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Some translations of insulated portions of the New Testamen have recently been made in this country with the professed de of “ improving” the common version. The attempt which has tIcited most attention is that under the joint editorship of five clemen of considerable reputation for talent and learning, of w Dean Alford is one.
This attempt, at all events, illustrates one point-the best limited amount of change that any judicious editing can operi. in the “common version.” It is impossible not to awari :' praise to our “five divines" for moderation and self-contrain: case in which there are so many temptations to orerdo, if al show to critical acumen that the task is not a necella ' But instead of indulging the love of novelty, they have acte-i. the principle of doing a minimum ;* and the consequence is th: we may read page after page of their new translation, and ti:. only a few verbal changes; not always, by the way, ne . and we must add not always, in our estimation, improve!:*** We cannot, for example, say that the words, " My meat to : will of my father” are improved by the form, “My meat is! doing the will of my father;"' nor, as we think, is the alrs. in John, xiii. 23, at all to be commended. The word l-11!" seems to us the only genuine English word which expren: posture; and as the ancient custom at meals is rivenly kz r. we cannot see what end is answered by lengthening and wer::
* We wish we could say as much for the “first part " of a New Trin : the New Testament by the Rev. T. S. Green, M.,1., containina the ton" St. Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans. It has comparatives de l'. * * changes as regards meaning ; but it strongly illustrates tw) other
. we have insisted ; that it is very possible to deteriorate the 2017 a TV. ". change of diction; and that in any attempt at revision, it is ne ar tha: A minds should be engaged upon it, not only as inutual ails, but as cha . think that we may athirm that nearly all the changes of phrase?
! Mr. Green are palpably for the worse, and that he could not hare 2. . any public co-adjutors with an ear for genuine English or any rest . As we deem it a duty to give some proof of our exertions,
y o following renderings :-“Well done, good and truely servant; the wall as far as a free mullers, I will place thee in control of tu, mats of thy master.”—Matthew, Chap. xxv. 23. Or, "bow can we onir .. house of the strong man, and all qe his cha'!, unlı he should as: strong man.”—Matthew, Chap. xii. 29 “ And wheneset the "f* go's gone out of the man, it trureries erlerlees places, sekirest, and time to reMatthew, Chap. xii. 43 “And if God thus attores the termi tte po which to-day is, and to-morrow is thrown int.) the oven, will be a " . : clothe you, yon 92 of faith.” Matthew, (lap. vi. 341. * In 2: . hand is stumbling them, cut it off, and throw it fra thee; fever it is fena that one of thy members should be lost, and not thy while bele Gehenna.” - Matthew. (hap, vi. 30. “And if you greet your mon t o what are you outatning ?"- Matthew, ("hap. v. 17. "Blind full r a lame ones walk lepers are cleansed, and deaf ones hear, deadlines are n- B poor folk are addressed with good tidings; and blessed is be wlower I stumbled in me."--Matthew, Chap. xi. 5, 6.
the word into the phrase, “reclining at meat.” We may say the same of several verbal alterations which appear to us to convey neither more nor less than the terms which were previously used, and which might therefore have been retained. “Thou wast altogether born in sin " seems to us every whit as good as “ Thou wast icholly born in sin,” which change of word is the only alteration in the verse. In like manner, some of the transpositions of words, where no change of them is proposed, are, we fancy, wholly unnecessary, and occasionally render the passage less musical. “ Neither pray I for these alone” does not seem to us to be improved by the form, “Yet not for these alone do I pray.”
On the whole, however, these tentative efforts of our five divines deserve high praise ; most of all for the severe self-control which the editors have exercised, and their superiority to the littleness of ostentatiously innovating for innovation's sake. Of one thing we are certain, that their labours must have a happy tendency at least in checking all exaggerated estimates of the error which remains to be corrected in the common version, and of the improvements of which it is susceptible. We entirely agree in the statements with which their modest preface commences. They say, * Refraining altogether from any expression of opinion respecting the desirableness of an Authorized Revision of the existing Version, we have thought that the best method of allaying agitation, and enabling those who cannot examine the question for themselves to form a correct view of the real state of the case, would be to offer as faithful and complete a version of a portion of the New Testament as it was in our power to construct. In so doing, however, we have kept two objects distinctly in our view: the one to exhibit in the fullest, most honest, and most loyal manner the actual meaning of the inspired Word of God, allowing no subjective preferences or preconceived views to interfere with this simple and faithful exposition in English of the original text of Holy Scripture; the other, to show, as far as is compatible with this first and chiefest object, that the Authorized Version is indeed a precious and holy possession, and that the errors of it are very slight and few in comparison of its many and great excellencies.”
We commend the whole of this preface to the attention of the reader, as well as the very interesting and able work of Dean Trench. Both will have the effect of healthfully stimulating public attention to this important subject, and of helping to form public opinion upon it.
LIFE AND HEALTH ASSURANCE.
THERE are few financial arrangements connected with personal prudence and foresight with which it so much behoves the puble : be acquainted, and with which, nevertheless, they are so litte acquainted, as Life Assurance, or a provision against the calamity of premature death; and also under those various other aspects in who it presents itself as an alleviation of misfortune and sickness association with Friendly and Benefit Societies. The causes of the prevailing ignorance on these matters are due partly to the genera indifference of mankind respecting the future, but principally to the lack of accessible and readable information about them. This lat": cause, again, is traceable to others, such as the inherent difficu's of popularizing purely technical and financial subjects, and ! number of subsidiary topics which spring up at every attempt to make the science intelligible, each of which seems to desia! explanation before proceeding further. The number of perja possessing an accurate and extended knowledge of Life Insur principles and practice has hitherto been very small, nor is it lamang even in our day. Actuaries* have not been so much special educated for their profession, as inducted into it by fortuitous OY. rences. Even though the number of competent persons may be la than it once was, yet these professional men seldom have the facale of popular exposition, or in the few cases where they possess it, they are commonly so lucratively and thoroughly occupied, that ther at indisposed and unprepared to spend time in teaching elements SDI in addressing the common people in unauthoritative and unpretending modes. There are, indeed, numerous self-styled Lecturers up 125
- -- --- ------ -- • It may be well to explain at once and for all some principal care la Actuary is the financial manager of an Assurance Company, and, either by him or with assistants, its computer and accountant. Directors advise, with the Vars! Officer, upon the acceptance or rejection of lives offered for assurance apa carus rules called premiums. These are founded upon Rates of Mortakts, asd graduated according to the age at the time of Assurance 'The term Life the most convenient designation of the Company, or Society, or Instinta which assures lives, and which may either be Proprietary, or founded up a no for which interest is paid, or Mutual, in which case the assurer all form a parte nery; or Hired, in which the two other principles are combined. The Parent Assurance is that parchment or paper document which the assurer ruires up paying his first premium, and which binds the othce. A Life
A w ever in its simplest form, is a contract entered into by a public society to pay upra death of a subscriber to its funds a fixed sum of money, either with or withot additions derivable from its surplus funds. On his part the assurer en u tmar a premium, or computed equivalent for the assurance, either annually, Haria! or for a fixed number of years. All the more complex, or more peculiar contra of Assurance are founded apon similar conditions, varied socording to the dead of the several cases and customers.
Assurance who visit provincial towns and villages, and placard the walls with their announcements; but it is soon discovered that these gentlemen are the agents, or paid advocates, of particular societies or offices, a discovery which naturally rather weakens their hold upon the public, and destroys their claim to pure benevolence in the proclamation of their knowledge.
Such are a few of the more obvious ways of accounting for the prevailing ignorance. It is our present intention to endeavour, within moderate limits, so to expound the principles and practices of Life Assurance against death and personal incapacity, that our readers may gain a vantage ground from which they may, at any time, scrutinize more effectively any particular project or proposal laid before them for the purpose of obtaining their patronage and personal connection with it. In so doing we shall employ the plainest language, and avoid all technicalities which can be avoided, while we shall explain the few we are compelled to employ. Our aim will also be, not so much to explain what is already explained in one or two tracts or tractates upon the subject, as to unfold what is not usually explained, and to give our readers the fruits of a good deal of research and inquiry which they will not easily find elsewhere ready to their hands. We shall rather place them in a position to judge for themselves, and to follow their own conclusions, than enlarge upon themes and schemes in a manner better suited to a special pleader than an instructor. Nor is it an unimportant point that the writer is unconnected with any Office or Society, and that he therefore speaks without any bias to particular persons or plans, and purely with a view to the information and interest of his readers.
First, and principally, with reference to Life Assurance-a Company established for the purpose of assuring lives, proposes to convert a physical uncertainty into a pecuniary certainty. Proverbially, one of the most uncertain events in the whole round of occurrences, is the time of any individual's death, but although the duration of one person's life is so uncertain, the duration of a considerable number of healthy individuals' lives can be reduced to an average of figures, which long experience has proved to be as fixed as any law of Nature. Not more assignable is the course of the sun and the orbits of the stars, than is the collective duration of human life in a large number of ordinarily healthy men and women. The great aim has been to arrive at the precise knowledge of the duration of Assurance life collectively, and not to conjecture it loosely and vaguely-as for many years even professional men were compelled to do; with this aim a true Rate of Mortality has been sought after by noting the births and deaths of a given number of persons in a town or district. From observations of this kind at Northampton and Carlisle arose the two well-known Mortality Tables, termed, respectively, the Northampton and Carlisle. The former, being earlier, was the table adopted by the earlier offices; the latter, which is the later, and far the truer, is the basis of most modern business. But, since its adoption still truer Tables have been formed, which are VOL. III.
founded on the returns made to the Registrar-General, and these 87 called the English Life-Tables. Dr. Farr, attached to the Registrar office, has carefully observed the Registration returns, and imple: the Life-Tables; so that now we have really correct and r .data of the expectation of human life from any given age at : death. We are so near the real mortality, that future knowiec will not probably materially interfere with practical results in ance business.
Let it be, then, distinctly understood that, although difer offices have, from their dates of establishment, employed din Tables, simply because they could only take the best of their us day and date, yet, from the Tables we now have we can predict, w": certainty, the duration of a sufficiently large number of lives w arus an average. This last point is important; for, if the number too small for an average, we tend towards the uncertainty video vidual life; but, if the number be considerable, then whatever casualties happen (short of a raging pestilence, or an unfurex: calamity of an exterminating nature), the shorter lives of some 1. be compensated by the longer lives of others. Every person, pa admittance to an Assurance Company, undergoes a medical se mination; and, upon his health being pronounced fair, he is ermir: amongst the assured; and the experience of every such oitoe shown that the mortality recorded has always been more or less within the limits of the tabular expectation. As the old The particularly the Northampton, were too imperfect for accurate *** sults, the offices adopting them have had to make use of a com poise, by a special arrangement in the distribution of their stris and thus the evil has been compensated in some degree, then tos altogether, because some gain what others have lost. For in-002. the old Northampton Table (constructed about 1722) was the home of the calculations of the great Equitable Society. As it turra human healthy life to be shorter than it really was and is the rain charged upon that Table are too high; and, consequentis. * Equitable Society have had a difference from the true rate, a ne own favour, of from 55 to 26 per cent., according to the ages of the Assured ; and its own more recently published experience of its mortality proves that its charges have been too high by one-halss several ages, and by one-quarter at others. These difference Tables and charges in the various Companies create difficult atljustment and valuation in the periodical investigations of affairs of those Companies; but upon them we shall tvuch as I as may be at least, in this present Paper.
When we have obtained a true Table of Mortality, we have whai may be said to correspond to the cost price, or producing price, of shopkeeper's or manufacturer's goods. A Life-Assurance the not assure lives upon this cost price, but upon such addition to 3% 29 will leave a marrin for all expenses and contingencies, and a surt. ** after all deaths. Its directors and managers, therefore, hare lo tabular rates properly calculated for all ordinary basiness !