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723. Agamemnonius, sc. miles, comes; or, deriving his origin from Agamemnon. He could not be his son, for his father is a vates, X. 417. H. He appears to have been the charioteer of Agamemnon; at whose death he retired to Argos, and thence into Italy, where he founded the Falisci-Halisci, i. e. Halesi.

724. Halesus. This hero is generally assumed for the Falisci. See Ovid. Fast. IV. 73.

725. Felicia Bacchi, i. e. vino suo. Felix has a genitive also in Geor. I. 277. Ecl. V. 37.

727. Aurunci, &c.-The Aurunci occupied the hilly country beyond the Liris. The Sidicini tilled the plains (æquora).

728. Vadosi. This river, in its upper course, runs through hills, and has numerous shallows; near its course into the sea, in the level country, it becomes deep and of uniform rapidity.

729. Saticulus, i. e. Ŝaticus, and the form for Oscus. Niebh. You would expect the accusative, sed repete ex illis tale quid, quale CUM EO VENIUNT. Forb.

730. Oscorum.-One of the earliest people of Italy; they appear under different names, viz., Osci, Opici, Osgi, Ausones, Satici, &c. Op. or Ops. appears to be a generic term, denoting Asiatic tribes; thus, Pelasgi, pel-re, Æol. for μeλ or Keλ, "black," (comp. Keλaids), and aayos, Asiatic," the swarthy-browed Asiatics." Donaldson. Aclydes, javelins fastened by a thong, åkλús. Salmasius considers them to be the same as the tragula, mentioned by Cæsar.

732. Catra, a small shield, formed of hides, stretched over a wicker frame. Enses, sc. iis sunt. Heyne supplies armant from tegit, above. 733. Indictus, for non dictus, occurs also in Ter. Phor. V. 7. 58.

734. Sebethide, the nymph of the river Sebethus, which flows near Naples.

735. Teleboum.-This people left Taphos, one of the Echinades, and occupied Capreæ, an island on the coast of Campania, famous for being the seat of the luxury and cruelty of Tiberius. Wagner after teneret has placed a comma; the sentence runs thus: quem Telon jam senior generásse fertur.

737. Ditione.-See note on Æn. I. 236.

740. Despectant.-'The town is placed on the summit of an elevated hill, whence there is an extensive prospect over a wide champaign country.

741. Cateias, a Celtic word, denoting a long javelin or spear. Servius mentions that it could be drawn back by means of a thong, like the aclydes above. Soliti.-Notes velim nominativum appositi, prægresso accusativo; cujus rei ea est ratio, quòd non satis commodè h. 1. dicitur POPULOS DICIONE PREMEBAT SOLITOS TORQUERE CATEIAS; nihil enim bellandi ratio attinebat ad modum imperii. Wagner.

744. Nersa. These people are not mentioned elsewhere. Bothe reads Nurse.

746. Horrida, &c., as being a race of herdsmen and shepherds. Multo venatu, the ablative after adsueta. Some consider it to be the dative; but comp. Liv. XXXI. 35. 3. adsuetus prædæ amore. For the dative of fourth declension, ending in u, comp. Ecl. V. 29.

747. Equicula, sc. gens. Duris glebis, "of sturdy soil." Hence, their land being so stubborn and barren, they chiefly lived by spoil and hunting. The adjective Equiculus is found also in Silius, VIII. 371. Equicula rura.

750. Marruvia, i. e. Marsic. The poet represents Umbro as a priest rather than a king, since he attributes to him the power of incantation.

Fronde et olivá, “with leaves, and those of olive." What is vulgarly called hendyadis, but, more properly, epexegesis.

754. Manuque.-Burmann refers this to "cakes" of soporiferous quality offered by the hand; but it is known that serpent-charmers use their hands" in quelling their rage by soft and gentle manipulations. Thus Silius, VIII. 501. tactuque domare venena.

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757. In vulnera, "to heal the wound." Ad vulnera sananda. H. 758. Marsis. The Marsi were famous in all antiquity for their skill in magical rites. See Ovid. Fast. VI. 40.

759. Fucinus, a lake among the Appennines, close by which was the grove of Anguitia.

760. Liquidi, &c.-Another instance of a defective verse, owing, doubtless, to the death of Virgil previous to his final revision of the Eneid.

761. Ibat et Hippolyti, &c.-Hippolytus was the son of Theseus, destroyed in consequence of his steed being affrighted by a sea monster, sent by Neptune in accordance with his father's prayer, who suspected him of an incestuous intercourse with his stepmother. Virgil has represented Virbius as the "son" of Hippolitus, although the name itself is an evidence of its incongruity. The fact mentioned in 1. 778 may have caused the application of the fable to him. Heyne remarks that Diana Scythica was here worshipped peregrino more, and that the sacred Téμevos was under the dominion of a fugitive slave, who, having slain the previous possessor, retained the possession until slain by some more powerful antagonist, and during his brief sovereignty was styled Rex Nemorensis. This is, in fact, merely stating that gladiatorial games, connected with religion, were here exhibited, from the bloody and cruel nature of which may have arisen the legend that the statue of Diana Taurica had been brought from Scythia, and placed here. The fons Egeria, where Virbius was educated, is near Aricia. Another is mentioned, as situated near the Capenian gate of Rome; to which the story of Numa's nightly conferences with Egeria are more properly to be referred, although it is common to both places, as might be expected from the similarity of name. Holdsworth considers that the former place was the "abode" of Egeria, but a cave at the latter, her place of meeting. Proles pulcherrima bello.—Join bello with ibat, i.e. ibat in bellum. Heyne preferred to connect insignem bello; but the collocation of the words is against this.

762. Insignem, either absolutely, in reference to his personal beauty, or, as Wagner prefers, to his warlike prowess.

763. Humentia circum, i. e. the shores of the lake Aricinus. The common editions have the erroneous reading Hymettia.

764. Pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Diana,-Heyne proposes to reject the copula, remarking, that, although an altar might be termed pinguis, on account of the victims, yet, that it could not be styled placabilis, which he connects with Diana. Wagner answers that thus the final syllable of ubi would be long, which it never is in Virgil; besides, if Diana is styled placabilis, the same epithet may be given to her altar. The latter writer thinks, that both epithets are used in contradistinction to the Diana Taurica, her altar being implacabilis, " merciless and cruel." This is the reverse; few sacrifices were offered on the one altar in consequence of its bloody and inhuman rites; but the other is pinguis, "rich with victims." See IX. 585.

765. Arte novercæ, i. e. Phædra, who, slighted in her illicit love, thus revenged herself.

766. Explérit, "gave full satisfaction by his blood."

767. Turbatis, sc. by sea-monsters; see below 1. 780.

769. Pæoniis herbis, "with healing herbs." So called from Pæon, the physician of the gods-Apollo. Heyne has edited Paon Is; but Paoniis is to be pronounced Pæonjis; the Greek is Пalúvios. In fact, i is a vocalized consonant, as in abiete, &c. See Geor. I. 397. and note. Claudian has imitated Virgil:

Et juvenem spretæ laniatum fraude novercæ

Non sine Circæis Latonia reddidit herbis.

773. Phœbigenam.-Esculapius, son of Apollo. Some MSS. ridiculously read panigenam, which the Schol. explains by per pænam matris natum. Ad undas, i. e. in orcum.

774. At, &c.-To shield him from the wrath of Jove, Diana sheltered him in the precincts of her own wood.

775. Relegat, &c., "consigns him, far from man, to the nymphs, &c." Allusion is made to the "retirement" caused by the Roman punishment of relegatio.

776. Ignobilis, (in a good sense)" unfired by airy fame ;" and, therefore, "tranquil,"



779. Arcentur equi.-This circumstance, existing, perhaps, from some very ancient time, caused the poet to confound Virbius with Hippolytus. 780. Monstris marinis.-Neptune, invoked by Theseus, sent a monster from the deep, which affrighted the steeds of the youth. Effudére.— Markland denies that this word could he alike applied to currum and juvenem, and reads litora circum heu juvenem; but Wagner remarks that evertére is to be supplied from effudére by zeugma, so that the sense is everterunt currum et juvenem effuderunt.

781. Haud secius=non minùs, nihil minús.

784. Vertitur, "proceeds," σrpwpâral. Superest-iжEρéxεL. Comp. Hom. II. II. 226. This verse is repeated IX. 29.

785. Chimaram.-This is taken from Hom. I. V. 4. and XVIII. 270. Triplici crinita jubâ, ěxovoa_тpeîs λópovs, not тpupáλeia, which means "bore-coned." See Butt. Lexil.

787. Tam magis quàm magis.-See Geor. III. 309. Fremens, sc. erat, a participle put for a finite verb. See Geor. II. 133. III. 504. 789. Sublatis cornibus Io.-Io and Inachus are emblazoned on the shield of Turnus, as he derived his race from the latter. Sublatis cornibus, "erected," "elevated," not ablatis, which is the explanation of La Cerda.

790. Setis. See Æn. VI. 245.

793. Nimbus peditum,=vépos TEŠŵv.

794. Argiva pubes.-This refers to the origin of Turnus and the Argive colonists who arrived with Danaë. Densentur.-The old form from denseo.

795. Rutuli veteresque Sicani.—As the Rutuli are mentioned in 1. 798, Heyne proposes Siculi veteresque Sicani; but Wagner remarks that the repetition of the name will be less offensive, if by 11. 797. 798. we suppose no "new" clans to be mentioned, but that the names being mentioned 1. 799. indicates the locality.—Sicani, the remnant of the Sicani, who remained near the Tiber.

796. Sacrana.- Festus derives their name from the ver sacrum, which the Ardeates appointed, when labouring under a pestilence. Others from sacratus, as being consecrated to the worship of the mother of the gods. The latter is confirmed by Silius, VIII. 417. and by an inscription (Gud. p. XX. 8.), in which the Sacrani are mentioned as Sacerdotes Ardeates Labici. Niebuhr thinks that Virgil wrote Lavici=La

tini. In fact, the name of the town was Latvinium; and some dropped the t, others the v, whence the names Latinium and Lavinium.

797. Sacrum Numici litus, "quia Numicius ipse sacer." Forb. 799. Anxurus.-This deity is generally supposed to be the same as Vejovis, or "evil Jove," i. e. Jupiter avev upoû, and to have given name to Anxur, where he was peculiarly worshipped. Donaldson supposes the word to be derived from axo-nomino, and that the term means "Jove's augur." The modern name of Anxur is Terracina.

800. Feronia.-The ancient deities were always classed in pairs; thus we have Bacchus and Libera, Phœbus and Phoebe; so this Feronia was supposed to be the wife of Jupiter Anxur. She was one of the indigenous deities of Latium, and classed among the nymphs.

801. Saturæ palus.-Nothing certain is known of its locality; Heyne supposes some portion of the Pomtine marshes to be intended. Richardson states it to be the modern Lago di Paolo.

803. Super hos, i. e. præter hos. See above 1. 462.


804. Agmen equitum et florentes ære catervas.- The last is epexegetical of the former, i. e. turmas equitum ære florentes, fulgentes. H. The word florentia is used of the " gleam of a candle," by Lucret. IV. 451. Compare, also, Pind. Ol. II. 132. ǎvleμa xpvooû pλéyei. Waddell proposes florente ætate, and Bothe conjectures fulgentes or flaventes.

805. Calathisve. - We might expect the simple copula que, but see Geor. IV. 199. Virgil has copied from Eurip. Iph. Taur. 221. ovd' ἱστοῖς ἐν καλλιφθόγγοις κερκίδι Παλλάδος ̓Ατθίδος εἰκὼ Τιτάνων ποικίλ


807. Cursu pedum prævertere ventos. Thus Hom. X. 437. 0éew avèμoioi duoîor Callim. in Del. 112. åréμoiσiv épíšew Theocr. Idyll. VIII. 54. πρόσθε θέειν ἀνέμων.

808. Volaret... læsisset, i. e. læsura esset. See II. 136. Stephanus proposes volásset, but the imperfect conjunctive is frequently united with the pluperfect. See En. III. 187.

809. Læsisset, &c.-The poet has borrowed this from Hom. II. XX. 227; although this imagery of swiftness does not correspond with our ideas, it was not repugnant to those of antiquity.

811. Ferret iter, "to bend her course." The common phrase would be ferret pedem.

814. Ut regius honos, i. e. the purple chlamys, the usual ornament of regal personages.

815. Leves, “beautiful," polished and shiny from the fairness and fineness of the skin. Lovos has been conjectured; but Camilla was not an Amazon. See below, XI. 40. and note on III. 20.—Fibula.—Here used for the long needle or pin which confined the hair, properly acus. Some, not perceiving this, have read vestem for crines.

816. Lyciam, being the best of the species; thus, arcus Cretici. All the Eastern people excelled in archery, and chiefly the Lycians. See Stat. Theb. VI. 645. Ipsa, "she." The whole of her person, opposed

to humeris and crinibus.

817. Pastoralem myrtum, i. e. "a spear-shaft of myrtle," such as shepherds bore. See Stat. Theb. IV. 300, "hi Paphia myrtos à stirpe recurvant, et pastorali meditantur prælia trunco." See also note on Æn.

III. 23.


TURNUS displays the signal of war from the citadel of Laurentum, and assembles the confederate forces of Latium and the neighbouring towns. He then sends Venulus on an embassy to Diomedes, to entreat his alliance and aid against Æneas, their mutual enemy (1-17). Influenced by these proceedings, and distrusting the paucity of his forces, Æneas, admonished by the warning of the God Tiberinus, proceeds up the course of the stream to the spot where Rome was afterwards built. He implores, here, the aid of Evander, who, having fled from Arcadia, had founded in this region the city Pallanteum (18–101). Evander, having ascertained the cause of Æneas's arrival, cheerfully and hospitably receives Æneas; and, having made him a participator in the sacrifice to Hercules, on which he was engaged on the arrival of the Trojans (102-183), he recounts to him the death of Cacus, the origin of the rite, and the history of the more remarkable places around (184-369). On the following day Æneas, being aided by a body of cavalry, 400 in number and led by Pallas, the only son of Evander, prepares to send back a portion of his forces to Ascanius, and, with the residue, to proceed to Agylla, the most flourishing city in the country of the Tyrrheni, who, roused into rebellion against Mezentius, in consequence of his cruelty, had expelled him from his throne, and collected their forces, further to carry out their vengeance (454-519). In the meanwhile Venus, by her blandishments, had caused Vulcan to fabricate a suit of armour for her son (370-453), and now brings them to Eneas, who, delighted with the splendour and beauty of the weapons, is lost in admiration of their workmanship, especially of the shield, which has the most celebrated actions of his posterity delineated upon its surface (520—731).

1. Turnus assumes the office of leader, since Latinus "fœda refugit ministeria et cæcis se condidit umbris,” Æn. VII. 619.


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3. Concussit, "concitavit adhuc otiosos.,' put in motion, drove on." Impulit, brought forth." Heyne. "Clashed his arms together." Serv. Thiel understands equos and arma to denote "horse and foot soldiers."

5. Trepido, "hasty." See Æn. VII. 638.

6. Primi, "first, or chief, in dignity and power."

8. Vastant. By levying their troops through the country they deprive it of its cultivators. See Æn. I. 471.

The word indicates

9. Diomedis ad urbem, "Argyrippa." See Æn. XI. 226. 10. Consistere, "had obtained a firm footing.' that the Trojans not only had got possession of a settlement in Latium, after all their wanderings, but were prepared to defend themselves by force of arms. Burm. Some few MSS. read considere, which is much less forcible.

12. Et fatis.-The construction is et (Eneam) dicere se posci regem fatis, i. e. destinari regem esse. The verb posco is frequently used to denote the imperative command of destiny. See V. 707. VII. 584.

13. Multasque viro se adjungere gentes.-Wagner, with just reason, asks what nations these could be ? As yet the poet has mentioned no alliance which Æneas contracts. This commentator thinks that all this


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