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873. Sustentare, "to check." SUSTENTARE telis, pugnando eminus ; SISTERE contra pugnando cominus. Thiel.

874. Laxos, "unstrung." Serv.

875. Quadrupedumque, &c.-See note on Æn. VIII. 596. 877. Turbidus, "thick." Speculis, "the ramparts."

880. Super, "from behind." Mixto agmine, "in a confused body," without remaining in their order and ranks. Thiel.

882. Inter tuta domorum.-Thiel reads intra, in which he is supported by the best MSS., and finds a sort of gradation in the words limine, manibus, domibus; so that intra tuta domorum would denote, "inside their very houses." Forb. Tuta domorum, like strata viarum. See note on En. I. 311. 422.

884-890. Since at the commencement of the flight many of the enemies had rushed into the city along with the fugitives, so that even in the houses there was no security, the citizens within, try to close the gates against their flying friends. On this arises a mutual slaughter between the Latins, blocking up the entrance (defendentes aditus), and their excluded comrades, who rush on the weapons of their friends, in the hope of forcing a passage in (in arma ruentum).

888. Præcipites,

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steep." Ovid.. Met. I. 97. nondum præcipites cingebant oppida fossa. Thiel. Urgente ruinâ, "the pressure of the flying crowds forcing them down." Wagner. Heyne gives a less correct interpretation, "the sides of the ditch falling in.'

889. Immissis franis.-See note on Æn. V. 662.

890. Arietat," dash against the walls like a battering ram."

891-893. Ipsa de muris, &c.-Even the matrons, excited by the example of Camilla, defend themselves from the walls; for the true love of their country exhorts them to this. Summo certamine, i. e. valde inter se certantes, "emulously." Thiel.

892. Monstrat, "exhorts them to act thus." So, Æn. IX. 44. conferre manum pudor iraque MONSTRAT. Wagn. Ut videre Camillam, i. e. quemadmodum Camillam pro urbe ac gente fortiter pugnantem viderunt.

Thiel.

894. Trepida, "hastily." En. II. 453. arma manu trepidi poscunt, 895. Præcipites, "with headlong haste."

896. Implet Turnum.—Implere is often applied to a person astounded by any tidings or sound. Wagn.

897. Nuntius, "a message."

900. Omnia corripuisse, to have occupied every place."

901. Sæva Jovis sic numina poscunt.-Il. I. 5. Aids d'èteλELETO βουλή.

902. Aspera, "difficult," opposed to the level plain.

904. Apertos, i. e. now freed from ambuscades.

905. Ex superatque JUGUM.-Comp. Æn. VI. 696.

907. Longis passibus, "many paces." So, X. 549. sibi et longos promiserat annos, for multos annos.

908. Fumantes pulvere.-A similar image is found in Eurip. Troad. κόνις δ ̓ ἴσα καπνῷ. Thiel.

910. Æneam in armis, i. e. armatum. Agnovit, “recognized." Comp. Æn. II. 423.

911. Adventum audivit. See note on 1. 608. Flatus, "the snorting of the high-mettled steeds."

....

911. Ineant.... tentent tinguat. reducat.-All are used instead of pluperfects subjunctive. Heyne. This seems a rather mechanical mode of explaining a poet. It appears much more probable that Virgil, fired by his poetic ardour, had the whole scene present before

his eyes the two hostile armies advancing to the charge, and only kept separate by the now setting sun. Ineant pugnas, et prælia tentent.—A repetition, authorised by the Homeric πολεμίζεμεν ἠδὲ μάχεσθαι.

913. Ni roseus, &c.-According to the ancient conception, the god of the sun sunk in his chariot into the ocean on the west side of the earth, and thence passed beneath the earth until he arrived at the east, when rising. See Voss on Ge. III. 357. Thiel.

914. Tinguat, "immerses." Comp. Geo. I. 246.

915. Vallant, "encompass."

BOOK XII.

THE strength of the Latins being broken by two disastrous conflicts, and their courage being utterly prostrated, Turnus, seeing that all his hopes were now placed upon himself, determined to contend in single combat with Æneas, notwithstanding the entreaties of Latinus, and the tears of Amata. Æneas is informed of his resolution by Idmon, one of the companions of Turnus (1-106). Æneas accepts the proposal, and the agreement is ratified by a solemn sacrifice from both parties (107— 215). Through the artifice of Juno (134-160) this is interrupted by means of Juturna, who assumed the form of Camens (216—243). First of all, the augur, Tolumnius, having, by a false interpretation of an omen, promised the victory to his countrymen, slays, with the spear, one of the sons of Gylippus (244-276). Upon this, each army rushes into conflict (277-310). Æneas, ignorant of the cause of this new tumult, endeavours to recall his soldiers; but, being wounded by an arrow from some unknown hand, is compelled to retire from the combat (311-323). Turnus, gaining intelligence of this, taking advantage of the opportunity thus given, slaughters an immense number of the foe (324-382). Venus, having culled a plant of Dictamnus from Ida, a mountain of Crete, heals her son (383-429). Thus Eneas having regained his strength, by his own example exhorting Ascanius to valour, aids his own partizans, and, by name, demands Turnus to fulfill his stipulation (430-445); but Turnus could not comply, for Juturna, having dashed from the reins Metiscus, the charioteer of Turnus, as sumed the guidance of the steeds, and directs them apart from Æneas (446 485). Accordingly Æneas, having committed great havoc, designs to storm the city (486-553); and, leading his army to the walls, hurls fire to the outworks and adjoining buildings (554-592). Amata, supposing Turnus to be slain, and not being able to bear her grief, commits suicide by strangulation (593-613). These events being announced to Turnus by Saces, when the former saw that he must inevitably engage Æneas, unless he could brook to see an allied city reduced to ashes before his eyes, voluntarily challenges Eneas to single combat, as before agreed upon (614–696). Eneas is victor, and, influenced by pity, is inclined to spare the life of Turnus, when suddenly his eye lights upon the belt, taken formerly from Pallas by Turnus, rage and indignation obtain full mastery over him, and, driving his sword through his body, he deprived his antagonist of life (697—952).

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1. Infractos, i. e. valde fractos, utterly broken down." For this intensive force of in, see Hor. Od. III. 2. 18. Servius, erroneously, interprets by "Latinos semper non fractos."

2. Reposci. The preposition has its peculiar force; reposci is not simply for posci. "Poscimus enim, ut, qui nobis aliquid promisit, fidem suam liberando promissum quasi REdimat." Forb. "that now the promise he gave (sc. to combat Æneas) is demanded to be fulfilled."

3. Ultro, "unprovoked," "unassailed." See Æn. II. 145. X. 282, Attollitque animos, "fires his courage." Attollit is here auget; with the simile comp. Hom. II. V. 136., XX. 164.

5. Ille.... leo.-See note on Æn. XI. 809.

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6. Movet arma, prepares for combat;" a metaphor taken from human combatants. See Geor. III. 236. Comantes toros, "his flowing mane." See En. II. 391.

7. Fixum, i. e. corpori infixum. H. Latronis, "the hunter." Latro, from Aarpeuw, denotes properly a mercenary soldier; these, being disbanded, frequently formed marauding troops of robbers, whence the idea of treachery and stealth generally implied in the word. Even here the notion is " the huntsman who from ambush has secretly attacked him."

8. Fremit, roars." Fremo denotes the loud roar of any beast; it is applied to horses in Geor. I. 12.

10. Turbidus. See X. 763. Infit.—See V. 708. 11. Retractent, "withdraw their stipulations." dendo ab iis, de quibus jam conventum erat.” Heyne.

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13. Congredior, "now do I engage.' "In eo est, ut congrediar." Heyne. Fer sacra.— -No league was formed by the ancients without sacrifice. Concipe fœdus, "devise the terms of the league.'

14. Dardanium, "that Dardan," contemptuously. Eneas is thus designated. The adjective elsewhere has the substantives dux, ductor, vir, &c., joined with it. Others join Dardanium desertorem Asia; but this is far less poetical.

15. Desertorem Asiæ, “that fugitive from Asia." Quasi transfugam. Heyne. Sedeant.-Hinting at the cowardice of the Latins. Heyne. Wagner considers the poet to have had in view II. III. 68.

16. Crimen, ". charge,' ," "accusation." Commune, "laid by all the Latins."

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Victos, i. e.

17. Habeat, "have beneath his power the vanquished.” me victum. See X. 862. Heinsius proposes aut abeat victor. 18. Olli "numeri quàm bene conveniant rei expositæ, quisque videt.” 19. Præstans animi.-Thus, præstans belli, Sil. V. 92., Tac. Ann. VI. 6. See note on Æn. XI. 417. Quantum, in proportion as.

22. Sunt tibi... sine me.-Latinus puts first reasons for consolation. 23. Manu, "by manual prowess;" virtute bellica. Latino, sc. "Latinus has health, and liberality to give it."

25. Nec genus indecores, oùk doxhμoves To Yévos. Comp. Hom. II. IX. 399. Indecores, for indecori, is also found in Tac. Agr. XVI. 26. Sublatis dolis, openly," "without disguise.' Animo hauri, ἐμβάλλεο

θυμῷ.

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27. Veterum, i. e. who, previous to the arrival of Æneas, sought the hand of Lavinia.

29. Victus.... victus. See Ecl. IV. 6., Æn. XI. 358. Cognato sanguine. Venilia, the mother of Turnus, was sister to Amata, the wife of Latinus.

30. Vincla omnia rupi, “broken all engagements,” whether of religion or policy.

31. Promissam. He had promised his daughter to Eneas by the ambassadors, Æn. VII. 267. Arma impia, because against his own countrymen.

33. Primus, " 'you, above all others." See Æn. II. 40.

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35. Recalent, "again grow warm,' as the Latins were twice conquered. Heyne. Rather, "be warm," in opposition to its previous coldness. Wagner. Re, in composition, frequently denotes change to the opposite. Thus, reddimus doctum qui antea fuit indoctus; replemus vacua; relevamus onustum ; requiescimus labore fatigati. Campi ossibus albent; λεύκ ̓ ὀστέα,

37. Quo referor toties, “wherefore do I change my council.” “A consilio semel capto revocor." Heyne.

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38. Adscire adsciscere, "to unite." Others read adcire, i. e. arcescere; but the former word is better, on account of socios.

41. Fors dicta refutet, "May fortune avert the omen," implied in my expressions.

44. Longè dividit. Thus join, not, with Servius, longè mæstum. Ardea was not far from Laurentum; but the poet amplifies the distance. 46. Exsuperat, crescit, augetur. Medendo, "by all attempts to calm him." See Geor. II. 250., III. 215. 454., &c.

47. Institit, "", commences." Some MSS. have incipit, which is a gloss.

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48. Pro me, pro me.— -Virgil designedly repeats the phrase. first refers to the life and safety of Turnus, the second, to his glory and reputation.

49. Letum pro laude pacisci, "to barter death for glory." Pacisci denotes, like mutare, either to take, or give anything in exchange for another, as is proved by the parallel passage, vitam pro laude pascisci. En. V. 230.

50. Et nos, 66 we too." See Ecl. II. 44. Nostro vulneri, "a wound by me inflicted." Thus, 1. 5. venantum vulnere, and II. 436. vulnere Ülyxi. Compare, also, Hom. Il. XX. 435.

52. Longè illi, &c., "far from him, then, shall be his goddess paFeminea nube, i. e. maternâ, à matre missá.

rent."

53. Tegat.-Heyne puts a semicolon after tegat, and thus interprets the passage "Et vanis (hoc est, in vanum) sese occulit umbris, sc, ille, quibus Eneas antea nube à matre tectus occultatus fuerat." But, if his parent were far absent, how could he shroud himself in mist? Wagner, restoring a comma after tegat, considers that the passage refers to the thought and feeling of Eneas. We think the meaning to be, "his goddess-parent will nought avail him, whom he will invoke, to cover and shroud him, when forced to fly." The epithet vana is best explained by "fictitious;" for Turnus ridicules the boasted genealogy of Æneas.

54. Nová pugnæ sorte, "this new species of fight," sc. single combat. 55. Moritura, "determined to die," if he yielded not to her request. "Quæ mori decrevisset, nisi ille flecteretur." Heyne.

56. Per si quis. For this collocation, see II. 142., X. 369. 57. Honos, aids, "respect,'

59. Decus,

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66 reverence."

dignity," "authority." Recumbit, "rests for support." Turnus is the firm column which supports the walls of a tottering house.

60. Manum, for manus, plur. Thus, also, Æn. IX. 44. 690., X.876. 61. Teucris, i. e. Teucro Enea.

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60. Lumina invisa, "this hateful light of life." Above we have hoc cali spirabile lumen. As the atmosphere is far and wide diffused, it is generally indicated in the plural. Captiva, used in a better sense, to express her degradation.

64. Lavinia. The virgin only blushes; she speaks not the emotions of her mind.

65. Flagrantes genas, "her cheeks glowing" with the blush of modesty. Cui plurimus ignem. Non est hypallage, sed utrumque dici potest; ut et ignis, s. calor sanguinis ruborem faciat, et rubor ex concitato sanguine calorem. H.

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67. Indum, &c.-Copied from Hom. II. IV. 141. Violaverit All colour may be said to spoil, violare, p0eípew, the natural one. Thus Hom. 1. c. μiaívei èλépavтa poíviki. Schelzel censures the epi

erat.

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