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76. Shak’d. For the form cf. Hen. V. ij. I. 124, and T. and C. i. 3. 101. See also unshak'd in ii. 1. 61 below. Shaken occurs five times, but the common form in S. is shook. Cf. Gr. 343.

77. The remembrancer, etc. “One who admonishes her to maintain the matrimonial pledge towards her lord”. (J. H). Hand-fast is used by S. only here and in IV. T. iv. 4. 795, where it means confinement, custody.

80. Liegers. A lieger ambassador is one that resides in a foreign court to promote his master's interest ” (Johnson). Cf. M. for M. iii. 1.59:

“Lord Angelo, having affairs to heaven,
Intends you for his swift ambassador,

Where you shall be an everlasting lieger." 83. The violets, cowslips, etc. “The art with which the poet and dramatist has placed these words in the mouth of this queen miscreant is worthy of remark. He makes her use these beauteous and innocent products of earth as mere cloaks to her wickedness; she concocts perfumes' and 'confections from them as a veil to the drugs' and poisonous compounds' which she collects for the fellest purposes. It enhances the effect of her guilt, her thus forcing these sweet blossoms to become accomplices in her vile schemes ; and we loathe her the more for her surrounding her unhallowed self with their loveliness. Moreover, she is untouched by their grace; she has learned no lesson from their exquisite structure, colour, fragrance; she looks upon them as mere means to an end-and that end a bad one. Observe, too, how skilfully S. has made this evil woman order her ladies to gather these flowers' how she desires that they shall be borne to her closet—her laboratory; not gathering or caring for them herself; not caring for the touch, and scent, and sight of these gentle things—that all good people instinctively love, and cherish, and caress. How different is the poet's treatment of the subject, where he makes the virtuous Friar Laurence rise with the dawn, himself to gather the “precious-juiced flowers,'«ere the sun advance his burning eye ;' and dilating with fond enthusiasm on their many virtues excellent,' and philosophizing on their varied qualities and purposes ! Supplementary to this higher ethical teaching of the great moralist, how truly we see the man of rural natural knowledge, in his being aware of the fact that morning-gathered flowers remain longest fresh and unwith: ered !” (Clarke).

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SCENE VI.-4. Supreme. Accented on the first syllable, as regularly before a noun. Cf. Cor. p. 268. See also on divine, ii. 1. 55 below; and cf. profane in ii. 3. 122.

6. Most miserable, etc. “Most doomed to disappointment is the exalted aspiration” (Clarke). The ist folio has “ desires ;” corrected in the 2d. Hanmer changed the word to “degree.”

8. That have their honest wills, etc. “ Who gratify their innocent wishes with reasonable enjoyments” (Johnson).

" Who have the power of gratifying their honest inclination, which circumstance bestows an additional relish on comfort itself” (Steevens). Seasons comfort is clearly. =gives a zest to happiness. Cf. T. and C. i. 2. 278: "the spice and salt that season a man."


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11. Change you, madam? “ How by these three little words the dramatist lets us behold the sudden pallor and as sudden Aush of crimson that bespread the wife's face at this instant ” (Clarke).

17. The Arabian bird. The phænix. Cf. A. Y. L. p. 189, note on As rare as phænix. 22. Note. See on i.


2 above. 24. Truest. The folios have “trust,” which some retain, pointing it as an unfinished sentence (“trust-"); but on the whole Hanmer's emenclation of truest seems preferable. As W. remarks, “what Imogen reads is certainly the end, not the beginning, of the letter; the first word that she reads, he, necessarily implying a previous mention and introduction of Iachimo.” So far, as he adds, may very properly be taken as =“so much ;” and the rest may refer as well to what has gone before as to what comes after. If "your trust” be what S. wrote, it must mean, as Clarke makes it," the trust I repose in you ;” but, even with that interpretation, the expression seems an odd one here.

31. What, are men mad? Mrs. Jameson remarks on this scene: “In the interview between Imogen and Iachimo, he does not begin his attack on her virtue by a direct accusation against Posthumus; but by dark hints and half-uttered insinuations, such as Iago uses to madden Othello, he intimates that her husband, in his absence from her, has betrayed her love and truth, and forgotten her in the arms of another. All that Imogen says in this scene is comprised in a few lines-a brief question, or a more brief remark. The proud and delicate reserve with which she veils the anguish she suffers is inimitably beautiful. The strongest expression of reproach he can draw from her is only, ‘My lord, I fear, has forgot Britain.' When he continues in the same strain, she exclaims in an agony, 'Let me hear no more.' When he urges her to revenge, she asks, with all the simplicity of virtue, ‘How should I be revenged?' And when he explains to her how she is to be avenged, her sudden burst of indignation, and her immediate perception of his treachery, and the motive for it, are powerfully fine: it is not only the anger of a woman whose delicacy has been shocked, but the spirit of a princess insulted in her

It has been remarked [by Hazlitt] that'her readiness to pardon Iachimo's false imputation, and his designs against herself, is a good lesson to prudes, and may show that where there is a real attachment to virtue, there is no need of an outrageous antipathy to vice.' This is true ; but can we fail to perceive that the instant and ready forgiveness of Imogen is accounted for, and rendered more graceful and characteristic, by the very means which Iachimo employs to win it? He pours forth the most enthusiastic praises of her husband, professes that he merely made this trial of her out of his exceeding love for Posthumus, and she is pacified at once; but, with exceeding delicacy of feeling, she is represented as maintaining her dignified reserve and her brevity of speech to the end of the scene.”


32. Crop. Produce. The word troubled Warb., who substituted cope.”

34. Twinn'd. As like as twins” (Steevens). Johnson did not“ understand” the word, and conjectured “twin’d”="twisted, convoluted,”




4 above.


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though, as he added, “this sense is more applicable to shells than to stones.'

35. The unnumber'd. The folios have “the number'd ;" corrected by Theo. Cf. the parallel passage in Leur, iv. 6. 21 :

“The murmuring surge
That on the unnumber d idle pebble chafes,

Cannot be heard so high.” Some, however, retain “number’d,” which Clarke explains as “composed of numbers,” and Schmidt as “rich in numbers, abundantly provided.” Other emendations proposed are “the humbled,” “ the humble,” “the umber'd, "the cumber'd,” and “Unnumber'd, on the beach." 36. Spectacles. Organs of vision, eyes ; as in 2 Hen. V1. iii. 2. 112:

"" And even with this I lost fair England's view,

And bid mine eyes be packing with my heart,
And call'd them blind and dusky spectacles,

For losing ken of Albion's wished coast." 37. Makes your admiration. Causes your astonishment. See on i. 4. 39. Shes. Cf. i. 3. 29 above. 40. Mows. Grimaces. Cf. Temp. iv. I. 47:

“Each one, tripping on his toe,

Will be here with mop and mow.” We find the verb in Id. ii. 2.9:“Sometime like apes, that mow and chat. ter at me.” See also Lear, p. 234, note on Mopping and mowing.

41. Favour. Beauty ; as in Ham. iv. 5. 189 and Oth. iv. 3. 21. It is often=personal appearance, aspect; as in iii. 4. 48 and iv. 2. 105 below. Cf. 7. C. p. 131, note on Your outward favour.

42. Be wisely definite. Be wise in deciding, or wisely free from hesi. tation” (Schmidt). S. uses definite nowhere else.

44. Vomit emptiness. Warb. explained the passage thus : “ That appetite which is not allured to feed on such excellence can have no stomach at all, but, though empty, must nauseate every thing.”. Johnson, on the other hand, interpreted it thus: “ Desire, says he, when it approached sluttery, and considered it in comparison with such neat excellence, would not only be not so allured to feed, but, seized with a fit of loathing, would vomit emptiness, would feel the convulsions of disgust, though, being unfed, it had no object.” Later, in defending his explanation, he added this thoroughly Johnsonian definition :" To vomit emptiness is, in the language of poetry, to feel the convulsions of eructation without plenitude.” Malone remarks that “no one who has been ever sick at sea can be at a loss to understand what is meant by vomiting emptiness.” Johnson evidently had the right idea of the passage, which must mean that desire would turn to disgust and nausea, not from satiety, but before it was gratified. The Coll. MS. has “to emptiness,” which W. adopts. 48. Ravening. Ravenously devouring. Cf. Macb. p. 204, note on Rav

Here the spelling of the folio is “ Rauening.” Cf. R. and 7. iii. 2. 76, where it has “ Woluish-rauening Lambe.”

50. Raps. Apparently the verb of which rapt (=transported) is the

in up.

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participle, though rarely found in the indicative. Cf. Wb. W. reads “wraps.”

51. Desire my man's abode. That is, ask him to remain.

53. Strange and peevish. A foreigner and a simpleton” (Clarke). For strange, cf. 190 below ; and for peevish=silly, foolish, see Hen. V. p. 171. For a very clear instance of this sense, see Lyly, Endymion (quoted by Nares) : “There never was any so peevish to imagine the moone either capable of affection or shape of a mistris.” Steevens explained strange as “shy, or backward,”

58. None a. Changed by Hanmer to “Not a.” Cf. i. 4. 88 above : “none so accomplished a courtier,” etc.

60. Briton. The folios have “ Britaine” or “Britain."

65. Gallian. The word occurs again in i Hen. V1. v.4. 139. S. does not use Gallic. Furnaces. The only instance of the verb in S. Cf. A. Y. L. ii. 7. 148:

“And then the lover,

Sighing like furnace,'' etc. 67. From 's. See on i. 1. 4 above. 69. Proof. Experience; as in ii. 3. 27 below.

71. Languish for. As arranged by Steevens ; in the folio for begins the next line. Pope reads "languish out For assured,” etc. Clarke thinks that his may be a misprint for “ in 's.” 75, 76. And hear .

blame. Pope's arrangement; two lines in the folio, the first ending with Frenchman.

79. Account his. The Coll. MS. omits his. Clarke points the line thus: “In you,—which I count his,-beyond all talents” (that is, heaven's bounty is in you“beyond all sums of wealth”).

83. Wrack. The only spelling of wreck in the early eds. It rhymes to alack in Per. iv. prol. 12, and to back in V. and A. 558, R. of L. 841, 965, Sonn. 126. 5, and Macb. v. 5. 51. 84. Deserves.

For the omission of the relative, see Gr. 244. 85. Solace. Find solace or happiness. Cf. Rich. III. ii. 3. 30 : “This sickly land might solace as before ;” and R. and J. iv. 5. 47: “But one thing to rejoice and solace in.”

86. Snuff. That is, a snuffed candle. Cf. Ham. iv. 7. 116; and see also Lear, p. 244.

91. Venge. Not“ 'venge,” as often printed. Cf. Rich. II. p. 158.

94. Doubting things go ill. Suspecting or fearing that things go ill. Cf. K. John, iv. 1. 19:

“but that I doubt

My uncle practises more harm to me.' See also Ham. pp. 187, 202.

96. Or, timely knowing, etc. Elliptically expressed, though the sense is clear. Hanmer changed knowing to “known,” and remedy to “ edy's.”

98. What both you spur and stop. “What it is that at once incites you to speak and restrains you from it” (Johnson); or “what you seem anxious to utter, and yet withhold” (Mason). Cf. W. T. ii. 1. 187: “Shall stop or spur me.


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Gr. 247

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100. Every. Changed in the 3d folio to "very.”
103. Fixing. The reading of the ad folio; the ist has “Fiering."

107. By-peeping. Giving sidelong glances. The hyphen was inserted by K. The Coll. MS. has “ bo-peeping."

108. Unlustrous. Rowe's emendation of the “illustrious” of the folios. Coll. reads “illustrous ;” but, as D. notes, that word, in the only instance that has been cited (in Chapman's Odyssey), is=illustrious.

I11. Encounter such revolt. “Meet such apostasy” (J. H.). Revolt is often used of faithlessness in love; as in R. and 7. iv. I. 58, Oth. iij. 3. 188,

Cf. iii. 4. 54 below. 115. Mutest. That would otherwise be most silent. Abbott (Gr. 8) thinks it may mean the mutest part or corner of my conscience.”

116. Charms. The plural relative often takes a singular verb. See

119. Empery. Empire; as in Rich. III. iii. 7. 136: “Your right of birth, your empery, your own,” etc.

120. Greatst. See on i. 1.96 above.
121. Tomboys. Hoidens; the only instance of the word in S.

That self exhibition. “ The very pension which you allow your husband” (Johnson). For self =same, cf. M. of V.i. 1. 148: "that : eif way;" C. of E. v. I. 10:“that self chain," etc. Gr. 20. For exhibition=allowance (the only sense in S.), cf. T. G. of V. i. 3. 69:

“What maintenance he from his friends receives,

Like exhibition thou shalt have from me."
See also Lear, i. 2. 25, Oth. i. 3. 238, iv. 3. 75, etc.

123. Play. The Coll. MS. has “pay.'
127. Recoil. Fall off, prove degenerate ; as in Macb. iv. 3. 19:

A good and virtuous nature may recoil

In an imperial charge.' 129. As. For.

For such ... that, see on i. 4. 46 above. Gr. 279. 130. Abuse. Deceive. See on i. 4. 105 above. “Noble Imogen!” exclaims Clarke, “model to your sister women, for love with warmth of impulse in it, yet not such impulse as carries temper and judgment

131. Me. W. reads “thee;" but Iachimo is putting himself in Imogen's place. The change of person in the latter part of the sentence is not uncommon in S. Cf. 31-35 above, and see on i. 1. 118.

132. Priest, betwixt. Changed by Hanmer to “priestess, 'twixt ;” but cf. Per. v. 1, 243 : “ my maiden priests,” etc.

133. Ramps. “Leaps ” (Schmidt). Cf. Milton, S. A. 139: “Fled from his lion ramp” (spring, or attack). So the verb=leap, in P. L. iv. 343:

Sporting the lion ramp'd.” Cf. K. John, p. 154. Some take the noun here to be=harlots. S. uses it nowhere else.

138. What ho, Pisanio! “Observe how, upon the villain revealing himself, she does not even answer him, but calls her faithful servant to her side before replying” (Clarke).

148. Acquainted of. Cf. Much Ado, iii. i. 40: “to acquaint her of it,”

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