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himself, in order to give greater force to the blow. See Æn. X. 797., and note on XI. 284.

750. Mediam. dividit, "he cleaves the head of Pandarus in two. II. XX. 387. Hor. Sat. I. 1. 99. at hunc liberta securi divisit medium. 751. Impubes malas.-Pathos ex ætate movit. Serv.

753. Arma cruenta cerebro, "his armour covered with his brains." Collapsus artus.--See Æn. IV. 391.

754. Sternit humi, "lays prostrate on the ground." Thus Æn. V. 481. procumbit humi bos. Also, I. 197. Sall. Căt. IV. locus . . . . .... circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus.

755. This seems to be a version of the Homeric phrase, Taσа кeάoon. II. XVI. 578.


757. Comp. II. VIII. 217. XVIII. 454. Had Turnus thought of opening the gate and of letting in his own soldiers, the Trojan camp would have been captured by the Rutulians; but, blinded by his fury, he thinks of nothing but slaughtering the flying foe. Heyne. Subisset, "had occurred to.' Comp. II. 562. Manu.-See note on 1. 702.

762. Succiso poplite Gygen excipit, i. e. excipit Gygen, in se irruentem, et succidit poplitem. On this proleptic use of the adjective, see notes on Æn. II. 736. III. 237. tectosque per herbam disponunt enses, et scuta latentia condunt. Succiso poplite, "hamstrings him." Comp. X. 699.

763. Excipit. See note on En. III. 332. Hinc, id. qu. deinde. Rap"drawn out of the bodies of the slain." So Od. XXII. 271. Tol δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ἐπήϊξαν, νεκύων δ ̓ ἐξ ἔγχε ̓ ἔλοντο. Fugientibus in tergum, id. qu.


in tergum fugientium.

764. Juno vires animumque ministrat.-To avoid the incongruity of one man routing an entire army, the poet interposes the assistance of Juno. This he does also in imitation of Homer, in whose poems similar expressions frequently occur; ex. gr. Il. X. 482. tậ 8' ěμtveUTE ένος γλαυκῶπις ̓Αθήνη.

766. Ignaros.-Ignorant of his presence within the walls. Martem cientes pugnam agitantes.

767. This verse is translated word for word from Il. V. 678.

769. Connixus, "using his utmost force." Dexter, "dexterously." Davidson.

770. Huic, &c.-Il. ΧΧ. 481. ὁ δὲ, φασγάνῳ αὐχένα θείνας, τῆλ ̓ αὐτῇ πήληκι κάρη βάλε.

771. Ferarum vastatorem.—I1 V. 49. αἵμονα θήρης .... ἐσθλὸν θηpηrnpa. Comp. note on Æn. VIII. 7.

772. Felicior, "more skilled."

773. Ungere tela, explained by the next clause, ferrumque armare veneno. Hom. Od. I. 261. φάρμακον ανδροφόνον διζήμενος, ὄφρα οἱ εἴη ἰοὺς χρίεσθαι χαλκήρεας.

774. Amicum Crethea Musis.-Lord Orrery, in one of his letters to his son, has proposed a curious conjecture relative to this passage. He thinks that, under the name of Cretheus, Virgil wished to pay a high compliment to the talents of his friend Horace, whom he could not have introduced in any other way in a poem of this description. His lordship was probably led to form this opinion by a passage in one of Horace's odes, I. 26. 1. where the poet calls himself musis amicus.

775. Musarum comitem.-Hom. Hym. XXXII. 20. άoidol, Movσáwv θεράποντες. II. II. 110. θεράποντες ̓́Αρηος.

776. Carmina et citharæ cordi.—Æn. VII. 325. cui tristia, iræque insidiæque et crimina noxia cordi. Numeros intendere nervis, "to adapt poetry to music." This is an inversion, usual among the poets, for in

tendere nervos numeros; since, properly speaking, the instrument of music is accommodated to the poetical rhythm, numerus. The following are instances of this inversion: Hor. Carm. II. 12. 1. nolis longa feræ bella Numantiæ....mollibus aptari citharæ modis; Epist. I. 3. 12. fidibusne Latinis Thebanos aptare modos studet.

777. Equos, like the Homeric

Toνs, signifies chariots. Heyne. 778. Tandem.-Servat тò πρéπov, ne præsentibus ducibus Turnus tot strages fecisse videatur. Serv.

780. Hostem receptum, sc. intra mænia. Sabin.

781. sq. This speech of Mnestheus is in imitation of the address of Ajax to the flying Greeks, II. XV. 733-741. Deinde has here the force of jam; comp. En. II. 609. V. 741. Quò fugam tenditis.—A phrase similar to iter tendebat ad naves, I. 657.

782. Quos alios, &c.-Hom. Il. XV. 735. 'Hé Tivás paμev elvai àoσơnτῆρας ὀπίσσω; Ηέ τι τειχος ἄρειον.

785. Ediderit miserit. See note, Æn. II. 581. miserit Orco. Comp. 11. Ι. 4. ̓́Αϊδι προΐαψεν.

786. Patriæ, sc. Nova Troja; so Æn. I. 380. Italiam quæro patriam. Veterumque deorum.-Called also, II. 717. patriosque penates. A similar sentiment to what is conveyed in this and the following verse is found in Liv. III. 17. si vos urbis, Quirites, si vestri nulla cura tangit, at vos veremini deos vestros ab hostibus captos.

788. Talibus accensi firmantur.-Hom. Il. VI. 106. oi d'èreλíx@noav, καὶ ἐναντίοι ἔσταν ̓Αχαιῶν.

789. This description of the retreat of Turnus is copied from II. XI. 543-573.

791. Acriùs hoc, id. qu. eo acriús.

792. Glomerare manum.-Comp. Æn. II. 315. IV. 154. 793. Premit, "closely pursues." Comp. I. 324. Geor. III. 413. 794. Asper, acerba tuens.—Virgil is indebted to Lucretius for this clause. Acerba tuens == - Spiμéа depкóμevos. Retro redit, pleonastically for


795. His valour forbids Turnus to fly, and, much as he wishes it, he is unable to rush through the midst of the hostile weapons. Heyne.

798. Improperata, "slow."

801. Coit in unum, "assembles in a body;" see note, Æn. VIII. 576. 802. Nec contra, &c.-Juno's present assistance to Turnus is men. tioned, 1. 764. Juno vires animumque ministrat.

803. Sufficere, "to supply," rapéxew; comp. II. 618. 804. Haud mollia jussa, "no gentle orders."

806-815. On a comparison of this passage with the subjoined quotations from Homer and Ennius, it can easily be estimated how much our poet is indebted to his own sources of invention for either the sentiments or diction of this description. II. XVI. 102.-111. Atas d'oùkét ěμiμve βιάζετο γὰρ βελέεσσι· δάμνα μιν Ζηνός τε νόος, καὶ Τρῶες ἀγαυοὶ, βάλλοντες· δεινὴν δὲ περὶ κροτάφοισι φαεινὴ πήληξ βαλλομένη καναχὴν ἔχε· βάλλετο δ ̓ αἰεὶ καπφάλαρ ̓ εὐποίηθ ̓· ὁ δ ̓ ἀριστερὸν ὦμον ἔκαμνεν, ἔμπεδον αἰὲν ἔχων σάκος αἰόλον· οὐδὲ δύναντο ἀμφ ̓ αὐτῷ πελεμίξαι, ἐρείδοντες βελέεσσιν· αἰεὶ δ ̓ ἀργαλέῳ ἔχετ' ἄσθματι· καδδέ δι ἱδρὼς πάντοθεν ἐκ μελέων πολὺς ἔῤῥεεν, ὀυδέ πη εἶχεν ἀμπνεῦσαι· πάντη δὲ κακὸν κακῷ ἐστήρικτο. Enn. Annal. XV. Undique conveniunt, velut imber, tela Tribuno, configunt parmam; tinnit hastilibus umbo; æratæ sonitant galeæ, sed nec pote quisquam undique nitendo corpus discerpere ferro. Semper abundanteis hastas frangitque quatitque. Totum sudor habet corpus; multumque laborat; nec respirandi fit copia præpeti ferro. Istri tela manu

jacienteis sollicitabant. Occumbunt multi leto ferroque lapique aut intra moeros aut extra præcipe casu. Ergo, as being deprived of the aid of the goddess. Clipeo.-Defending himself with his shield, Subsistere πоσTIVαι, "to resist." Tantum, sc. quantum antè.

807. Dextra.-The sword-hand. He is no longer so well able either to defend himself from the missiles of the enemy or to attack them sword in hand.

809. Era fatiscunt.-His helmet is rent by showers of stones.

810. Nec sufficit ictibus umbo, "nor does his shield hold out against the repeated blows." See note, Æn. VII. 633.

811. Ingeminant hastis Troes.-See note, Æn. I. 747. Troes et ipse Mnestheus, "the Trojans and, chief among them, Mnestheus." Wagn. Quæst. Virg. XVIII. 2. h.

812. Fulmineus.-Comp. Æn. VI. 844. duo fulmina bella.

814. Flumen agit.—Forms a stream, foul with mingled dust and gore. 815. Omnibus armis, i. e. cum omnibus armis, avtoîs TeúxeσLV see note, Æn. IV. 517.

816. Ille, &c.-Suo cum gurgite is to be connected with ille, not with accepit; thus VIII. 72. tuque, O Thybri tuo genitor cum flumine sancto, accipite Enean; Ennius, p. 43. teque, Pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto...veneror. Wagn. Heyne, however, adopts the mode of connect. ing the words rejected by Wagner, and considers cum to be used instead of in, like the Greek ovv for ev.

817. Mollibus undis, i. e. molliter eum et propitius extulit. Comp. VIII. 726. Euphrates ibat jam mollior undis.

818. Cæde, "blood;" see note, 1. 456.


JUPITER convenes a council of the gods, and exhorts them to be no longer at variance concerning the Trojans (1-15). Venus then complains of the troubles to which the Trojans were exposed, and of the unremitting enmity of Juno (16-62). Juno lays the whole blame of these misfortunes upon the Trojans themselves as having commenced hostilities (63— 95). Jupiter, seeing no likelihood of these two goddesses agreeing, swears he will favour neither party, but leave the event of the war to fate (96-117). The Rutulians, in the mean time, make a desperate assault upon the camp, which the Trojans withstand with no less vigour (118— 145). The poet now turns the narration to the proceedings of Æneas. While his followers were thus sorely pressed by their foes, he had formed an alliance with several Etruscan nations, and was returning with a fleet of thirty sail to the aid of his friends (146-214). In the midst of his voyage he is met by the sea-nymphs, that had undergone transformation from ships, and is informed by them of the danger of his followers (215-255). Having arrived at the mouth of the Tiber, he is in the act of landing his forces, when the Rutulians, abandoning the siege, endeavour to prevent it (256-364). Pallas, having committed great slaughter on the Rutulians, is at length slain by Turnus (365-509). Eneas slays numbers in revenge for the death of Pallas (510-601). Ascanius makes a sally and unites his forces with those of his father (602-605). Juno, anxious for the safety of Turnus, obtains permission from Jupiter to withdraw him from the scene of danger. To effect this, she forms a phantom resembling Æneas, which flies before Turnus until it entices him into a galley moored to the shore; in this the phantom disappears, and Juno breaks the moorings of the vessel, which is immediately driven by a storm to Ardea (605-688). In the meantime Mezentius takes part in the combat, and makes great havoc among the Trojans (689-761), until he is wounded by Eneas, and only saved from death by the gallant interposition of his son Lausus, protected by whom he retires from the contest (762-795). Lausus himself is slain by Æneas (796-832). Mezentius, maddened by the intelligence of the fate of his son, mounts his horse and rushes to attack Æneas, by whom he is slain (833—908).

1. Domus Tó dâμa, the atrium or hall in the mansion of Jupiter, which served as a council-chamber for the gods, and is now opened for that purpose. This verse has been taken from Nævius, with the slight change of omnipoten tis for altitonantis. Omnipotentis Olympi.-Here, as in Nævius, the epithet, belonging to the supreme ruler of the gods, is transferred to the mansion which he inhabits. It is Wagner's opinion that this is done inimitation of the Greek idiom; thus, Esch. Prometheus, 397. ἦ τῷ νέον θακοῦντι παγκρατεῖς ἕδρας.

2. Concilium.-Concilium dicitur de conventu hominum, qui AUDIENDI causa conveniunt; consilium, de eo, in quo DELIBERANDI causa. Ernest. Clav. Cic. Hence it appears that concilium is the appropriate word here, as Jupiter assembled the gods to declare to them his will and pleasure.

divom pater atque hominum rex. Hom. II. VIII. 49. Taτǹρ àvdρŵv тe Oeŵv te. Ennius, tum cum corde suo divóm pater atque hominum rex effatur. 3. Sideream in sedem.—eis òvpavòv åσтeрóevтα. Hom. 4. Comp. II. VIII. 51.

5. Tectis bipatentibus.-Furnished with folding doors; comp. Æn. II. 330.

6. Quianum, "wherefore?" Wagner compares a line of Ennius : quianum dicteis nostreis sententia flexa est.

7. Versa retro, id. qu. mutata.-Certatis, sc. inter vos.-Iniquis, "hostile."

8. The poet has nowhere stated in the former books, that Jupiter had forbidden the Gods to excite a war between the Italians and Trojans. Nay, we find Jupiter, in the first Æneid, verse 263, foretelling the very contrary to Venus, bellum ingens geret Italia, &c. Hence it may be inferred that this is one of the passages which prove the unfinished state of the poem, and which would have been revised had the author lived. Heyne.

9. Quis metus, aut hos, aut hos, &c.-What fear has incited you to interfere in the war, so that some of you, as Venus, should favour the Trojans, and others, as Juno, the Latins? Forb.

10. Ferrum lacessere.-See note, Æn. V. 429.

11. Justum, "the regular, pre-ordained, time." Liv. I. 4. Forte quadam divinitus, super ripas Tiberis effusus lenibus stagnis, nec adiri usquam ad justi cursum amnis poterat. Thiel. Ne arcessite, "do not hasten it." 12. 13. An allusion to the second Punic war, which Hannibal carried on to the great injury of Rome, A. U. c. 534. 552. Romanis arcibus.The capitol; so Hor. Carm. I. 37. 6. dum capitolio regina dementes ruinas parabat. Olim, "hereafter;" comp. Æn. I. 289.

13. Exitium magnum, &c., "will fling destruction against the Roman citadel by opening a passage through the Alps." Alpes apertas; so Claud. B. Get. 471. Post Alpes jam cuncta sibi promittat apertas.

14. Rapuisse, the perfect used dopiσтikŵs comp. Æn. III. 606. Res rapuisse,"to throw everything into confusion." Comp. Æn. VI. 8.

15. Sinite, "forbear," "give over;" av is used in a similar manner; e. g. Æsch. Prom. 340. καὶ νῦν ἔασον, μηδέ σοι μελησάτω. Wagn. Placitum fœdus, a compaction in which all agree.

16. Venus aurea, "adorned with gold." II. III. 64. Xpuoĥs 'Appodíτns. Hymn. in Ven. I. πoλuxрúσov 'Appodíтns. Heyne. Yet the common translation, "beautiful," may be defended by Hor. Carm. I. 5. 9. qui nunc te fruitur credulus aureâ.

17. Non pauca refert.—Catull. 55. 20. Verbosá gaudet Venus loquelá. Thiel.

18. Potestas, "ruler," i. e. in whom is vested the sovereignty of all things; Juvenal X. 100. Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas. Odyss. I. 45. ὦ πάτερ ἡμέτερε, Κρονίδη, ὕπατε κρειόντων.

19. Namque aliud quid sit, &c.-For you are the only one whose power we can implore, since almost all the other deities side with Juno. Heyne. 21. Equis for curru.-See note, IX. 777. Tumidus secundo Marte, "inflated with his success in war."

24. Aggeribus mærorum, "the lofty walls;" comp. Æn. V. 273. Mærorum, ancient form of murorum; the forms pomaria, pœna, Pœni, still remain as instances of the old pronunciation.

25. Nunquamne levari, sc.—Is it fated for the Trojans that they should be for ever subject to the calamities of a siege?

26. 28. Again an enemy and again an army menaces Troy, when only

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