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have thoroughly come up to the de- ! To the first question as to the mands of the prospectus ; and we design of these stupendous structures, have no doubt that all readers of this the author answers, so far as we can masterly Treatise will be perfectly gather it from the book, that the satisfied with this judgment. Dr. Pyramids were formed for a record Ballantyne gives first a brief but very and memorial, to the end of time, of comprehensive and lucid description the measure of the earth, and for a of the three great systems of the standard of measure of length, capaHindoo pbilosophy, showing their city, and weight to which all nations agreements and differences, for which might appeal. (P. 224.) In another European scholars will ever feel in- part of the book, however, we are debted to him, as this is more intended | also told that this common system of for us than for the Hindoos. Having weight and measure was designed as given us, in about 22 pages, this an indubitable testimony to the end valuable exposition of the Philosophic of time, “that mankind were origisystems, the author enters upon his nally brethren, sprung from one great task of contrasting Christianity father," as well as to bind the famiwith this Philosophy, which he lies of the earth together before they performs throughout in a most had so far quitted each other's able and pleasing manner. Though society." (P. 200, &c.) Accordingly, the work is chiefly intended for the building of these Pyramids show the Hindoos, and as a manual | that the builders “were the greatest for missionaries engaged in preaching philosophers and the greatest benethe Gospel to them, yet we believe | factors the world ever knew." (P. that readers generally will derive 224.) To bestor such an extraordiboth pleasure and instruction from nary blessing upon mankind was the perusing it. It will moreover show | reason why the Pyramids were built. Christian friends at home what those To the second question, viz., who intellectual enemies are which our built these Pyramids ? Mr. Taylor derout missionaries abroad have to replies, 1, Noah ; 2, Shem ; 3, Ar encounter, and thus be the means of | phaxad and his brethren, Elam, making us pray more ardently for Asshur, Lud, and Aram ; and Salah those soldiers of the cross whilst en- and his cousins, l':, Hul, Gether, gaged in the conflict with spiritual and Mash ; 5, Eber; 6, Peleg and powers in high places.

his brother Joktan ; 7, Reu and his

cousins, the thirteen sons of Joktan, The Great PIRAMID. Why vas it which, according to our author,

Built? and Who Built it? "By John accounts for the latter being menTaylor. London: Longman and Co. | tioned in the 10th chapter of Genesis. 1859.

These individuals began, continued, In this age of wonder and astounding and ended this marvellous and most discoveries, when whole volumes which disinterested work. But though they have been buried in oblivion for did the work, yet to Nouh alone is to ages are brought to light again, the be ascribed “the original idea, the announcement of Mr. Taylor that he presiding mind and the benevolent has made an attempt in this book purpose of this extraordinary under"to recover a lost leaf in the world's taking," the builder of the Ark being, history” does no longer startle us, of all men, the most competent to though the leaf is indeed curious. direct the building of the Great It will readily be surmised that this Pyramids. “He was born 610 years leaf has been converted into a book before the flood, and lived 350 years of respectable size (it contains 314 | after that event, dying in the year pages), and the author inforins us 1998 B.C. Supposing the Pyramids at the end of it that "it would have were commenced in 2160 Rc. that is, been easy to make it a larger book." | 4,000 years ago) they were founded

168 years before the death of Noah." | earth is meant the inhabitants of the And now comes a marvellous expo earth ? Accordingly, when the sacred sition of Scripture, to show that this writer says, that in the days of Peleg Patriarch was the grand designer of 6 the earth was divided,” we at once this blessed enterprise. “We are see that the inhabitants of the earth told that Noah was a 'preacher of are described. Mr. Taylor's explanarighteousness,' and this was his title, tion of this passage, however, is quite probably, before the flood. But in keeping with his interpretation of nothing could more perfectly illus Noah being “a preacher of righteoustrate this character of a preacher of ness," with his assertion that, in “the righteousness after the food, than sublime passage of Job xxxviii. 1-7," that he should be the first to establish the creation of the earth is described a system of weights and measures in language borrowed apparently from for the use of all mankind, based the building of the Great Pyramid upon the measure of the earth.” (P. | (p. 262); that “the second in228).

stance of a reference to the Great Mr. Taylor favours us with ano Pyramid in the Scriptures is found ther passage of Scripture and ex in the 118th Psalm, verse 22 (p. 270); position to show when the geometrical that the third reference is to be dirision of the earth took place. After found in Zech. iv. 7, in the words, bitterly complaining of "the English 'Grace, grace unto it' (p. 273); and version " for representing both Parad that our Lord Jesus gives us the and Peleg by the word division, fourth illustration of the Great Pyrathereby "obscuring the true sense of mid in Scripture, when he describes the latter word in some degree," as the corner-stone in these terms, he is pleased to call it, since Parad “Whosoever shall fall on that stone means that which is separated from shall be broken ; but on whomsoever something else, whereas Peleg means it shall fall, it shall grind him to that which is divided in itself, Mr. pieces.' ” T. affirms that when it is recorded We grieve to see so good and that in Peleg's days the earth was laborious a man as Mr. Taylor evidivided, we ought to regard it, not as dently is, misapplying the Bible in a declaration that in his days the so lamentable a manner. There is earth was portioned out among man- | hardly a single explanation of Scripkind, but that in his days the entire ture in this work in which Mr. superficies of the earth was divided Taylor does not violate the first into degrees, minutes, and seconds, principles of exegesis. each having a certain measure assigned to it, and the whole surface being intersected by these divisions." EGYPT'S PLACE IN UNIVERSAL H18(P. 242.)

TORY; an Historical Investigation, in A mere tyro in Hebrew knows that Five Books. By C.C. J. Baron Bunsen.

Translated from the German by Charles the term carth is frequently used synec

H. Cottrell, Esq., M.A. Vol. III. dochically for the produce or the in

Longman & Co. 1869. habitants of the earth. When the Lord said to Adam, “Cursed is the M. BUNSEN proposes in this work grond (or earth) for thy sake, in to reconstruct the chronologies of SOTTow shalt thou eat it” (Gen. iii. 17), Egypt for a period of nearly viz, the earth, the antecedent to which 4,000 years before the Christhe pronoun refers, every one sees tian era, and “to restore to the that earth stands for the produce ancient history of the world the of the earth. When we are vital energy of which it has been so told “ the whole earth was of long deprived." That which concerns one language (Gen. xi. 1), who us most is, the bearing of this recondoes not perceive that by the struction of Egyptian history upon

the records of Scripture, and the years, and made them build Pithon extraordinary conclusion at which and Rameses without paying them. the Baron has arrived respecting Now, if Monetho and his countryimportant events narrated in the men would pay them for building sacred volume. From the simple those places, they in return would reading of the Book of Genesis, and replace the costly vessels. a comparison of the genealogies given It is this Monetho, the notorious in the 11th chapter, we see that man enemy of the Jews, that M. Bunsen was created a little more than 4,000 trusts for the narrative about the years B.C., that the Deluge took sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt place about 1656 B.C., and that the rather than to the revealed word of sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt God. was about 430 years. M. Bunsen We shall now show how our author declares that man existed upon earth deals with the Bible. Nothing can about 20,000 years B.C., that the Deluge be plainer than the threatening and occurred 10,000 years B.C., and that the description of the death of the the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt first-born-"And Moses said, Thus lasted 1,434 years! At these con saith the Lord, About midnight will clusions our author arrived from the I go out into the midst of Egypt, remaining fragments of Monetho's and all the first-born in the land of History of Egypt and scattered Egypt shall die, from the first-born hieroglyphic inscriptions. This Mo of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his netho, however, tells us himself that throne, even unto the first-born of he derived his information from the maid-servant that is behind the priestly registers and popular tra mill, and all the first-born of beasta." ditions (Joseph. c., Apion, i., 16, 26), (Exod. xi. 4, 5.) “And it came which are most conflicting and con to pass that at midnight, the Lord tradictory. Add to this, that Monetho smote all the first-born in the land of was most partial and untrustworthy Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh upon this subject. In his days the that sat on his throne, unto the firstJewish Scriptures were translated born of the captive that was in the into Greek, and this Egyptian philoso dungeon, and all the first-born of pher read for the first time the Jewish cattle." (Exod. xii. 29.) M. Bunsen's account of God's dealings with the interpretation of this passage is : " As Egyptians. Deeply wounded at this to the statement about the destruction humiliating description which the of the first-born, I believe that divine Septuagint gave of the plagues judgment was in part executed by the brought upon his people ; how the Solymites, who, according to the Jews ultimately departed from his annals, were called in by the Israelites, country laden with vessels of gold and committed great cruelties in the and silver, the incensed historian land. The name is not strictly historiasked some of the Jews, so the tra cal, as there cannot have been Solymita ditions tell us, whether the Septua before Jerusalem took the place of gint was a faithful version of their | Jebus. But that name reas in history and creed. Having been told Monetho's time current as a designathat it was, Monetho hereupon tion of the inhabitants of Judea or incited his countrymen to demand Palestine. We are therefore entitled of the Jews the return of those to assume that the Egyptian annals vessels of gold and silver which their spoke of Palestincan tribes as the in. own books say they had borrowed vaders." (P. 202.) from the Egyptians and carried away. As regards the ages of Abraham Whereupon the Jews replied that the (Gen. xxv. 7), Isaac (xxv. 28), Jacob book which relates this, states also and Joseph (ibid iv. 26), M. Bunsen that the Egyptians kept their fore- remarks : " According to this official fathers in bondage upwards of 400 account

Abraham lived ... 175 years. | the present generation has pretended Isaac 3 ... 180 do. to discuss the more abstruse questions Jacob , ... 147 do.

connected with the politics of the Joseph , ... 110 do. world as they present themselves to Here it is not a question of a soli the minds of philosophical inquirers tary exception in the case of one at the present day. Alas ! our disindividual. It is true that no in appointment has been more than stance can be adduced demonstrably equal to our 'anticipations ; and we historical of any one reaching the must at once say that if he continue age of 180 ; such a case, however, as he has begun, M. Antoine Arago as an exception would not contravene

will not revive the prestige of his great the laws of nature. But that the namesake, if at least the present work three patriarchs should have lived, one is to be taken as an indication of what efter the other, 150 years and even the future is to bring forth. more, and the viceroy Joseph, their It is not, however, on the score of successor, 110, cannot be historical. any deficiency of literary merit, or There must be a means of detecting on account of a less comprehensive some blunder here, or else the histori view of politics than his predecessor cal nature of the narrative will be had possessed, that we have been so liable to grave suspicion. None but much disappointed with M. Antoine those who still cling to the infatuation Arago's book. It has, indeed, many that the antediluvian patriarchs, as of the artistic qualities of François well as Noah and Shem, lived from Arago's style of work ; and it is 600 to 1,000 years, have any excuse to written (no small praise for a French offer for such purely childish del author under the Imperial rule) with sions, persistence in which can only a marked attention to the rules of be productive of doubt and unbelief.grammar and of verbal logic; whilst (P. 340.)

the political notions it conveys are at We ask, what reliance can we least of equal value to those proplace upon this critic's deciphering pounded in former days by the late and expounding half obliterated and somewhat inconsistent and very illcontradictory hieroglyphics and tem natured Secretary of the Académie ple records, when he treats the plain des Sciences. But there was an exWords of Scripture in such an arbi. cuse for the errors and the mistakes trary and violent manner ?

of the elder Arago in these matters,

in the mere fact that his studies and ETUDES SUR LE ROLE POLITIQUE DE pursuits were not such as to enable

LA FRANCE. Par Antoine Arago. him to know much about the political A GREAT name is a heavy burthen, affairs he so delighted in embroiling ; and if it be true, as the French pro and in his own walk of science he was verb has it, that noblesse oblige, the

a brilliant, if not a very sound, scholar. inheritance of a great name also im Antoine Arago has retained, as we poses its especial duties. “Stat magni said, much of the artistic power of nominis umbra ;" the second genera

his namesake, but he has exaggerated tion, if it appear at all prominently

his defects, and thus has produced a on the world's stage, is bound to keep book which may be read without up at least the tradition of its ances much effort, or even with some kind tral dignity, and its works are sure to of pleasure, but which will not fail to be scanned by critical and severe

disgust any one who is capable of see eyes. The name of Arago is one of ing through the wordy chauvanism of those which impose such obligations ;

the author to some of the real bearand it was, therefore, with feelings of ings of the weighty problems agitated mingled interest and curiosity that by this feeble courtier, as we suspect, we received the volume mentioned of the clique which oscillates about above, in which one of the Aragos of the small sun of the Palais Royal.

Now, even the great Arago was, other elements of traffic. This is a habitually unjust whenever a question small inconsistency, no doubt, but it arose in which England was con may be explained by the desire to cerned ; and he was about as ignorant make a point, or to give effect to a of English principles of conduct, or, sneer, at English opposition to the what was still more culpable, of Suez Canal scheme : for, evidently English history, as any of his country the man who could propound the two men have been from the days of opinions could know but little of the Montesquieu and Voltaire down reasons for either of them. But if wards. But even the superficial philo we admit, for the sake of argument, sophy of François Arago in these all the wonderful cosmic advantages things grows profound when com of a canal through the Isthmus of pared with that of his successor; and Suez, it remains to be proved that it is difficult to say whether there England has originated the evident be more of bad faith than of shameful repugnance of the Turkish Governignorance in the accounts given of ment to a scheme which is avowed by the proceedings of our Government in its most ardent partizans to be insome of the more important events of tended to ensure, sooner or later, the modern times. No doubt the mani annihilation of the Turkish influence fest interest of a nation like England, in Egypt. This is, after all, a ques being of a permanent and serious tion to be decided by the respective nature, must impress upon its rulers governments of Turkey and of a policy of a sufficiently stable cha Egypt ; and the intervention of the racter to assume in the eyes of Western Powers, under any pretext foreigners a traditionary form. But whatsoever, is a sheer piece of imperwhat Englishman will believe that tinence. On this score we ourselves Lords Palmerston, Aberdeen, und blame the busy, mischief-making inMalmesbury have ever come to a dis terference of Lords Palmerston and tinct understanding as to the policy Stuart de Redcliffe, quite as much as England should observe in the mat we do that of the patrons of M. de ters of the Suez Canal and the Lesseps, that architype of stock-jobEuphrates Valley Railway? We cite bery and humbug; we say this adthese two special illustrations because visedly, because we happen to know M. Antoine Arago dwells particularly something of the conduct adopted in upon them, and cites them as illus England to influence publio opinion trations of our wonderful machiavel in favour of the Suez Canal ; and we lism in thwarting the natural tenden- are prepared to show professionally cies of the human race for our own that, first, the canal could not pospeculiar commercial advantage. The sibly be executed for less than twice remarks he makes on these sabjects the present estimates ; and, second, are, however, so peculiar, yet they that even when executed, it could only are, after all, so decidedly reflexes of be kept open by dint of heavy annual similar accusations made by men who outlays, and such exorbitant working ought to know better than to repeat expenses as would render it utterly such nonsense, that we propose to say impossible to carry on the experiment something upon them in reply.

for any length of time. The fact is, M. Arago, in an early part of his that the same physical laws which work, incidentally admits that it has caused the forination of the Isthmus been practically demonstrated that of Suez, and of the Delta of the Nile, railways furnish the best, the cheapest, will always prevent the maintenance and the most certain modes of inter- of a navigable passage through the communication between extreme Isthmus. If Lord Palmerston, had, points of any social region ; yet in therefore, had the common sense to the subsequent parts he boldly asserts leave this scheme to its natural fate, that canals are more efficient means l its inherent defects would soon have of diffusing civilization than any caused it to sink into oblivion-or the

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