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THE Church of Rome has determined, thaton consecrating the elements of bread and wine, at the administration of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper-the whole substance of the bread is changed into the substance of the body of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. The process, by which this change is effected, is denominated Transubstantiation; and the change is held to be of such a kind, that, under the semblance of bread and wine, our Lord Jesus Christ himself becomes truly and corporeally present-present in his Divine, as well as in his human nature. This Roman Catholic doctrine of the Real Presence,' it is Dr Wiseman's object to establish, on the foundation of Holy Writ.
To avoid all chance of mis-statement, I shall give the declarations of the Council of Trent; which are understood to preserve, in its most authentic form, this distinguishing tenet of the Church of Rome. Dr Wiseman, in conformity
with that celebrated Synod, has professed his belief that "that, which was originally bread and wine, is, by the consecration, changed into the substance of the body and blood of our Lord, together with his soul and divinity, in other words, his complete and entire person*." Moreover, the learned writer and preacher, in delivering his London Discourses, appears to have devoted a few of the last to this topic-as "the most important, the most solemn, the most beautiful, the most perfect of all:"—
πᾶν δ ̓ εὖ λειήνας, χρυσέην ἐπέθηκε κορώνην. How.
One grand argument, in favour of this doctrine of Transubstantiation, is drawn from the sixth chapter of St John's Gospel: another from the terms employed in instituting the Lord's Supper, as recorded by St Matthew, St Mark, St Luke, and St Paul. To these arguments, Dr Wiseman
* "Semper hæc fides in Ecclesiâ Dei fuit, statim post consecrationem, verum Domini nostri corpus, verumque ejus sanguinem, sub panis et vini specie, unà cum ipsius animâ et divinitate existere." Sess. xiii. c. 3. Again, "Persuasum semper in Ecclesiâ Dei fuit, idque nunc denuò sancta hæc synodus declarat, per consecrationem panis et vini, conversionem fieri totius substantiæ panis in substantiam corporis Christi Domini nostri, et totius substantiæ vini in substantiam sanguinis ejus." Sess. xiii. c. 4. See also Dr Wiseman's Lectures on the Doctrines, &c. Vol. 11. pp.135, 136. Let me observe that, in future, I shall cite the Lectures delivered in London simply as 'Discourses'; by which means they will be fully distinguished from the volume of College Lectures... It is singular that, in the doctrine as laid down in the Lectures, no mention should have been made of our Lord's soul and divinity as conjoined with "the presence" after consecration; while that circumstance is distinctly stated in the Discourses.
has devoted eight lectures; the first four, relating to the sixth chapter of St John-the last four, to the terms of Institution. In consequence of this arrangement, the present work will consist of two parts, each part comprising four sections; so that no division of the learned author's volume will be dismissed without a separate notice.
The consideration of the sixth chapter of St John involves the following particulars: 1. The structure of the chapter; 2. The change of subject in the latter part of it; 3. Jewish Prejudices, and mode of interpreting our Lord's discourse; 4. Our Lord's answer to the Jews, and his conduct to his Disciples.
The consideration of the terms of Institution leads to the following topics: 1. The mode of interpreting the words of Institution: may they be understood figuratively? 2. The mode of interpreting the words of Institution: must they be understood figuratively? 3. Objections to a literal interpretation; 4. St Paul's doctrine of the Eucharist.
The sixth chapter of St John is almost wholly occupied by an account of the miraculous feeding of five thousand persons, by means of five loaves and two small fishes; our Lord's subsequent discourse; and the effects, as well of the miracle as the discourse, upon the minds both of the Jews
in general and the disciples in particular......On the day after that on which the miracle had been wrought, the multitudes appear to have sought Jesus with great anxiety; and having at last found him, “said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?" The answer to this question introduces the long passage which is the immediate object of our attention; and being desirous that the reader should have an opportunity of referring to it at any moment, I follow Dr Wiseman's example, and give the remainder of the chapter, in the Original and in our Authorized Version.
26 ̓Απεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν, ̓Αμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ζητεῖτέ με οὐχ ὅτι εἴδετε σημεῖα, ἀλλ ̓ ὅτι ἐφάγετε ἐκ τῶν ἄρτων καὶ ἐχορτάσθητε.
27 Εργάζεσθε μὴ τὴν βρῶσιν
26 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.
27 Labour not for the meat which
τὴν ἀπολλυμένην, ἀλλὰ τὴν βρῶ- | perisheth, but for that meat which
σιν τὴν μένουσαν εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, ἣν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑμῖν δώσει· τοῦτον γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ἐσφράγισεν ὁ Θεός.
28 Εἶπον οὖν πρὸς αὐτὸν, Τί ποιοῦμεν, ἵνα ἐργαζώμεθα τὰ ἔργα τοῦ Θεοῦ ;
29 ̓Απεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἔργον τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἵνα πιστεύσητε εἰς ὃν ἀπέστειλεν ἐκεῖνος.
30 Εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ, Τί οὖν ποιεῖς σὺ σημεῖον, ἵνα ἴδωμεν καὶ πιστεύσωμέν σοι; τί ἐργάζῃ;
31 Οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν τὸ μάννα ἔφαγον ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, καθώς ἐστι γεγραμμένον, *Αρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν.
endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.
28 Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the works of God?
29 Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.
30 They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work?
31 Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat.
32 Εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ̓Αμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, Οὐ Μω· σῆς δέδωκεν ὑμῖν τὸν ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ· ἀλλ' ὁ πατήρ μου δίδωσιν ὑμῖν τὸν ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸν ἀληθινόν.
33 Ὁ γὰρ ἄρτος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστὶν ὁ καταβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ζωὴν διδοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ.
34 Εἶπον οὖν πρὸς αὐτὸν, Κύριε, πάντοτε δὸς ἡμῖν τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον.
35 Εἶπε δὲ αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησους, Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς· ὁ ἐρχόμενος πρός με οὐ μὴ πεινάσῃ, καὶ ὁ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ διψήσῃ πώποτε.
36 ̓Αλλ’ εἶπον ὑμῖν ὅτι καὶ ἑωράκατέ με, καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε. 37 Πάν ὃ δίδωσί μοι ὁ πατὴρ, πρὸς ἐμὲ ἥξει· καὶ τὸν ἐρχόμενον πρός με οὐ μὴ ἐκβάλω ἔξω.
38 Ὅτι καταβέβηκα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, οὐχ ἵνα ποιῶ τὸ θέλημα τὸ ἐμὸν, ἀλλὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με.
39 Τοῦτο δέ ἐστι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με πατρὸς, ἵνα πᾶν ὃ δέδωκέ μοι, μὴ ἀπολέσω ἐξ αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸ ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ.
40 Τοῦτο δέ ἐστι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ θεωρῶν τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον, καὶ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν ἐγω τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ.
41 Ἐγόγγυζον οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι περὶ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι εἶπεν, Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ καταβὰς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ·
42 Καὶ ἔλεγον, Οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωσὴφ, οὗ ἡμεῖς οἴδαμεν τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα; πῶς οὖν λέγει
32 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.
33 For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.
34 Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread.
35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
36 But I said unto you, That ye also have seen me, and believe not.
37 All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.
38 For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.
39 And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.
40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
41 The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven:
42 And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how is it then