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708. Laxos immittere funes.—See note on Æn. VI. 1. Jam jamque.——— This repetition is expressive of great speed.

709. Inter cædes, i. e. inter suos qui cædebantur, "amidst the slaughtered." See note on 1. 492.

710. Iapyge, "the west-north-west wind," which was favourable to the flight of Cleopatra. The wind was so named by the Greeks, on account of its blowing towards them from the direction of Iapygia or Calabria. Ferri from fero.

711. Nilum.-The Nile was represented by a human figure, in a recumbent posture, opening his bosom to receive and conceal the fugitives within it.

712. Totâ veste, for summo studio, totâ ex corde vocantem veste. Thiel. Heyne understands it to mean 'expanded as wide as possible.'


713. In gremium latebrosaque flumina.-By epexegesis for in latebras gremii. Wagn. Quæst. Virg. XXXIII. 4.

714. Triplici. The triumph lasted for three days, and was celebrated over Dalmatia, Actium, and Alexandria.

715. Votum immortale, i. e. templa, opera immortalia, dedicabat ex


720. Ipse-See Geor. IV. 464.

724. Nomadum genus. In the forces of Antony there were many from Cyrene, as well as the troops of Bogudes, king of Mauritania.-Mulciber, from mulco or mulceo, "to soften by hammering."

726. Euphrates ibat jam mollior.—The river is represented as sharing in the subjection of the people, that resided on its banks. Comp. Hor. Od. II. 9. 22. Medumque flumen. minores volvere vortices. 727. Rhenus bicornis, i. e. the Vahalis and Rhenus.



728. Daha.-A Nomadic tribe, dwelling at the east of the Caspian Pontem indignatus.-Simply, with reference to the violence of its floods. The Araxes (now the Aras) was a river of Armenia major, flowing into the Caspian sea.

731. Attollens humero, i. e. in humerum. Famam et fata nepotum, i. e. the shield on which was depicted the future fortune of his race.


ARGUMENT.-Turnus, following the admonitions of Juno, which he had received through the instrumentality of Iris, to take advantage of the unlooked-for opportunity of the absence of Eneas, leads his forces against the enemy (1-32). The Trojans, in obedience to the orders which Æneas had given at his departure, keep within their ramparts; and Turnus, finding himself unable to draw them into a combat in the open field, attempts to burn their fleet and thus cut off all hope of flight (32-76). At the intercession of Cybele, from whose grove on Mount Ida the timber of the fleet had been cut, Jupiter transforms the ships into sea-nymphs (77-122). On the approach of evening Turnus withdraws his forces, but stations outposts, under the command of Messapus, to repel any sortie which the besieged might make by night (123-167). While the Trojan leaders are consulting as to whom they should send to inform Æneas of their critical situation, Nisus and Euryalus offer themselves for the purpose (168-313). They pass through the enemy's lines, having slaughtered the outposts, who were buried in slumber, from the effects of the revelry of the preceding evening (314— 366); but, being espied by a party of Rutulian cavalry, under the command of Volscens, they are pursued, and, having fled to the woods for shelter, Euryalus is taken through his ignorance of the ground (367— 398). Nisus, having discovered his disaster, resolves to release him, or perish in the attempt; and, unseen by the enemy, strikes down two of the Rutulian cavalry with his darts. Volscens, in revenge for the slaughter of his men by this unknown foe, slays Euryalus, and in his turn is slain by Nisus, who falls covered with wounds on the body of his friend (399-445). The heads of the two Trojans are fixed on spears and carried into the Latin camp, where, being recognized by the Trojans in their ramparts, they excite their lamentations, and especially those of the mother of Euryalus (446-502). Turnus assails the Trojan camp with all his forces (503-589). Ascanius slays Numanus with an arrow, as he indulges in loud vaunts against the Trojans (590-671). Pandarus and Bitias throw open the gate of the camp, and repel with great slaughter the approaching Latins (672—690). Turnus, on hearing of this sally, rushes to the open gate, slays Bitias, and burst into the camp (691-733). Pandarus closes the gate to prevent the egress of Turnus, by whom he is immediately after slain (734-756). Turnus chases the Trojans through their camp, who, being at length rallied by the efforts of Mnestheus and Serestus, hem in their enemy, and assail him from a distance with their missiles. Turnus, pressed by numbers, retires by degrees towards the part of the camp bounded by the Tiber (756-789.), and, armed as he was, plunges into the stream, and escapes to his friends unhurt (790-818).

1. Diversâ penitus parte, i. e. in a place far removed from the camp, near the Tiber.

2. Irim.—Iris was particularly in the service of Juno, though she was often sent on messages by the other deities, and especially by Jupiter. Servius observes that she was never, like Mercury, sent to effect a reconciliation, but rather to create disturbance.

3. Audacem, "valiant." Parentis, "his ancestor." His great-grandfather, Pilumnus, otherwise called Sterculius, was the son of Faunus. 4. Sedebat. This implies the careless and inactive state of the mind of Turnus at the time he was visited by the celestial messenger. On ac


count of the mention of the sacred grove, some take sedebat to imply a suppliant" posture, and quote such expressions as sedere ad aras, ad limina, &c.

5. Thaumantias.-Iris was the daughter of Electra and Thaumas, the son of Oceanus and Terra.

6. Quod optanti, &c.-On the sentiment here expressed, Thiel compares Ter. Phorm, IV. 6. 30. quàm sæpe fortè temere eveniunt, quæ non audeas optare.

7. Auderet. This is not used for ausus esset, for the sense of the passage requires the imperfect subjunctive; "what the very gods themselves, were you to entreat them, would not dare to promise." Volvenda. See note on Æn. I. 269. Ultro, i. e. nemine id agente. Thiel. "readily."

8. Urbe, sc. Troja Nova, called elsewhere in the Æneid castra.

9. Sceptra for regna, and that for regiam. See Æn. III. 296. PALATINI EVANDRI prolepsis est. Serv. Petit. Heyne considers petit as a contraction of the perfect petiit, but erroneously; for petit, the present, is equivalent to abest petiturus, the opportunity presented to Turnus being the "absence" of Eneas, while seeking the abode of Evander. The perfect penetravit, in the next line, has no connexion whatever with petit, for it forms a sort of climax, q. d. "still more besides leaving his camp, he has proceeded even so far as Etruria." Thiel. Evandri. -Heyne, apparently displeased by the spondee in the fifth foot, proposes to pronounce this word Eüandri, thus making a quadrisyllable of it. But Wagner shows that this form is inadmissible, for the diæresis of eu in compound words can only take place before two consonants, as in ἐϋκτίμενος, or before the reduplication of a liquid or s, as έΰῤῥοος, ἐΰσσοος. The last syllable of petit is made long by the force of the arsis. Comp. Æn. VII. 398.

10. Corythi, sc. Etruria. See note on Æn. III. 170.

11. Collectos armat, id. qu. collegit et armat. Armat, "he is now occupied in arming."

12. Tempus (est) poscere.-In this construction, tempus est has the same signification as tempestivum est, and the infinitive performs the part of a predicate; but when tempus est is joined to the genitive of a gerund, the substantive tempus is the subject on which the genitive depends as the object, while the verb esse contains the predicate; thus tempus est poscendi signifies "there is a time of asking.'

13. Turbata arripe castra, by prolepsis, for arripe castra, quæ eo turbentur, "attack the camp and thus throw it into confusion;" for the camp was not thrown into confusion by the absence of Æneas, but by the assaults of Turnus. Thiel. Castra. The fortifications thrown up by Æneas on his landing. See En. VII. 157.

14. Paribus alis. See note on IV. 252.

15. Fuga, id. qu. fugiens secuit arcum.-See note on V. 658.

18. Iri, decus cali, &c.-Comp. Hom. II. XVIII. 182. Iris is called the decus cœli on account of the arcus. Nubibus. With the poets, the ablative of place, instead of the accusative with the preposition per, often follows verbs of motion. Thus Æn. X. 763. ingreditur campo, i. e. per campum. Jani, p. 205. Forbiger conceives nubibus to be the ablative of the instrument; actam nubibus will then signify "borne along by the clouds."

19. Unde hæc tam clara repentè tempestas.-Thiel prefers connecting tam with clara, rather than with repenté. 20. Tempestas, "the heaven." Thus Lucret. VI. 261. sic igitur supera (i. e. supra) nostrum caput esse putandum est tempestatem altam. Thiel. Discedere, "to be opened."

21. Palantes polo stellas.-Palantes is used with great propriety. Erramus incerti, vagamur soluti, palamur dispersi. When Wagner calls the stars palantes polo stellas, he does not mean the planets in particular, but he compares the whole starry heaven to a wandering herd; thus, Lucret. II. 1030. quemque in se cohibent palantia sidera passim, lunæque et solis præclara luce nitorem. Dæderl. syn. n. Etym. I. p. 89. Thiel. Palari is said of a multitude of men who are separated and dispersed one from another. Errare is "to wander," to deviate from the known way, and from the end in view. Vagari is "a rambling about," in which the person wandering has no settled purpose to direct him to a certain place. Ernesti. Sequor.-Several copies read sequar; but the present" indicates the firm and settled purpose of the mind to perform an action. So X. 442. solus ego in Pallanta feror. Wagn. Omina tanta, sc. "the opening of the heavens." Thiel.


22. Quisquis vocas. Thus Æn. IV. 576. sequimur te, sancte deorum, quisquis es.

24. Multa orans, oneravitque, id. qu. oneransque.

26. Dives equúm, dives pictai.—Dives is repeated here in place of a copula. Pictai vestis et auri, i. e. garments embroidered with gold. VIII. 167. chlamydem auro dedit intertextam.

27. Coërcent.-Coërcere is properly said of a shepherd who drives on his flock before him and prevents them from straying.

29. Vertere. This verse is generally considered to have been foisted in from Æn. VII. 784, where it is already read.

30. Ceu, &c. The progress of the army is compared to the slow and majestic motion of the rivers Ganges and Nilus, when flowing within their banks. Heyne. On the other hand, Thiel considers that the comparison relates to Turnus while proceeding with slow dignity in the midst of his host; and that the chief points of similarity are, on the one side, the present unusual tranquillity of Turnus, who is elsewhere called audax Turnus, and, on the other, the now peaceful motion of the otherwise rapid Ganges. Surgens, "being increased," flowing along in seven peaceful channels. Heyne. Amnes.-The streams or courses in which the Ganges rolls after its rise from the montes Emodi.

31. In tacitum.-It or incedit must be understood after tacitum. Per tacitum, id. qu. tacité; so, Sall. Cat. XX. nonne emori PER VIRTUTEM præstat, quam vitam miseram atque inhonestam. PER DEDECUS amit

tere. Pingui flumine. It is by the periodical inundations of the Nile that Egypt is fertilized; by them the otherwise arid sands are irrigated, and enriched by the slime which it deposits. Wagner compares Dionys. Perieg. 227.

32. Refluit campis, i. e. ex campis. See note on En. IV. 244.

33. Nigro pulvere is to be connected with nubem and not with glomerari. Subitam, id. qu. subitó.

34. Prospiciunt.-Prospicere is used here in its proper signification of "to look out upon" from a height.'


35. Adversa mole,-A tower erected on the side of the ramparts opposite to the advancing army.

37. Tela, adscendite, Heyne reads tela, scandite, thinking that a short vowel, terminating a word, is always lengthened when coming before a word beginning with s, followed by a consonant; but this effect only


takes place when the short syllable is in the arsis, as in Juven. VIII. 107. occulta spolia et plures de pace triumphos, and Tibull. I. V. 28. pro segete spicas, pro grege ferre dapem. See note on XI. 309.

39. Per omnes condunt se portas, for discursant per omnes portas, ibique se condunt. Thiel. The Trojans betake themselves within their walls. 40. Optimus armis.-Hom. yxeσi ȧpíσtovs.

41. Interea, "during his absence."

Fortuna, "unexpected occurrence." Fuisset, id. qu. futura est.-The pluperfect subjunctive in place of the periphrastic future. See II. 136.

42. Struere for instruere, "to draw out." Neu credere campo, i. e. and not to fight in the open plain. See Ecl. III. 95.

43. Servarent, "should keep to or occupy." So Geor. IV. 458. hydrum... servantem ripas.-Thiel understands the passage differently. According to him tutos relates to castra as well as to muros; and aggere (sc. jaciendo, apparando) must be connected with servarent.


44. Monstrat, "impels, exhorts."

45. Objiciunt portas, "close the gates against the foe." Facessunt, they SEDULOUSLY perform."

47. Ante


scisse me ante.

præcesserat.-So, Ter. And. I. 5. 4. nonne oportuit præ

48. Viginti, &c.-The order of the words is :-Turnus, viginti lectis equitibus comitatus, et improvisus, urbi adest. Heyne. Urbi refers as well to improvisus as to adest. Thiel.

49. Maculis quem, &c.-See note on Æn. V. 565.

51. Ecquis, &c.-Wagner rejects the mode of pointing this line adopted by Heyne, viz,, ecquis erit mecum, juvenes? qui primus in hostem? since Turnus did not mean to ask who would be the very first to attack the foe, but who would be the first along with himself to do so; and, moreover, quis would be required instead of qui, were the punctuation to be retained.

52. Attorquens, "hurling with great force." The preposition increases the force of the simple verb, as in the compounds admirari, adniti, adsolere. Virgil is the only author known to have used this obsolete compound. Wagner. Heinsius considers attorquere to signify simul (i. e. dum ille fatur) torquere. Et, id. qu. simul, statim.

53. Principium pugnæ.-An allusion to the Roman manner of declaring war. Whenever war was determined on, a fecialis was sent to the enemy's borders, and there, having declared war in a settled form of words, called clarigatio, he hurled a spear, smeared with blood, over the boundaries.

54. Clamore excipiunt socii, "receive his speech and action with clamorous applause." Fremitu, "the war-cry." Non modò in universum omnes horrendos sonos FREMITUSs dicebant poëtæ, sed imprimis clamorem militarem.

57. Castra fovere, "to keep close within their camps." So Georg. III. 420. fovit humum. Turbidos, "inflamed with shame and rage," because he could not discover any assailable point in the fortifications. Heyne.

58. Equo lustrat, i. e. equo vectus lustrat.


59. Insidiatus... perpessus, for insidians perpetiens. The poets constantly use the perfect participle of deponent verbs instead of the present participle. Comp. Georg. I. 206. 339. 494. Æn. V. 628. Wagn. Quæst. Virg. XXIX. 3.

60. Caulas, "sheep-cotes." Festus derives this word from cavum, because, before the invention of sheep-folds, the sheep were generally enclosed in caves.

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