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C.i. 2. 40.

150. Saucy. Often used by S. in a stronger sense than the modern Cf. Oth. i. 1. 129: "bold and saucy wrongs;" 7. C. i. 3. 12 :

“Or else the world, to saucy with the gods,

Incenses them to send destruction,'' etc. 151. Romish. Apparently contemptuous for Roman, but not always so used. Steevens cites Glapthorne, Wit in a Constable : “A Romish cirque or Grecian hippodrome ;” and Drant, Horace: “The Romishe people wise in tliis,” etc.

153. Who. Changed to “whom ”in the ad fol. Cf. iv. 2. 77 below, and see Gr. 274.

154. Not respects. A common transposition. Cf. Temp. ii. 1. 121: “I not doubt,” etc. See also iv. 4. 23 below. Gr. 305.

159. Sir. Cf. 174 and v. 5. 145 below. It is sometimes ironical, as in i. 1. 166 above.

161. Most worthiest. For the double superlative, see Gr. 11. Pope “ corrected” it into “most worthy.' Cf. ii. 3. 2 and iv. 2. 319 below.

162. Affunce. Faith, fidelity. Cf. Hen. V. 1. 2. 127: “The sweetness of affiance,” etc.

165. Witch. For the masculine use, cf. C. of E. iv. 4. 160 and A. and

166. Into. Changed by Hanmer to “unto.” Clarke remarks that the word“ accords with the image presented of enchanting those around him into his magic circle.”.

168. Descended. The first folio bas “defended ;" corrected in the ad. 169. Sets. For the omission of the relative, cf. 84 above.

171. Adventur'd. Ventured; as in W. T. iv. 4. 470, R. and 7. v. 3. II, etc.

176. Fan. The metaphor is taken from the process of winnowing grain, as chaffless.shows." Cf. Hen. VIII. v. i. 111:

I humbly thank your highness;
And am right glad to catch this good occasion
Most throughly to be winnow'd, where my chaff

And corn shall fly asunder." 190. Curious. Careful. Cf. A.W.i. 2. 20 : “Frank nature, rather irious than in haste ;” and see our ed. p. 138. For strange, see on 53 above.

199. Short. Impair, infringe. For the antithesis, cf. P. P.210:"Short, night, to-night, and length thyself to-morrow.”

206. Outstood. “Outstaid '' (the reading of the Coll. MS.). S. uses the word only here, and outstay only in A. Y. L. i. 3. 90.

207. The tender of our present. The presentation of our gift.

ACT II. SCENE I.-1. Kissed the jack, etc. "He is describing his fate at bowis. The jack is the small bowl at which the others are aimed. He who is nearest to it wins. To kiss the jack is a state of great advantage” (John. son). Upon an up-cast means “by a throw from another bowler directed straight up.”

3. Take me up. Rebuke, scold; with a play upon the expression. Cf. Much Ado, p. 148, and A. W. p. 154 (note on 205);

16. Smelt. For the quibble on rank, cf. A. Y. L. i. 2. 113. 20. Jack-slave. A term of contempt; like Juck in Rich. III. i. 3. 72 :

“Since every Jack became a gentleman,

There 's many a gentle person made a Jack." See also Much Ado, p. 164.

22. And capon too. Perhaps with a play on “cap on,” that is, the fool's coxcomb (Schmidt). See Lear, p. 186.

24. Sayest thou? What do you say ? Cf. iv. 2. 379 below: “Say you, sir ? See also Oth. iii. 4. 82, etc.

25. Undertake every companion. Give satisfaction to every fellow. For the contemptuous use of companion, see Temp. p. 131, note on Your fellow. Johnson transferred this speech to the first lord, but it is probably an ironical reply to Cloten's question as to what he is saying to himself.

46. Issues. Proceedings, acts. 50. As is. Pope omitted is.

53. For his heart. For his life, as we should say. Cf. M. of V.v. I. 165, T. of S. i. 2. 38, etc.

55. Divine. Accented on the first syllable, probably because preced. ing the noun. Cf. iv. 2. 170 below, and see Cor. p. 255. See also on supreme, i. 6. 4 above.

61. Unshak'd. Cf. 7. C. ii. 1. 70: “Unshak'd of motion.” Elsewhere (twice) we have unshuken. Cf. shak'd in i. 5. 76 above.

SCENE II.-4. Left. Left off ; as in i. 4. 93 above.

9. Fairies. For malignant fairies, cf. Ham. i. 1. 163, C. of E. ii. 2. 191, iv. 2. 35 (see our ed. p. 136), etc. 13. Rushes.

In the time of S. floors were strewn with rushes. See Rich. II. p. 167, note on The presence strew'd. S. transfers the custom to Rome, as in R. of L. 316: “He takes it [a glove) from the rushes where it lies.”

14. Cytherea. Venus. Cf. T. of S. ind. 2. 53 and W. T. iv. 4. 122.

15. Bravely. Well, admirably; as in ii. 4. 73 below. Cf. the adjective in iv. 2. 319 below.

16. Whiter than the sheets. Cf. V. and A. 398:"Teaching the sheets a whiter hue than white ;” and R. of L. 472 : “Who o'er the white sheets peers her whiter chin."

22. Windows. The eyelids; as in R. and 7. iv. I. 100 (see our ed. p. 172, note on Grey eye), Rich. III. v. 3. 116, etc.

The white and azure, etc., refers to the white skin laced with blue veins. Exquisite as the description is, the commentators have not been willing to let it alone. Hanmer reads “those curtains white with azure lac'd, The blue,” etc.; and Warb. “these windows: white with azure lac'd, The blue,” etc.

23. Tinct. Dye; as in Ham. iii. 4. 91: “ will not leave their tinct." In A. W. v. 3. 102 and A. and C. i. 5. 37, the word means the "tincture" or “grand elixir ” of the alchemists.

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Design. In the ist folio some copies have an interrogation-point and some a period after the word. The 3d folio has “designe's," and the 4th “ design's.”

26. The arras-figures. The folio has “the Arras, Figures,” which is followed by some of the modern editors; but Mason's emendation in the text is to be preferred. It is the figures of the tapestry that he wishes particularly to note; though he remembers the material also, as we see by ii. 4. 69 below.

31. Ape. Cf. W. T. v. 2. 108: “Julio Romano, who ... would beguile Nature of her custom, so perfectly he is her ape.”

32. As a monument. S. was thinking of the recumbent full-length fig. ures so common on the tombs of his day. Cf. R. of L. 391: “Where like a virtuous monument she lies."

34. The Gordian knot. Cf. Hen. V. i. 1. 46: “The Gordian knot of it he will unloose.”

37. Madding. Cf. iv. 2. 314 below. S. does not use madden.

38. Cinque-spotted. Having five spots. For the position of the mole see p. II (foot-note) above.

41. Force him think. For the omission of the infinitive to, see Gr. 349.

45. The tale of Tereus. Cf. T. A. ii. 4. 26 fol., iv. I. 48 fol., and R. of L. 1128 fol.

48. Dragons of the night. Cf. M. N. D. ii. 2. 379 : “For night's swift dragons cut the clouds full fast ;” T. and C. v. 8. 17: “ The dragon wing of night;” Milton, Il Pens. 59: “ While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke,” etc. 49. Bare. The folios have “

“ beare or “bear.” Pope reads “ope,” and the Coll. MS, has “dare.”

50. This. Walker plausibly conjectures “this?” (this is). See Lear,

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p. 246.

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ye birds,

SCENE III.-2. Most coldest. See on i. 6. 161 above.
13. So. Be it so, well and good; as often. See M. of V. p. 136.
15. After. Often= afterwards. See Gr. 26.
17. At heaven's gate sings. Cf. Sonn. 29. II:

“Like to the lark, at break of day arising

From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate." See also Milton, P. L. v. 198:

That singing up to heaven-gate ascend.”
Reed suggests that S. had Lyly's Alexander and Campaspe in mind :

"who is 't now we hear?
None but the lark so shrill and clear ;
Now at heaven's gate she claps her wings,
The morn not waking till she sings.

Hark, hark," etc. 18. Gins. Begins; but not a contraction of that word. See Macb. p. 153.

20. Lies. For the form, see on charms, i. 6. 116 above. Cf. V. and A. 1128: “two lamps, burnt out, in darkness lies.”

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21. Winking. Often=with shut eyes. Cf. ii. 4. 89, v. 4. 182, 186 below. Mary-buds=marigolds.

23. With every thing that pretty is. Hanmer reads “With all the things that pretty bin;" and Warb. also has “ bin ” for is. The rhyme is not necessary in this ballad measure.

26. Consider. Pay, requite; with possibly a quibbling reference to the other sense, as Clarke believes. Cf. W. T. iv. 4. 825: "being something gently considered (if I have a gentlemanlike consideration given me], I ’ bring you where he is aboard.” So in The Ile of Gulls, 1633 : “Thou shalt be well considered, there 's twenty crowns in earnest."

27. Vice. The folios have “voyce or "voice ;" corrected by Rowe. The Coll. MS. has “fault.”

28. Calves'-guts. Changed by Rowe to “cat's-guts ;” but, according to Sir John Hawkins, Mersennus, in his De Instrumentis Harmonicis, says that chords of musical instruments are made of “metal and the intestines of sheep or any other animals.”

33. Fatherly. Adjectives in -ly are often used adverbially. Gr. I.

39. Minion. Favourite, darling (Fr. mignon); with a touch of contempt. See Temp. p. 136, or Macb. p. 153.

43. Vantages. Opportunities; as in i. 3. 24 above.

44. Prefer. Recommend; as in iv. 2. 386, 400 below. Cf. M. of V.p. 140.

45. Solicits. The reading of the 2d folio; the ist has “solicity.” Coll. reads “soliciting. For be friended, Pope has“ befriended,” referring to solicits : “with solicitations not only proper but well timed” (Mason).

51. Senseless. “The cunning queen uses this word with the signification of unconscious; her obtuse son affrontedly disclaims it, as signifying stupid, devoid of sense. The angry susceptibility and tetchiness of ignorance, just sufficiently aware of its own incapacity to be perpetually afraid that it is found out and insulted by others, blended with the stolid conceit that invariably accompanies this inadequate self-knowledge, are all admirably delineated in Cloten : he is a dolt striving to pass for an accomplished prince, a vulgar boor fancying himself, and desirous of being taken for, a thorough leman” (Clarke).

52. So like you. If it please you. Cf. M. for M. j. 1. 33: “Here, if it like your honour,” etc. Cf. Ham. p. 202, note on Likes. Gr. 297.

57. His goodness forespent on us. “The good offices done by him to us heretofore” (Warb). Elsewhere forespent means past, foregone (Hen. V. ii. 4. 36) and exhausted (2 Hen. IV.i. 1. 37). According to, before the honour, allows according to or for the sake of to be elliptically understood before his goodness” (Clarke).

65. Line. Cf. Per. iv. 6.63 : “He will line your apron with gold.”

67. Diana's rangers. Diana's nymphs; literally, her forest rangers, or game-keepers. For false as a verb, cf. C. of E. ii. 2. 95: “a thing falsing ;" and see our ed. p. 120.

68. Stand. “The station of huntsmen waiting for game” (Schmidt). Cf. iii. 4. 108 below. See also M. W. v. 5. 248, L. L. L. iv. I. 10, etc. 69. True.

Honest. For the antithesis to thief, cf. V. and A. 724: “Rich preys make true men thieves ;” M. for M. iv. 2. 46: “Every true

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man's apparel fits your thief;" Much Ado, iii. 3. 54: “ If you meet a thief, you may suspect him, by virtue of your office, to be no true man,” etc.

73. Vet noi understand. For the transposition of yet, see Gr. 76. Cf. V. 5. 468 below.

79. Is she ready? Is she dressed ? Ready was often used in this spe. cial sense (cf. Macb. p. 202, note on Put on manly readiness), but the lady chooses to take it in its more general signification.

85. You lay out too much pains, etc. Mrs. Jameson remarks: “Cloten is odious ;* but we must not overlook the peculiar fitness and propriety of his character, in connection with that of Imogen. He is precisely the kind of man who would be most intolerable to such a woman. He is a fool,—so is Slender, and Sir Andrew Aguecheek: but the folly of Cloten is not only ridiculous, but hateful ; it arises not so much from a want of understanding as a total want of heart; it is the perversion of sentiment, rather than the deficiency of intellect; he has occasional gleams of sense, but never a touch of feeling. Imogen describes herself not only as • sprighted with a fool,' but as 'frighted and anger'd worse. No other fool but Cloten—a compound of the booby and the villain—could excite in such a mind as Imogen's the same mixture of terror, contempt, and abhorrence. The stupid, obstinate malignity of Cloten, and the wicked machinations of the queen

A father cruel, and a step-dame false,

A foolish suitor to a wedded lady'— justify whatever might need excuse in the conduct of Imogen-as her concealed marriage and her flight from her father's court-and serve to call out several of the most beautiful and striking parts of her character: particularly that decision and vivacity of temper which in her harmonize so beautifully with exceeding delicacy, sweetness, and submission.

“In the scene with her detested suitor, there is at first a careless majes. ty of disdain, which is admirable. . . . But when he dares to provoke her, by reviling the absent Posthumus, her indignation heightens her scorn, and her scorn sets a keener edge on her indignation.”.

89. T were as deep with me. It would make as deep an impression upon me. Deep is elsewhere associated with swearing; as in Sonn. 152. 9: “I have sworn deep oaths ;” R. of L. 1847: "that deep vow;" and K. John, iii. I. 231 : deep-sworn faith.” 94. Equal discourtesy, etc. That is, discourtesy equal to your best kind

66

For the transposition, see Gr.419a. 95. Knowing. See on i. 4. 26 above.

ness.

The character of Cloten has been pronounced by some unnatural. by others inconsistent, and by others obsolete. The following passage occurs in one of Miss Seward's letters, vol. iii. p. 246: “ It is curious that Shakspeare should, in so singular a character as Cloten, have given the exact prototype of a being whom I once knew. The unmeaning frown of countenance, the shuffling gait, the burst of voice, the bustling insignificance, the fever-and-ague fits of valor, the froward tetchiness, the unprincipled malice, and, what is more curious, those occasional gleams of good sense amidst the Hoating clouds of folly which generally darkened and confused the man's brain, and which, in the character of Cloten, we are apt to impute to a violation of unity in character ; but in the sometime Captain C-, I saw that the portrait of Cloten was not out of nature.”

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