would think it az excellent joke-really a superb piece of waggery--to let us lie beim until we were drowned by the rising water, or choked with our own carbonic acid. Perhaps the rascals have gone to dinner, and my knowing anything about the chemistry of the lungs, imagine that we can make ourselves quite comfortable until they are pleased to return Or, possibly-and the very thought seems to stiffen my hair in porcupine's quills—the tackling by which we were suspended may her snapped, and, if so, our case is perfectly desperate ! Oh, why I s myself in agony) did I enter a machine not constructed up in Mr. Spalding's plan, for did not that ingenious grocer insist upon havin: * separate chamber in his apparatus, in order that it might be tilled with water when he wanted to sink, but occupied with air when he wiskor! to rise! My dear friend, if we had only come down upon his princi We might have ascended to the surfaco at pleasure, and gut ama! thoso miscreants whilst they were in the very act of chuckling : our fate!

But no! a jerk is felt. The bell begins to move. I grant mit uncharitable surmises. Human nature, after all, is not so dul as many people choose to assert. There we gu-sure chou h- in cleaving the waters on our return to the warm precincis of sy. (* spirits mount as we approach the surface, and particularly wla w reflect that we have nearly accomplished a feat which few tim spros mortals would dare to attrampt. You may notire, ton, that facr agire tite seeing to rise as well. The fact is, that the comrned air diving bell sharpens it amazingly. Persons employei in otrok , piers, breakwaters, or in other subaqueous opurations, which are them to work in a dense atmosphere, become uncommonly roracines Inspiring, as they dy, a larger quantity of oxygen than usual with ans

act of inhalation, a quicker waste of the bodily material ensues. To make this good, fuller or more frequent rations are required. Let no man therefore invite a person to dinner who has just been down in a diving-machine, unless he is prepared to see his guest make havoc with his provisions.

At last, with a great "plop," such as an inverted pail or tumbler makes when it leaves the water, we emerge from the bosom of the briny deep (to use the language of poets), and are immediately brought to bank (to employ the homelier phraseology of pitmen).

But after all, you ask, What is there to be seen at the bottom of the ocean? Ah, good reader, if you could walk across the bed of the Atlantic or Pacific, from continent to continent, it would be the strongest stroll that mortal ever took! You would find, if your faculties of vision were sufficiently sharpened for the purpose, that there were hill and valley-towering mountains whose tops were islands, and huge plains rivalling the great deserts of the land in their desolate sweep, with here and there volcanic cones, * sheets of hardened lava, springs of boiling water, and terrible chasms left by the earthquakes which have gashed the ground. In the deeper parts of the sea not a blade of true vegetation could be detected. Not a single fish probably swims in the profundities of the ocean, and if Schiller's diver had reached these solemn regions, he would have met with none of the monsters he encountered in howling Charybdis. There no ray of light from the smiling sun ever pierces. A stillness like that of an unpeopled planet prevails, for the fiercest tempest which ploughs up the surface in huge billows, cannot trouble the tranquillity of those awful abysses, and there the great disturber, man, never comes except dying-dead. All, in fact, is gloom and desolation. For though the plummet has faintly probed those depths, what news has it brought up to the dwellers on the land ? Simply this, that the bed of the ocean is a vast cemetery, strewn with the shells of microscopic creatures, which once lived near the surface, and when their little life was ended, sank slowly, weeks or months being consumed in their funeral march to the bottom, where they will repose till some day this spacious burial-ground will be uplifted, and then they will appear as compact and massive rocks. But “the depths have more.” For there lie the remnants of the gallant ship which foundered in storin, or sunk in battle--the cannon and cutlass, which are now corroding in peacethe costly merchandise which, saved, would have secured its owners fortune ; lost, destroyed his hopes, and broke his heart—the gold for which the possessor bartered his honour here, and perhaps his happiness hereafter-and, mixed with all, the grinning skull and ghastly skeleton--the bones of the fierce pirate and his helpless prey-relics alike of the lawless rovers who swept the ocean for plunder, and of the honest mariner who died in the service of civilization, and went down to rest in hope till the sea shall be summoned to give up its dead, both good and bad, both small and great.

• A line of cinders has been traced by the sounding apparatus for a distance of 1,000 miles between Ireland and America (Maury).

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