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Component; cùm jam leges et fœdera jungent;
His actis, aliud Genitor secum ipse volutat,
Harum unam celerem demittit ab æthere summo
Postquam acies videt Iliacas atque agmina Turni,
Hanc versa in faciem, Turni se pestis ob ora
Illi membra novus solvit formidine torpor;
Nunc certè, et misero fratri comes ire per umbras.
Eneas instat contrà, telumque coruscat Ingens arboreum, et sævo sic pectore fatur:
Quæ nunc deinde mora est? aut quid jam, Turne, retrac
Non cursu, sævis certandum est cominus armis.
Verte omnes tete in facies; et contrahe, quicquid
Sive animis, sive arte vales; opta ardua pennis
Nec plura effatus, saxum circumspicit ingens,
Nocte quies, nequicquam avidos extendere cursus
ARGUMENT. Eneas buries his nurse Caieta on a promontory of Campania, to which he gives her name (1-4). Thence, passing by the residence of Circe, he arrives at the mouth of the Tiber, and lands his troops a short way up the river (5-36). The poet makes a digression to narrate the state of Latium at the time of the landing of the Trojans, and the prodigies and oracles by which the coming of Æneas was portended (37-106). From a playful exclamation of Iulus, Æneas discovers that he has at length reached the land promised by fate (107118), and sacrifices to the gods in gratitude for the termination of his wanderings (119-147). The next day he sends ambassadors to Latinus, king of the country, to ask for permission to build a city; and, in the meantime, marks out the ground for a fortified camp (148-159). Latinus not only grants the prayer of the ambassadors, but offers his daughter, Lavinia, in marriage to Æneas, whom he at once perceives to be the son-in-law predicted by the soothsayers and oracles (160-285). Juno, enraged at the success of the Trojans, calls forth Alecto from the lower regions to disturb the harmony between them and the Latins (286-340). The Tartarean goddess inspires Amata, the wife of Latinus, with such frenzy, that, finding herself unable to change the resolution of the king, she withdraws her daughter into the woods, in order at least to delay the marriage (341-405). The Fury then wings her flight to Ardea and fills Turnus, the king of that city, with fury for the loss of Lavinia who had been promised to him by Amata; on which he immediately makes preparation for war against the Trojans (406-474). Then turning towards the shore where Iulus was hunting, she directs his arrow with a too-sure aim against a favourite stag of the daughter of Tyrrheus, the king's shepherd. The rustics, in revenge for the death of the stag, take up arms against the Trojans, and a general conflict ensues, in which Galæsus, and Almon the eldest son of Tyrrheus, are slain along with others of lesser note (475-539). Alecto returns and informs Juno of the success of her schemes, and at her command plunges again into Orcus (540-571). Latinus, unmoved by the solicitations of Turnus and Amata to commence war against the Trojans, relinquishes the reins of power, and retires into the recesses of his palace. But, in his stead, Juno herself throws open the gates of Janus, and thus proclaims war (572-622). The book concludes with an enumeration of the forces that came to the aid of Turnus (623-817).
1. Tu quoque, "thou also," as well as Misenus and Palinurus; see Æn. VI. 232 381. Eneia nutrix.-Some authors make Caieta the nurse of Ascanius; others, of Creusa.
2. Caieta, the nurse of Eneas who gave her name to a promontory and town on the confines of Latium and Campania, near Formiæ. According to Strabo the name is derived from kaláτTas, a Laconian word signifying "curved." Comp. Juven. XIV. 86. curvo litore Caieta. Others derive it from kalew, to burn, pretending that the fleet was there burned by the matrons.
3. Servat honos, &c. " an inscription in honour of thee occupies thy
tomb;" Honos is used for titulus, inscriptio. Heyne. The passage might more poetically be rendered, "and now thy glory has A LOCAL HABITATION in the land." Comp. VI. 507. nomen et arma locum serSedem, your sepulchre.' Ossaque nomen signat.-The name of the city and promontory serves as a title for thy tomb. Wayn. Heyne understood by nomen, "an inscription;" but this would be tautology. Some MSS. read ossa signant, i. e. "thy inhumation (ossa) gives celebrity (nomen signat) to that region."
4. Si qua est ea gloria, "how great soever that glory be." There is a reference to Hesperiâ in magná. Idem est ac si scriptum esset “ magna gloria." Wagn.
6. Aggere tumuli, a periphrasis for tumulo, as V. 504. arbore mali. Thiel.
7. Tendit iter velis, "sails on his way.' pression for proficisci. Comp. I. 656. Vİ. 240.
i. e. velorum ope ventis datorum. H.
Tendere iter, a poetical ex-
8. Adspirant auræ, "blow favourably." Comp. Apoll. Rhod. èπITvelovoi antaι. In noctem, i. e. circa noctem, sub noctem. Servius; rather, "throughout the night."
9. Nec cursum Luna negat, "and the silver moon assents to our proceeding," or, "does not deny her course in heaven,” i. e. luna surgit; the former interpretation is preferable. Tremulo, an epithet derived from the nature of the rays of light; this idea was already expressed by Ennius, lumine sic tremulo terra et cava cærula candent.
10. Circææ terræ, "the promontory Circeium;" which the Greeks as.. sert to have once been an island under the name of Eæa, and, by the alluvial soil brought down by streams, to have been united to the mainland. 11—14. Dives, &c.—Hom. Odyss. V. 59–63 :
Πῦρ μὲν ἐπ ̓ ἐσχαρόφιν μέγα καίετο, τηλόθι δ ̓ ὀδμὴ
Υλη δὲ σπέος ἀμφιπεφύκει τηλοθέωσα, &c.
Inaccessos, "not to be approached," on account of the magic power of Circe. Serv. Wagner compares the Greek expression xeîpes &аπтol, i. e. quas non sine periculo tangas. Lucos is added by the poet to express the last line of the above quotation.
12. Resonat (used actively), "causes to resound." This word is not thus used by any other author, except Sil. Italic. XIV. 30. propriè enim ipsi loci aliquid resonare dicuntur. Ĥ.
13. In lumina, "to afford a light by night." Cedrum, the cedar of the Greeks and Romans, called also oxycedrum, was of the juniper species, and different from the cedar of Lebanon, which is of the fir class.
14. Pectine. The loom (tela, iords) was placed in an upright position, as denoted by its Grecian name and by the Latin denomination of the warp (stamen), which hung vertically from the jugum, a cross-beam supported by two uprights (ioróTodes), and to which it was fastened by thrums (licia). The woof or weft (subtemen, кроên) was rolled round a hollow cane, now technically called a "quill," which was fixed on a slender wire in the inside of a shuttle (radius), so that it could revolve freely. By means of this shuttle the weft was passed between the threads of the warp, which were alternately raised and depressed by a slender rod (arundo); so Ovid. Met. VI. 55. stamen secernit arundo. When the weft was passed through the warp, the different cross threads were pressed closely together by the spatha, σráon, a wooden instrument in the shape of a sword, which was afterwards superseded by the pecten,