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ornaments, brought from afar. Never heard I of a comelier ship having been adorned with battle weapons and war-weeds, with bills and mailed coats. Upon his bosom lay a multitude of treasures, which were to depart afar with himn, in: the possession of the flood. They furnished hiin not less with offerings, with mighty wealth, than those had done who in the beginning sent him forth in his wretchedness alone over the waves. Moreover, they set up for him a golden ensign, high overhead; they let the deep sea bear him; they gave hiin to the ocean. Sad was their spirit, mournful their mood. Men know not in south t) say (men wise of counsel, or any mer under the heavens) who received that freight.-- BEOWULF (Kemble's Translation.)
Thus the Northmen took possession worthily of those stormy seas. Thus, too, the patriarchs took possession of Canaan : by making it the burying-place of their dead. This distinction between the Roman and the Saxon courage is very worthy of attention. Roman courage would dare anything far duty, or in pursuit of notable and sufficient ends. It could stand calmly at its post under the lavafloods of Vesuvius, or leap full-armed into a yawning chasm, for its country and its gods. But that daring which loves peril for its own sake, and, mad with the excitement of the conflict, woos danger as 3 bride, belongs to the Northern races alone. There are many brave races among the modern European people of Romance origin; French, Spaniards, Italians, have never been charged with lackwardness when daring deeds had to be done. But to this day the Englishman's love of adventure, the joy he takes in perilous enter. prises, for the sake of the excitement and the high occupation of the faculties which they afford, is a mystery to these peoples 13 Anglais is always regarded and treated abroad as a man who may break out into a kind of adventurous mania at any moment. The old Berserker furor still survives among us, though in a milder form--teste, Mr. Wills on the edge of the Wetterhorn, or Dr. Tundi guideless on the peaks of Monte Rosa or Mont Blanc. So these stormy oceans, by a kind of elective affinity, belong to us. Our ancestors took possession of them royally; and down thrush Alfred, Athelstan, Knut, Harold, the Lancastrian house, Edwan IV., to Elizabeth, passed of right the sceptre of the narrow seas. In those ages, English maritime enterprise was but limited. There was little to tempt it forth into the broad ocean; but the changful climate, the frequent storms, the long winter night, and the perilous rockbound coasts of these Northern regions, tendo el to nurse that skill, daring, and love of maritime alventur', wl. h broke out at last, when the fieldI was prepared, into the literpriwhich I am about to chronicle, and which won, in one britt gnrtion, the naval mastery of the world.
In a former paper, we have trarned the history of oceanic dimurery from its dawn in the days of the kinsman of our lanca-trian kin Prince Henry of Portugal, to the commencement of Anette 1. covery in the reign of Elizabeth. The idea of a nearer path to tive gem and spice rerions which Gama and Columbus ha i la doull ** European enterprise and commerce, was the inspiration (of the daring mariners who forced the barrier of the Polar zone, and led
the van of the most brilliant exploits of modern times. Commerce was the genius of discovery; but imagination cast a halo of splendour even around the traffic and barter of that romantic age. Science has long since occupied the place of commerce as the genius of Arctic discovery ; but the stately dame may acknowledge her debt to her homelier sister without shame. “First that which is natural, then that which is spiritual,” is the law everywhere. But the men who led the expeditions-Frobisher, Davis, Baffin, Hudson, Button, Fox, and James, were knight-errants of the most exalted school. The honour to be won through danger and difficulty was their cynosure; they left the profit to the stay-at-homes who furnished the expeditions, and who looked for some substantial recompense in spices, gems, and gold. At any rate, Martin Frobisher, the pioneer of Arctic discovery, had a hero's soul in him, and inveighed as bitterly against the narrow souls and the timid hearts of the traders, as the brawniest of our muscular Christians could rail at the dogmas of the accepted gospel of free trade. Frobisher, the first of our Arctic mariners-the first in time, the first in honour-seems to have been a north countryman, from near Doncaster. From those parts too one day the Pilgrim Fathers would cast wistful glances at the New World. Drake was a south country. man, from Devon, as were most of the naval heroes of Elizabeth's reign. A very interesting account of the man, and of the origin of the enterprise, is given by one Master George Best, or Beast, as some write it, who was engaged in the voyage. Our readers will like to have it in his own words. After a long exordium to prove the Arctic zone habitable, he proceeds :-“ Which thing being well considered, and familiarly known to our general, Captain Frobisher, as well for that he is thorowly furnished of the knowlege of the sphere, and all other skilles appertayning to the art of navigation, as also for the confirmation he hath of the same by many years' experience, both by sea and land, and being persuaded of a new and nearer passage to Cataya than by Capo de Bona Speranza, which the Portugals yearly use : he began first with himself to devise and then with his friends to conferre, and laid a plain plot unto them that the voyage was not only possible by the north-west, but also he coald prove easy to be performed. And further he determined and resolved with himself to go make full proofe thereof, and to accomplish or bring true certificate of the truth, or else never to return again: knowing this to be the only thing of the world that was left yet undone whereby a notable mint might be made famous and fortunate. But although his will were great to perform this notable voyage, whereof he had conceived in his mind a great hope, by sundry sure reasons and secret intelligences, which here for sundry reasons I leave untouched, yet he wanted altogether means and ability to set forward and perform the same. Long time he conferred with his private friends of these secrets, and made also many offers for the performing of the same in effect unto sundry merchants of our country, about fifteen years before he attempted the same, as by good witness shall well appear. But perceiving that hardly he was harkened unto by the merchants, which never regard virtue without sundry certain and present pains, he repaired to the court, from whence, as from the fountain of our commonwealth, all good causes have their chief increase and maintenance" (that was before the establishment of the circumlocution office), and there laid open to many great estates and learned men the piot and sum of his device. And among many honourable minds which favoured his honest and commendable enterprise, he was specially beholden to the Right Hon. Ambrose Dudley, Earle of Warwick, whose favourable mind and good disposition hath always been ready to countenance and advance all honest actions, with the authors and executors of the same. And so, by means of my lord's honourable countenance, he received some comfort of his canse: and by little and little, with no small expense and pain, brought his cause to some perfection, and had drawn together so many adventurers, and such sums of money, as might well defray a reasonable charge to furnish himself to sem withal. He prepared two barks of 20 to 2.5 tons a-piece, wherein he prepared to accomplish his pretended vovare. Wherefore, being furnished with the foresaid two barks, and a small pinnace of 11 tons burden, having therein victuals and other necessaries for twelve months' provision, he departed upon the said voyage from Blackwall, the 15th June, A.D. 1576."
The first entry in the log-book is as follows :-"The 8th being Friday, about 12 of the clock, we waved at Deptford, and set sail all three of us, and bare down by the ('ourt, where we shotte off our ordinance, and made the best possible show we could. Her Majestie beholding the same, commended it, and bade us farewell with shaking her hand at us out of the window. Afterward she sent a gentleman aboard of us, who declared that Her Majestie had good liking of our doings, and thanked us for it, and also wished our captain to come to Court the next day to take his leave of her. The same day, towards night, Mr. Secretary Wooler came aboard of us, and declared to the company that Her Majestie had appointed him to give them charge to be obedient and deli gent to their captain and governors in all things, and wished its happie success."
They had an easy and prosperous course X.W. till on the 11th of May, they sighted land in lat. 61 deg. N. “It rose," says the log book," like pinnacles of steeples, and all covered with snow." This was evidently the southern part of Greenland. They attempted to land, “ but the great store of yce," and the heavy mists forbade. In a great tempest off this coast, the pinnace, with four hands on board (fancy the hardihood of taking her there), foundered, and all perished. The Jichael, mistrusting the matter, privily conrered herself home a rain there were la vrards and traitors then as now where she arrived safely, and reported the likevel with Frobis laut lost. Alone now in the Gabriel, the first Arctic mariner stood on to accomplish his enterprise. The accounts of the expedition are bal
meagre; they are far less full, "and therefore less interesting, than the narratives of the men, hardly his equals, who followed on the same path. We have what may be called the log-book of the ship, and the brief narrative drawn up by Mr. Best, or Beast, as he stands on the ship's registers, who sailed in the expedition. There is further a MS. in the Cottonian Collection in the British Museum, now unhappily much damaged by fire, in the handwriting of one Michael Lok, who advanced £800 out of the £2,400 which the expedition cost. In that MS. there is a little anecdote of Frobisher, which is invaluable as a revelation of the man's character, and of the extent to which his modest but daring spirit held the mastery over the crew.
" On the 13th July, in the rage of an extreme storm, the vessel was cast flat on her side, and being open in the waste, was filled with water, so as she lay still for sunk, and would neither wear nor steer with any help of the helm, and could never have risen again but by the marvellous work of God's great mercy to help them all. In this distress, when all the men in the ship had lost their courage, and did dispayr of life, the captain, lyke himself, with valiant courage stood up, and passed alongst the ship's side in the chain wales, lying on her flat side, and caught hold on the weather leech of the forsail, but in the wether coyling of the ship the foryard brake. • To ease her the mizen-mast was cut away, but she still rolled heavily, so that the water issued from both sides, though withal without anything floating over. Soon the poor storm-buffeted bark was put before the sea, and all hands were get to work to repair damages.'"
Hakluyt adds another anecdote to the same effect, under the date September 7th:-“ We had a very terrible storm, by force whereof one of our men was thrown into the sea, but he caught hold of the foresail sheet, and there held till the captain plucked him in again.” A true captain ; if anything was to be done, he was the man to do it; if any peril was to be met, he was the man to face it; if any honour was to be claimed, he was the last to challenge it. There is something almost sublime in the courage and conduct of the captain of that little boat, standing on through storm and ice into the bosom of those unknown Arctic seas. “The worthy captain, notwithstanding these discomforts, though the mast was sprung and the topmast blown overboard with extreme stress of weather, continued his course to the N.W.; believing the sea must needs at length have an ending, and that some land should have a beginning that way; and determined, therefore, at least to bring a true proof what land and sea the same might be, so far N.-Westwards, beyond any that hath ever been discovered.” He stood on to some purpose across the mouth of the straits, to which John Davis was so soon to give his name, and struck the American coast in lat. 62 deg. 30 min: Working up to 63 deg. 8 min., he found himself at the mouth of an inlet, “a great gut, bay, or passage,” which he entered joyfully, believing that the Western Passage was found to Cathay. “This place he named after himself, Frobisher's Straits, like as Magellanus in the S.W. end of the world, having discovered the passage to the South Sea, where America is divided from the continent of that land which lieth under the South Pole, and called the same Magellan's Straits." He sailed 60 leagues up the inlet, which was afterwards, through a kind of blunder, rebaptized by the name of Lumley, and found that the difficulties of the navigation increased as he advanced. At the extreme point where he landed he fell in with a “salvage people,” whom he likens to Tartars in appearance. They used canoes made of seal skins, with a kind of wood within the skin, and in shape in some respect resembling the shallops of Spain. “One of the natives, after a boat with five men had been captured by treachery, was caught by a stratagem, whereapuit when he found himself in captivity, for very choler and disdain, be bit his tongue in twain between his mouth; notwithstanding he die i not thereof, but lived until he came to England, and then died of cold which he had taken at sea.” The summer being far spent, Frobisher having collected much valuable information for the ga: i. ance of future expeditions, resolved to return. He weighed from the mouth of the straits on the 26th of August, and made Harwich safely on the 2nd of October.
He was received in England with distinguished honours. " He was highly commended of all men for his great and notable attempt, but specially famous for the great hope he brought of tke passage to Cataya.” But happily for discovery, something more precious than even the spices of Cathay seemed to be likely to rise out of the expedition, and led to its renewal the following year.
There are two versions of this curious story; which shows how our ancestors found, as we find, the great magnet of migration to le gold. One account of it is in Hakluyt, and runs thus:-- The sailor of course bronght home with them all kinds of curious things frul. these unknown regions, and among these curiosities were NOLI pieces of stone " like sea cole in colour.” The wife of one of the sailors by chance threw one of these pieces on the fire, and when it became heated quenched it with vinegar, " when it glistened with a bright marquesett of gold." Then it was given to the gold retinen who assaved it and reported it to be "gold ore, and very rich fur the quantity." The other version of the story is Lok's. He says in the MS. above referred to, that he obtained a piece on board Frr bisher's ship, and took it at once to a refiner, who gave a bad repaint of it. Lok, however, (apparently resolved to find gold in it) touk a piece of the ore to one John Baptista Agnello, who proved more accommodating, and found gold three several times; a grain : which it would seem Lok delivered to Her Majesty. Great exc7fe ment arose thereupon. But there was no insane rush to the pold fields. Men did not mob in those days as they do now. There is a staid and deliberate deportment in the men of all classes, whxch shows “the man" in grand contrast to those gregarious families of the brute creation, to which in these days he seems to esteem it an honour to be conformed. Still there was reasonable energy and haste. Three ships were furnished at a cost of £1.), of what zealons poor Michael Lok, if his wailin: ** from the Fleete Prt-on: London" are credible, was lett to make up £1,409). A rosal shirt