« PreviousContinue »
my grief for
863. Lausi dolorum.-The death of Lausus. Lausus;" thus, II. 784. lacrimas dilectæ pelle Creusa. Heyne. The first explanation is preferred by Thiel and Forbiger.
864. Viam vis.-Comp. En. IX. 89. II. 494. fit via vi.
865. Credo is inserted parenthetically to strengthen the negation; thus, Æn. I. 387. haud credo invisus cælestibus auras vitales carpis. VI. 368. Wagn.
866. Ordo: neque enim dignabere jussa aliena et dominos Teucros pati. Thiel.
867. Exceptus tergo.-Sil. V. 149. inde exceptus equo.
869. Caput, the Greek accusative. Cristá equina, Inπоvpis.
870. Cursum dedit, for irruit; thus, Æn. I. 399. cantum dare. IX. 618. sonitum dare.
871. Uno in corde.-Shame, madness, grief, rage in the one heart. Comp. Æn. XII. 667. Pudor.-Shame for his having suffered his son to die for him. Mixto luctu.-Together with grief. Comp. Ecl. X. 55.
872. This verse, which is wanting in most manuscripts, is evidently inserted from En. XII. 666.
873. Magná ter voce vocavit, repeated from Æn. VI. 506.
874. Eneas agnovit eum.-Heyne reads enim, which he interprets utique, enimvero. Wagner follows the same reading, but places agnovit enim in a parenthesis; in this case, however, the use of que in lætusque is solæcistic. Jahn.
875. Sic pater faciat, sc. ut tu conferas manum, congrediaris mecum. Wagn. Altus Apollo.-Comp. Æn. VI. 9.
876. Incipias conferre, for conferas. Comp. En. VI. 751. Thiel. 877. Effatus et. See note on Æn. VI. 547. Subit obvius, "proceeds against him."
879. Hæc via sola fuit.-Namely, by slaying my son. Pendere, sc.
880. Nec divom parcimus ulli.—This is an allusion to the invocation used by Æneas, 1. 875. “We do not spare any of the gods," instead of we do not spare thee through fear of any of the gods, who may aid thee." Wagn.
881. Desine, sc. terrere. Moriturus, "prepared to die.'
882. Dona. He thus ironically calls the javelins, which he hurls at him.
883. Figitque volatque, for figit volans. Comp. Æn. VII. 658.
884. Umbo, "the shield." See 1. 271.
885. Lavos equitavit in orbes, "thrice he gallops round Æneas with his left side turned towards him."
887. Silvam. A multitude of javelins fixed in his shield.
889. Tot traxisse moras.-To have protracted the conflict so long. 890. Pugná iniqua.-The unequal conflict between a horseman and a foot-soldier.
891. Bellatoris equi.-See Geor. II. 145. Inter tempora.-The forehead between the temples. Comp. IX. 588. акрηу каккедaλýv. So Servius explains; but Wagner, more correctly, makes inter signify, "through the temples."
892. The horse rears, flings out his hind legs, and thus throws his rider, whom he falls upon and prevents from rising. Comp. II. VIII. 81. Tollit se arrectum, àvéñaλTO. Calcibus, "the hind feet."
894. Ejectoque incumbit cernuus armo.-Falling head-foremost, he lies with his shoulder resting on his thrown rider. Cernuus dicitur equus qui cadit in faciem, quasi in eam partem cadens quá cernimus. Serv.
895. Incendunt cœlum, "fill the heaven far and wide with their shouts;" words indicating light, or the want of light, are often used in reference to sounds and to the voice; hence we find owvǹ λаμπρà, or μéλawa, as signifying a clear or a dull sound; thus, Soph. Ad. Tyr. 463. ἔλαμψε γὰρ τοῦ νιφόεντος ἀρτίως φανεῖσα φάμα Παρνασσοῦ. Wagn. 899. Hausit cœlum, sc. oculis, " gazed on the heavens." Heyne. Wagner compares Juvenal, III. 85. quod nostra infantia cœlum hausit Aventinum. Geor. II. 340. Æn. III. 600. Mentemque recepit, back to his senses.'
901. Nullum in cæde nefas, "there will be no crime in slaying me,” i. e. slay me, I do not deprecate death. Forb.
902. Nec tecum Lausus.-Nor did my son make with you an agreement that you were to spare my life. Valp.
903. Per si qua est, &c., i. e. per veniam, si qua est victis. Comp. Æn. II. 142.
905. Defende, sc. mihi, as in Greek, åμúvei, åpкeîv, “ward off from me;" thus, Ecl. VII. 47. solstitium pecori defendite.
906. Consortem nati sepulcro, instead of the more usual construction, consortem sepulcri nato, “a partaker of the same sepulchre with my son." Heyne.
907. Haud inscius, a litotes. Accipit ensem.-An expression derived from the arena; gladiatores recipere ferrum dicuntur, cùm se jugulari ab adversario patiuntur. Cic. Sext. 37. num, ut gladiatoribus imperari solet, ferrum non recepit. Ernest. Clav. Cic.
908. Animum denotes the "blood," and undanti cruore is only a sort of poetical exuberance; for it would have been enough, had he said: undantem animam diffundit in arma. Wagn. Comp. note on Æn. IX. 349. Thiel seems to prefer Heyne's mode of explaining the passage: diffundit animam cruore undanti in arma, where animam signifies the life itself, the breath of life, as in Æn. III. 532. ac multo vitam cum sanguine fudit.
ENEAS, having erected a trophy to Mars of the arms of Mezentius, sends back the body of Pallas to Pallanteum in a splendid funeral procession (1-99). Ambassadors are sent by the Latins to Æneas, from whom they obtain a truce of twelve days, for the purpose of burying their dead (100-138). The remains of Pallas are received at Pallanteum by Evander and the Arcadians with loud lamentations (139181). The Trojans and Latins severally perform the obsequies of their slain fellow-countrymen (182-224). Venulus returns from Arpi, and announces that Diomedes refuses to give his assistance against the Trojans (225-233). On this Latinus convenes a council of the leading men of Latium, and, having caused Venulus to declare the answer of Diomedes, proposes to send ambassadors to Æneas to treat for peace (234-335). Drances and Turnus indulge in mutual abuse and recrimination (336-444). In the meantime Eneas, having divided his forces, sends on the cavalry before him through the level country, while he himself leads on the infantry towards the city, along a path through the mountains. On tidings of this being brought to Laurentum by the scouts of Turnus, the council is tumultuously broken up, and preparations are made for the defence of the city, while the Latin matrons go in procession to the temple of Pallas to supplicate the overthrow of the Trojan foe (445-485). Turnus having ordered Messapus and Camilla to take the command of the cavalry, and oppose the progress of the enemy's horse, marches his infantry to the mountains, and there lies in ambush about the pass through which Æneas had to march (486-531). Diana, foreseeing the approaching death of Camilla, sends Opis to watch the conflict, and to take vengeance on whosoever should slay her son (532-596). The Latin and Arcadian cavalry meet in combat, and for a long time the conflict is maintained with various success (597-759). Camilla, after performing prodigies of valour, is insidiously slain by Aruns (760-835), who is shortly after despatched by Opis, in obedience to the orders of Diana (836-867). The Latins, astounded by the death of Camilla, take to flight, and are hotly pursued by the Trojans to the very gates of Laurentum (868—895). Turnus, informed of the danger of the city by Acca, the attendant of Camilla, abandons the ambuscade; hardly has he done so, when the forces of Æneas appear, who, consequently, marches in safety through the dangerous defile. The approach of night alone prevents the collision of the two armies (896-915).
1. Oceanum interea, &c.—Comp. Æn. IV. 584.
3. Præcipitant, urge him." Funere.-By the slaughter of his friends.
4. Eoo, here derived from us, not from us, "the morning-star," "Lucifer." Comp. Ecl. VIII. 17., Geor. II. 288., Æn. III. 588. 5. Ingentem truncum.-A trophy is thus described by Juvenal, X. 133. bellorum exuviæ, truncis affixa lorica et fracta de casside buccula pendens.
6. Tumulo. An elevation in the plain, either natural or artificial.
8. Bellipotens.-Mars; so Vulcan is called ignipotens. Æn. VIII. 414. Aptat, sc. quercui, "fixes to the oak."
9. Tela trunca, "the broken spears of Mezentius." See Æn. X. 882. sq. Bis sex.-A definite instead of an indefinite number. were wounds received during the whole course of the conflict. 10. Clypeum ex ære, i. e. æreum. 11. Ensem eburnum, 66 having an ivory sheath," as En. IX. 305., Odyss. VIII. 404.; or, "the hilt of which was ivory."
14. Maxima res effecta (est), "a matter of the greatest moment has been accomplished;" namely, by slaying Mezentius. Comp. II. XXII. 391-393. Timor omnis abesto, quod superest, "be under no appre
hension with respect to the remainder of the war."
15. Quod superest, i. e. quoad id quod superest, кarà tò λeîtov Toû Tоλéμov.-Comp. Æn. IX. 157. Hæc sunt spolia et de rege superbo primitia, "these are the spoils and the first fruits of the war, taken from the proud tyrant himself." Rege, Mezentius.
16. Primitiæ, akрolívia, "the first fruits." Manibusque meis M. hic est, "by my valour this (says he, pointing to the trophy,) is all that remains of Mezentius.' He calls the trophy, covered with the arms of Mezentius, Mezentius himself; thus 1. 173. tu quoque nunc stares immanis truncus in armis. Hic Mezentius est, οὗτος ἐκεῖνος ὁ Μεζέντιος· as, hunc ego te, Euryale, aspicio. Some erroneously take hic for an adverb. Heyne.
17. Iter nobis (est), id. qu. nunc eundum est nobis. Thiel.
18. The line is commonly pointed thus: arma parate, animis et spe, &c.; but Wagner has rightly followed the authority of the Cod. Medic. in referring animis to the words arma parate. For thus the words arma parate animis (i. e. armorum usum animo vobiscum ante peragite; comp. Æn. VI. 105.) are opposed to ignaros, as the words et ipse præsumite bellum are to segnes. Jahn. Cerda interprets animis, "with courage." Spe præsumite bellum, "anticipate a successful conclusion to the war." Comp. 1. 491.
19. Ubi vellere signa annuerunt superi, i. e. when it shall be known by consulting the auspices that the gods have permitted us to raise the standards and march. Vellere signa.—A military expression, signifying "to march." Ubi jam ad bellum exeundum et exercitus castris edu cendus esset, signa militaria, quæ in castris fixa erant, captatis auguriis, evellebantur è terra. Habebatur autem hoc inter felicia omina, si avellentem facile sequebantur. Ideoque Crassus in Arabis bello Parthico cum filio occisus legitur, quod iturus ad prælium evellere signa vix potuerit.” Rosini Antiquit. Rom. X. 1. 14.
21. Segnes metu, "inactive through terror." Sententia, "resolution;" thus, Hor. Ep. I. 1. 97. quid, mea quum pugnat sententia secum. Thiel.
22. Mandemus.-Comp. Ecl. V. 36. grandia sæpe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis. The burial of those, who fell in battle, was the most pressing care and obligation of a general: as an instance of this is the condemnation of the nine Athenian generals, who were charged with having neglected to bury their dead at the battle of Arginusæ, B. c. 406. Th. Qui solus.... est.—Comp. Il. XVI. 675. tò yàp yépas éσtì lavóvτWV. Acheronte sub imo, i. e. in orco, in inferis. Forb. The river Acheron is used by Horace, also, to signify the lower regions. Thus, Carm. I. 3. 36. perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. Imo. Thus, Senec. Hippol. 97. stupra et illicitos toros Acheronte in imo quærit Hippolyti pater. Thiel.
24. Ait. The former part of the oration was addressed to the surrounding generals; now he turns to the soldiers and attendants who were to attend to the funeral rites. Burmann. Ite.-Persons who went
in a funeral procession were said ire, or ire exsequias. Ter. And. I. 1. 90. effertur, imus.
25. Decorare, коσμeîv, is said properly of the honours paid to the dead. Thiel. Supremis.-See note on Æn. VI. 213.
27. Quem non virtutis egentem, "Ennii versus est." Sen. Hom. oudé τε ἀλκῆς δευόμενον. Heyne.
28. Atra dies.-See note on Æn. VI. 429. Abstulit.-Said properly of a sudden, unexpected, or untimely death. Hor. Carm. II. 16. 29. abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem. Thiel. Acerbo, "immature, untimely." The idea is taken from fruit not advanced to ripeness; thus, Corn. Nep. Cimon. vita ejus fuit secura, et mors acerba. A similar metaphor is found in Lucian, Cataplus, βαβαὶ τῆς εὐαγρίας, ὀμφακίας ἡμῖν νεκροὺς ἥκεις ἄγων. redit. Limina, "his own residence in the
29. Recipit gressum camp."
30. Ubi, sc. in the vestibule, as was the custom; II. XIX. 212. åvà Tpólupov. Heyne. Positum, "laid out," ready for burial. Comp. Æn. II. 644.
31. Servabat.-A person was always appointed to stay by a corpse to prevent its receiving any injury. Parrhasio.-The final vowel is not elided. Comp. note on Æn. I. 617.; on the word itself, see note on En. VIII. 344.
32. Armiger — óráwv. Sed non felicibus æqué.—He was not so fortunate, as the attendant of Pallas, as he had been when the armour-bearer of his father, since now he had to bear back from the war his slain master. The auspices denoted the consequences of an action; hence the phrases, dexterâ avi, secundo omine, felicibus auspiciis, are used to signify "fortunately," "successfully;" as, malá avi, &c., denote the opposite. Thiel
33. Tum is, in signification, connected with ibat, as ante with fuit, in the foregoing line. Thiel. Comes seems to be here "a tutor, "a guardian.' Ibat.-Comp. En. II. 704., VI. 159. Datus, sc. Alumno, "son," like the Greek Tрóquos. Comp. Æn. VI. 595.
35. Iliades.-The Trojan matrons, who had not remained behind in Italy. It was the general custom of antiquity, says Heyne, that women, and not men, should raise the lamentations over the dead; and the same is the case with barbarous nations. Crinem de more.-See note on Æn. III. 65.
37. Tunsis pectoribus,-Comp. Æn. I. 181.
39. Nivei is generally taken as denoting the pallid hue of death, but it is much better to understand it as signifying the fair and fresh complexion of the youth; thus, Æn. VIII. 387., Hor. Carm. II. 4. 3. serva Briseis niveo colore movit Achillem.
40. Lēvis, λeîos, "smooth," lĕvis, koûpos, "of little weight." The Greek original of levis shows that Heyne is mistaken in editing it lævus, with a diphthong.
41. Ita fatur.
inquit. Comp. Æn. II. 76., note on V. 551. 42. Cùm læta veniret, "although at first she was propitious to me.' Forb. Læta, i. e. lætitiam afferens. Thiel.
47. Mittere in.-A forensic expression, signifying "to put in possession of;" thus, Pers. II. 36. spem macram supplice voto nunc Licini in campos, nunc Crassi mittit in ædes.-Magnum imperium, sc. Latium. 49. Multum, i. e. valde.-See Geo. III. 226.; Æn. IV. 390. It is to be connected with captus, "deceived." Wakefield prefers joining it with inani.