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reign was probably the means of it. , seventeen millions, while the populaHe himself would probably have fol tion was only four and a half millowed the reactionary example of his lions ; now this incubus has been brother sovereigns. When in 1848 he thrown off in great part, and this gave his subjects a constitution" none tyrannous priesthood proved powerhad asked it, and few there were who less, save to corrupt. could value it, or even knew what a The vigour and independence of constitution meant." There was no the press is justly eulogised, and the public opinion in the country. It formation of a public opinion is would have been revoked at any largely attributed to its emancipation. moment, and there was no moral We cannot follow Dr. Wylie further, power in the country to offer ef- his pictures of travel are vival, his fectual resistance. Radetzky had moral lights strong, and his heart unaccountably and suddenly stopped sound. We are glad to see his volume at the Sardinian frontier in the midst | in a second edition. of his victorious career, when he was expected to march upon Turin. Victor Emanuel proved to be “a
THE STORY OF A POCKET-BIBLE. LE good-natured, easy-minded man, who
dun: Religious Tract Society. loved the chase and his country seat, and found it more agreeable to live on For the mere novelty of the thing, I good terms with his subjects, and enjoy | shall review my own history here. à handsome civil list which his Parlia- 1 The journal relates the adventures de ment has taken care to vote for him, my possessors at various periods of than to be indebted for his safety my history, since I left the bookand á bankrupt exchequer to the seller's hands to become the choice bayonets of his guards;" a constitu- and prize of an ingenuous child of tional monarch simply by accident; six years old on his birthday. From and so under the guidings of God's him I passed into the hands of porn good providence the constitution was in business, worldly families, Rsaved, and, said General Beckwith to 1 manists, sceptics, working-men, an Dr. Wylie, “should the constitution dissolute drunkards, endeavouring t live three years longer, the people diffuse a healthful influence even of that time will have become so where, and meeting sometimes with habituated to the working of a free saving and triumphant success. The constitution, and public opinion will will cheer the soul when read of, an have acquired such strength, that it perhaps may stimulate some wb will be impossible for the monarch to peruse this prefatory notice of 2.9 retrace: his steps, even should he be fortunes, to try among their so inclined." Its condition has been quaintances the benefit of the gifts thrice realized, let us hope that the A POCKET BIBLE prediction will be fulfilled. The ! spirit of liberty is difficult to kill. What in 1931 was eager hope, has now become moral certainty.
THE DIAMOND AND THE PEAL B
Mrs. Gure. London: Karglet Dr. Wylie gives us a very vivid
: imprxsion of the power and cure of Popery in Piedmont in 1st, the Ir is quite enough to say that tb must priest-ridden country in Europe fiction above-named is Mr. Gori · "the paradise of priests." The and is tinted with the characteris: detnonstation is furnished by solue Goresque colouring, to give a Trv: formulable statistics from La Pressen idea of its inerits to the reader. 1: the c all of the church represent is a new edition, and is revised by the ing a putal of de millions of francs, author. ani a Terly revenite of upwants of
THE KIRK OF SCOTLAND.
The Church History of Scotland from the Commencement of the Christian Era to the Present Century. By the Rev. JOHN CUNNINGHAM, Minister of Crieff. 2 Vols. Edinburgh : A. & C. Black.
TIME was when mention of the “ Kirk” of Scotland awakened south of the Border anything but the ideas of moderation, peace, and love which we are wont to associate with a Christian community. The most glorious figures in its history appeared as stern, unbending fanatics; the most stirring events were clouded by visions of wild enthusiasm and unrighteous resistance to the powers that be. Happily matters are changed; the accurate investigations of M‘Crie and others have dispersed many of the prejudices raised by the writings of Sir Walter Scott and other superficial writers. The sneer at the psalm-singing, snivelling Covenanter who is made to repeat inappropriate portions of Scripture, and the sympathy with the bold, dashing cavalier, red-coated and gold-laced, has given place to a more just appreciation of the merits of both parties. It is now admitted that the Covenanters were neither fanatics nor persecutors, and that the ultraism into which they at last undoubtedly fell was the consequence of their isolation and persecutions rather than of their principles. In truth, they were the noble-men of Scotland, standing out for civil liberty and Gospel truth in a generation of knaves and cowards; rugged, if you like, and bare, like the hill-sides on which they sought shelter, but athletic mighty men, heroes in the truest sense where heroism was but a rare quality. Indeed, viewing the History of the Church of Scotland as a whole--at least during Reformation times, we learn to form a juster estimate of the peculiar service which it discharged, not only in the cause of religion but in the interests of civil liberty. With a Parliament utterly corrupt and worthless, which would vote any measure patronised by the Court or enjoined by the people, the confession of faith or the covenants to-day, and bloody persecutions to-morrow; with a nobility utterly debased and sycophantic, the general assembly and the pulpit of the church were VOL. III.
the only places in which the truth was fearlessly spoken. In consideration of this inestimable boon which even now might sometimes be coveted, we are willing to pardon appearances of extravagance and disloyalty. It was surely something when James VI. could be publicly reproved from the pulpit, or Andrew Melville could shake him by the sleeve, calling him * God's silly vassal," and character: ising to his face his elaborate kingcraft as "devilish and pernicious and “ mere mad folly.” A very different scene, indeed, from that when the English bishops in their lawn sleeves, upon bended knees, humbly responded to his most sacred Majesty's pedantic argumentation.
Whatever, then, makes us better acquainted with the real history of a Kirk to which the country owed so much, we are prepared 10 hail as a more than common addition to our literature. It may seem strange that with the well-known enthusiasm of the Scotch top their country and Kirk, no complete or satisfactory history shot hitherto have been composed. Preparatory labours, indeed, are Du wanting, ancient chronicles, narratives, diaries, and correspondences have been published in abundance; and the labours of the historia who has the diligence to peruse these records and the capacity form an independent opinion upon them, have been greatly lighter in consequence. It was, therefore, with no small degree of expect tion that we took up the two ponderons volumes which are occasion of this article, and with equal disappointment that we them down. We cheerfully admit that the author displays could siderable diligence and even learning; nor could his narrative other than interesting. But the student has not gained a single fact by it; and though the compilation is both detailed and on whole accurate, the author seems to have culled his opinions as as his facts, at second-hand; worst of all, he appears to us cordial sympathy with what constitutes the core of the History of Kirk. After this we shall, at least in the meantime, waive objections to a style which, from studied affectation, occasion descends to extreme looseness, and defer special objections narrative till we discuss the events to which they more parta apply.
The very commencement of the History of the Church of Scot has a peculiar interest. Passing over a period more or less invou in gloom, we find ourselves in the Island of Iona, with St. Co! preaching the Gospel and founding the first Christian Institutio the country. These preachers were unlike those whom Rome sent forth, and, despite the remarks of Mr. Cunningham, we inclined to agree with Neander, that, had the distinctively ** Confession" continued in the ascendant, the course of the Geri churches would have been differently shaped. Granting that me superstition connected itself with the religion of the Coldeer. opposition to the undisputed supremacy of Rome was an impor element, however trifling the points may seem on which raised. But even this latter concession we are not prepared to
hey more particularly
u on which it was
It is scarcely fair in Mr. Cunningham to sneer at the peculiar tonsure and the stubborn adherence to their mode of calculating Easter, of the Culdees, when he himself admits that they denied the obligation of clerical celibacy, and steadily refused to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome. From Iona missionaries went forth to England, who in a comparatively short period spread the Gospel. Up to the year 660, all the constituent parts of the Heptarchy, with the exception of Kent, adhered to the British Confession. But these simpleminded evangelists were not able to cope with the intrigues of Romish agents. The issue of the discussion at Streaneshalch between the contending parties had been preconcerted. The Romish speaker quoted the well-known text, “ Thou art Peter," &c., and on the admission of the Culdee that the passage was found in Scripture, King Oswy declared himself convinced of the supremacy of Rome. Driven from England the Culdee missionaries went to evangelize the heathen tribes of Germany. But here also they encountered the emissaries of the Pope, and the result was similar to that in England.
The Popish confession once established, the Church rapidly developed and gained strength in Scotland. Monasteries were multiplied. At the time of the Reformation there were no fewer than nearly 200 such institutions, with about 2 or 3,000 inmates. The power and wealth of the Roman hierarchy in Scotland were greater than in any other country. Before the Reformation they seem to have possessed no less than one-half of the whole national wealth. The consequences of such privileges in the deterioration of the clergy and the subjection of the people, will readily be understood. On the other hand, however, it must be admitted that to these monasteries of the Romish priesthood Scotland, as other countries during the Middle Ages, owed more than violent controversialists are willing to admit. The cultivation of literature and science, the legislation of the country and education of the people, and the provision for the poor, were due to the clergy, while their influence in softening barbarous manners, and interposing to quiet angry passions --cannot be questioned. The most flourishing period of the Church was during the reign of David I., that “ sair sanct for the Crown," who originated the Scottish hierarchy, and largely endowed ecclesiastical establishments. It must not, however, be imagined that the “perfervid ” disposition of the Scots failed them even during their subjection to Rome. Not to speak of the numberless contentions with English prelates who claimed supremacy over them, the Pope's exertions were frequently and successfully resisted, despite legates, a latere and interdict. A notable instance of this occurred at the commencement of the reign of Robert the Bruce, who courteously received the Nuncios sent to threaten him with excommunication if he invaded England, but returned their letters unopened, because not addressed to him as King. “There are several nobles in my dominions," remarked the monarch, “ called Robert de Bruce; it may be they are intended for some one of them." Yet King Robert was far from impious. Unable to perform his vow of going to Palestine, he is said on his deathbed to have charged brave Sir James Douglas to carry his heart to the Holy Sepulchre. On his way thither Sir James engaged in the war with the Moors in Spain. Overwhelmed by enemies in battle, he is said to have made his last charge by throw. ing the casket with the heart of the monarch before him and exclaiming, “On, thou noble heart, and when the Bruce leads, the Douglas will follow.” It were unpardonable to close this rapid survey without at least alluding to those Scottish names which have become celebrated in universal history. If the fame of Michael Scot, of Balwirie, the astrologer of Frederic II., of John Hollybush, or Sacrobosco, professor of mathematics in Paris, or of Thomas Learmont, “the Rhymer," are known chiefly to the learned, those of Johannes Scotus Erigena and John Duns Scotus are household words in ecclesiastical history.
The appearance of Wycliffe in England opens a new era in history. Never before had national rights as opposed to papal pretensions, clerical duties as distinguished from hierarchical ignorance, and scriptural truth as differing from man's inventions, been so clearly or energetically expounded. Lollardism, as the system was called in derision, died not with its founder or its early martyrs. For gener ations it continued among the people; it spread to the continent and found an echo in Bohemia; it extended to Scotland and survived until the reformation, the persecutions to which its adherents were exposed Among the important secondary means by which the downfal of papal supremacy was accelerated, two deserve special notice. The first of these was the revival of learning, inaugurated in Scotland by the foundation of the University of St. Andrew's in 1413, which was followed in 1450 by that of Glasgow, and by that of King's College, Aberdeen, in 1494. Due provision was made that these schools of learning should not remain empty. During the reign of James IV. the Scottish Parliament passed a measure ordaining that “all barone and freeholders of substance should keep their eldest sons and beir at school till they were taught Latin, philosophy, and the laws, under a penalty of twenty pounds." Nor do measures of this kind seem to have been unnecessary, at least if any credit attaches to the description of Scotland given by the celebrated Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini (after wards Pope Pius II.) who visited the country in 1.435. His narrative is curious and amusing. Scotland is represented as "a cold country, fertile of few sorts of grain, and generally void of trees. . . . . The towns are unwalled, the houses commonly built without lime, and in villages roofed with turf, while a cow's-hide supplies the place o a door. The commonality are poor and uneducated. . . . . The men are small in stature, but bold; the women fair and comely, and prone to the pleasures of love. . . . . . Nothing gives the Scots greater pleasure than to hear the English dispraised.... The wild Scots (we suppose the Highlanders) have a different language, and sometimes eat the bark of trees.” Thus far Enes Sylvius. Meanwhile increasing knowledge rendered people marr impatient of the intolerable yoke of Rome. The sale of benefices, the