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for them? Let our dockyards, such as they are, be put in condition to give a good account of themselves to the enemy-let the enemy feel that in attacking such places, however he might come off victorious, it would be at too considerable a cost; but surely, to turn them into Sebastopols is a useless extravagance, especially since in these days every day makes some new discovery in the material of war, and in a year all our devices may become as exploded as the theory of vertical fire. The best plan is to remove our arsenals to a safe distance from a sudden, that is, naval attack.
The theory of modern warfare is based on the principle that everything depends on rapidity of movement. Solidity is a good thing, but rapidity is better, and modern enterprise has enabled us to add enormously to our powers of movement. It was by means of the railway that Louis Napoleon was able so rapidly to transfer the strength of his army from its right to its left wing, and to astonish the Austrians at Magenta by appearing there in full force, when appearances indicated that he was making his way rather to Piacenza. And Sir Howard Douglas suggests that if steam has bridged the channel, other modern appliances have given us the means of such rapid movement and intelligence, as may well countervail the advantages of that flying bridge. If steam power, he says, facilitate as it no doubt will the passage of a fleet of ships across the Channel, it must be remembered that the like agent on land, will give to the defenders of the country-if properly taken advantage of-prodigious power of concentrating their forces during the long time that a landing of the invaders is being effected, in open row boats, subject to the action of strong tides and other impediments on the coast. Besides this power of concentration at a point of debarkation, steam gives to England immense advantages in the interior of the country, where every railway station is a strategical point, and every railroad a strategical line, on which at the first notice of invasion, the electric wire will set in motion the whole disposable force of the country, in conformity to preconcerted arrangements, so that the bodies of troops may follow and support one another while all are directed to the threatened point. It is in this spirit that Sir Howard Douglas, than whom there cannot be a higher authority, condemns the construction of permanent batteries along the coasts forming fixed stations for troops, since these might be turned by the invaders, and thus the usefulness of the troops serving in them would be in a great measure paralyzed. He recommends as preferable the making roads or railways along the coast in its more accessible portions. In connection with these railways there would be provided moveable batteries of 18-pounders, which might be conveyed rapidly from point to point according as they are required to repel an attempt at landing, or to prevent it altogether. If there was a railway along the coasts of Kent and Sussex, the benefit, it is caleulated, would be equivalent to an addition of 50,000 men to the army. “ Look at those splendid heights all along the coast," said the Duke of Wellington; "give me communications which admit of rapid flank
movement along those heights, and I might set anything at defiance." These are palpably principles of the first importance, and they obviate the necessity of attempting to render our arsenals and dockyards absolutely impregnable. Everything is at this moment in such a state of transition in the art of warfare, that to erect formidable fortifications which may next year be superseded, is a ruinous procedure ; while, on the other hand, these works must be manned with a greater number of troops than we are able to spare. Everything points to the desirableness of making available our natural resources, instead of relying on extremely artificial obstructions ; and of aiming at the surcess which is to be obtained from rapidity of movement, rather than from solidity of resistance. Perhaps never more than at the present moment have we had more need of singing with the poet
« Britannia needs no bulwarks
No towers along the steep.” But the reason is not because her march is on the mountain wave, and her home is on the deep, but because she has a very fine way of marching on the land, and she is quite at home in a railway carriage.
The fact is, we must look more to the men than either to the stone walls or the wooden walls, and this brings us to the subject of the volunteering which is now going on so briskly. Such a spirit has been roused in the country, that probably we shall never again hear of a panic rising from the state of our preparations. There is not a county, there is scarcely a large town in Great Britain, which has not gone vigorously to work, and a movement which at first was languid, has gathered force by time, and now moves on with daily accelerated momentum. Volunteers were not much liked in this country, and perhaps but for that 10th of April, 1848, which showed how well our people had learned the maxims of the constitution, and how implicitly they trusted in the force of truth rather than in brute force for the victory of their opinions and the redress of their grievances, the government would have refused to arm a whole population. A population, indeed, armed with the old Brown Bess, would have been of little use, but it so happened that, by one of those coincidences which the historic muse loves to bring about, that just as our people had been so schooled in a wise political philosophy that they could be entrusted with fire-arms, an arm was invented which could be useful in their hands against any attempt at aggression. Drill is dreary work, but shooting is interesting enough, and there seems to be every prospect that the Enfield rifle will become what the old English how was, when every village had its butts, and the yeomen practised there until their skill enabled them to perform feats, which were they not matters of history, might be ranked among the fables of romance. An association has been formed for the encouragement of these rifle clubs, and it is proposed to establish an annual tournament, at which prizes of not a little value will be distributed Lord Elcho talks of £10,000, and there can be no doubt that such an inducement would set every young
man in the kingdom practising at the target, and collect as great and as brilliant an assemblage of persons as meets at Epsom on a Derbyday. The shooting may be left to take care of itself—we are certain to produce the best shots in Europe. But two other objects are not so easily procured-and these are acquaintance with drill, and the training necessary for pretty long marches. Without the latter, our volunteers will, when brought into a campaign, be physically of little avail ; and without the former, they will lose their heads, and be incapable of obeying the word of command. Some of our writers, indeed, appear to have but little faith in the steadiness of volunteers, and are disposed to echo Sydney Smith's description of the panic that would follow " old wheat and beans blazing for twenty miles round, cartmares shot, sows of Lord Somerville's breed running wild over the country, and the minister of the parish sorely wounded in his hinder parts." We do not think so poorly of our countrymen, but it is undeniable that they require the most careful generalship, and that it would be madness to bring them into action except as a support for regular troops. Mr. Russell's remarks on this subject, coinciding as they do with those of Sir John Burgoyne, and almost every officer of experience, deserve especial attention :
It must not be supposed for a moment that riflemen, however excellent as marksmen, steady in drill, and perfect in discipline, could hold possession of ordinary country unaided by regular troops, and other branches of the usual mili. litary organization. I have seen the best and steadiest riflemen pounded out of a trench by a few well-directed shrapnel and shell from a howitzer enfilading them a little by its fire; and in open country, without cover, riflemen would hav very hard times of it, with vigorous, well-led, and experienced cavalry. If a regular army, provided fully with all branches of its equipments, were to find itself in a close country, cut up by hedgerows, studded with covers, and intersected by narrow paths, its commander would, under any circumstances, feel himself constrained to act with the utmost caution ; if he were informed that masses of the enemy's riflemen were in his front, he would probably cast about to see if, by some flank movement, he could not get round the dangerous district, and resume his direct march under more favourable circumstances. But should he come to the conclusion that for any strategical reason it was necessary to clear the ground right in front, he would not for a moment hesitate in his plan of attack. The very hedges, and covers, and paths which give confidence to his enemy would not be without advantage to bim. His disciplined and experienced riflemen, handled by skilful officers, would search their way carefully from bush to bush. Should there be a check, up come the field-guns, which in the country of the kind I am alluding to possess an advantage which is not at first sight very obvious. It is simply this, that they can be worked in positions well-sheltered from the fire of the opposing riflemen, so that the artillerymen cannot be seen. But " they cannot see either," it will be said. True; neither is it necessary they should, provided they know the general direction of their enemy. Along the hedgerows, through the copses, into the thick long grass, fly flights of deadly grape, shrapnels burst and hurl their iron showers in fast extending columns, shells burst above, below, and all around the isolated riflemen, and the round shot roar through the trees, and shiver their trunks, or bring down the forest tops on the men beneath. Now, I think officers of experience will corroborate me in stating that under such circumstances riflemen attacked by men of their own arm and a powerful artillery must rapidly give way, and can only be saved from destruction by great steadiness, by eventual support, and by their capacity to act in all respects like regular infantry. Against any number of cavalry, and against a strong artillery, a close country might be held by a very inferior force of skilful and audacious riflemen-the essence of such a corps is well expressed in the motto of the 60th, “Celer et audax."
But the conditions of success are well determined, and I have but limited confidence in the efforts of irregular rifle corps directed to stop the march of a regular army. Their peculiar uses are of immense advantage, and their impeding power, if properly directed, is enormous. Very recently I saw on the banks of The Raptee, or close to them, an advance of our cavalry and artillery checked by some Sepoys, who threw themselves into a jungle in our front with two ninepounders, and opened a fire which obliged a splendid regiment of British cavalry and a troop of our artillery to retire, principally on account of the musketry. Should it happen, by any unfortunate complication, that an enemy ever lands on our shores, I trust we may never permit our rifle volunteers to engage them till they are properly supported by artillery, horse and regulars; for I know that the consequence of a severe punishment inflicted upon one of those admirable gentlemen guerilla bands would be the loss of that prestige which is worth thousands of bayonets in a newly organized force.
One man can handle a rifle, it is his own weapon, he knows perfectly all that he has done or may do with it; but the same interest is not felt in a gun which has to be worked by several men. In the case of a field-piece, each man has but a share of the honour, and he cannot, at his sovereign will and pleasure, say, Now I will shoot, because I am in the humour for that exercise ; now I will put the gun aside, for I have had enough of it. And so it has happened that, while the rifle movement has flourished, the attempt to establish corps of volunteer artillery has been languishing. And yet for the defence of our coasts, the artillery is even more important than the rifles. The rifles may prevent the landing, or at least seriously embarrass it; but artillery might prevent even the attempt to land, and it is to be hoped that this arm of the service will not be neglected as heretofore. There is, we have said, a natural reason to account for this neglec ; but all the greater efforts should be made to compensate for the loss which ensues to the service.
Tux EVANGELISTS AND THE MIsuna;
son. Nisbet. 1869.
therefore, has rendered excellent service in this beautifully written work, going orer the fields not gleaned by others. One or two quotations will show in some manner the nature of the work.
"Behold, the fowls of the air ; for they sow not, neither do they reap nor gather into barns, and yet your beavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they ?” | CHRISTIANITY CONTRASTED WITH HIx. Matt. vi. 26.
DOO PHILOSOPHY. An Essay in Five " It seems to have been the Lord's
Books, Sanskrit and English. By James
R. Ballantyne, LL.D., Principal of the object in these words not merely to
Government College, Benares, London: teach his people in general to dis
Madden. 1859. miss anxious cares about temporal support, as both unnecessary and The design of this essay will be best unbecoming in them as children of understood by giving the origin of it God; but more particularly to and the terms with which its author assure those whom he called to had to comply. A warm-hearted and preach the Gospel, that they need be
praiseworthy Christian member of the under no concern as to their worldly
Bengal civil service offered a prize maintenance, though no longer able
of £300 "for the best statement and to provide as formerly for their own refutation, in English, of the fundasupport. The beautiful and impres mental errors (opposed to Christian sive manner in which our Lord
Theismı) of the Vedanta, Nyaya, and conveys this lesson may be compared
Sankhya Philosophies, as set forth with the following saying of Rabbi
in the standard native authorities, Simeon Ben Eleazor: Hast thou in the Sanskrit language, treating of ever seen a beast or a bird that fol those systems; together with a delewed a trade ? and yet they are fed monstration (supported by such arguwithout toil. But these were only
ments, and conveyed in such a form created to minister to me, while I and manner, as may be most likely to was created to minister to my Maker.
prove convincing to learned Hindoos Was it not right, then, that I should
imbued with those errors), of the be supported without toil? But I following fundamental principles of have marred my work and forfeited
Christian Theism, viz. :my support.'" (P. 48.)
“First--Of the real, and not merely * And he closed the book, and he apparent or illusory, distinctness of gave it again to the minister and sat
God from all other spirits, and from down.” Luke iv. 20.
matter; and of the creation in the " In the passage of the Mishna last
proper sense) of all other spirits, and quoted, it is in like manner said of
of matter, by God, in opposition to the high priest after reading the
the Vedonta. prescribed portion of the law : He
" Second-Of the non-eternity of then rolled up the book, and put it
separate souls, and their creation by into his bosom! So Jesus, after God, in opposition to the Nyaya and finishing the portion, closed the book,
Sankhya. or rather rolled up the scroll con
“Third-Of the creation of matter, taining the prophecies of Isaiah in opposition to the tenet of its which had been given him to read,
eternity in the shape of atoms (as and returned it, according to the
maintained in the Nyaya and Veisecastom of the synagogue, to the
shika schools), or in the shape of Khoran or Minister, to be replaced
Prakrili (as maintained by the in the ark or chest." (P. 208.)
Sankhya. The book will be found a useful
“Fourth--Of the moral character manual to every Sunday-school teacher
and moral government of God; and and intelligent student of the Scrip
of the reality and perpetuity of the tures. We trust that the industrious
difference between moral good and and self-denying author will be en
evil with reference to such dogmas couraged to follow it with another,
of the above systems as are opposed containing similar illustrations on
to these doctrines.” the remaining books of the New
: As this Essay obtained half the Testament, as promised in the pre
prize of the £300, the gentlemen face.
appointed as umpires judged it to