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fud, it has given such terror to the Americans, that our trade with them will not be, for some years, whiat it used to be, and great numbers of our manufacturers at home will be turned a starving for want of that employment which our very profitable trade to America found them; and hunger is always the cause of tumults and sedition. The repeal of the stamp-act is at last carried through; I am glad of it, and gave my proxy for it, because I saw many more inconveniencies from the inforcing it than from the repealing it.” Letters, vol. ii. p. 496, 497, 499.

But the lords, in their protest against the repeal of the American stamp-act, amongst many other reasons, assign this as the last, which has been unhappily verified by subsequent events; and, if it had been then enforced, it might have prevented the shedding of any blood.

“ Lastly,” say they, “because we are convinced, from the unanimous testimony of the governors and other officers of the crown in America, that if, by a most unhappy delay and neglect to provide for the due execution of the law, and arming the government there with proper orders and powers, repeatedly called for in vain, these disturbances had not been continued and increased, they might easily have been quieted before they had attained to any dangerous height: and we cannot, without feeling the most lively sense of grief and indignation, hear arguments, drawn from the progress of evils which should and might have been stopped in their first and feeble beginnings, used for the still greater evil of sacrificing, to a present relief, the highest permanent interests, and the whole majesty, power, and reputation, of government. This afflicts us the more deeply, because it appears, from many letters, that this law, if properly supported by government, would, from the peculiar circumstances attending the disobedience to it, execute itself without bloodshed. And it is said, in one of the letters to Mr Secretary Conway, “ That the principal view is to intimidate the parliament; but that, if it be thought prudent to enforce their authority, the people dare not oppose a vigorous resolution of the parliament of Great Britain.” That vigorous resolution has not yet been found in the parliament, and we greatly fear that the want of it will certainly produce one of these two fatal consequences; either that the repeal of this law will in effect annul and abrogate all other laws and statutes relating to our colonies, and particularly the acts that restrain or limit their commerce, of which they are most impatient; or, if we should hereafter attempt to enforce the execution of those laws against their will, and by virtue of an authority they have dared to insult with impunity and success, that endeavour will bring upon us all those evils and inconveniencies to the fear of which we now sacrifice the sovereignty of this realm; and this at a time when the strength of our colonies, as well as their desire of a total independance on the legislature and government of their mother-country, may be greatly augmented ; and when the circumstances and dispositions of the other powers of Europe may render the contest far more dangerous and formidable to this kingdom."


Cette année parut la secte de ceux auxquels on a donné le nom d'ANTINOMIENS ; 1538. Ces gens-là enseignoient, que la doctrine de la pénitence ne devoit pas se tirer du Décalogue, et ils attaquoient ceux qui disoient, qu'on ne devoit prêcher l'Evangile qu'après avoir terrifié et ébranlé les esprits par l'explication de la loi. Ils soutenoient, de plus, que, quelque corrompue et impure que fût la vie des hommes, ils ne laissoient pas d'être justifiés, pourvû simplement qu'ils crussent aux promesses de l'Evangile. L'auteur de cette doctrine étoit Jean Agricola d'Islebe. Courayer's Sleidan, vol. ii. p. 63.

AREOPAGUS, cujus penultimam perperam prope omnes producunt, penultimam corripere certum est; cum sit conflatum ex Aperos, martius, et tuyos, collis, Vossius de Art. Gramm. lib. ii. c. 33. See also Sophocles (Edip. colon, line 1002.

ARCHIMEDES, a famous mathematician, was so intent on a geometrical demonstration, during the siege of Acradina by Marcellus, that neither the noise of the soldiers nor the cries of the people drew off his attention from it. He was very calmly drawing his lines, when he saw a soldier enter his room and clap a sword to his throat. “ Hold, friend,” said Archimedes, one moment; and my demonstration will be finished.” Univ. Hist. vol. viii. p. 145.

Antichrist. See Devil.

Though it be possible that AMERICA may have received its first inhabitants from our continent, either by the north-west of Europe or north-east of Asia, there seems to be good reason for supposing that the progenitors of all the American nations, from Cape Horn to the southern confines of Labrador, migrated from the latter rather than the former. The Esquimaux are the only people in America, who, in their aspect or character, bear any resemblance to the northern Europeans. But the other inhabitants of America have, in their persons and dispositions, some resemblance to . the rude tribes of Tartars scattered over the north-east of Asia. Robertson's IIist. : vol. i. p. 280.

And, from the number of volcanos in this region of the globe, particularly in Kamschatka, I might suppose, that, this part of the earth having suffered violent convulsions from earthquakes and volcanos, an isthmus, which may have formerly united Asia to America, has been broken, and formed into a cluster of islands by the shock. Idem, p. 459, note 41.

And, that the natives of Mexico and Peru originally came from some parts of Asia is probable from another observation, vol. ii. p. 497, note 53. ." In the armoury of the royal palace at Madrid are shewn suits of armour, which are called Montezuma's, (emperor of Mexico.) They are composed of thin lacquered copper plates.


In the opinion of very intelligent judges they are evidently eastern. The forms of the silver ornaments upon them, representing dragons, &c. may be considered as a confirmation of this. They are infinitely superior to any effort of American art. The Spaniards, probably, received them from the Philippine islands."

Quere. Might not there have been ages back a cominunication between the southpast part of Asia and the south-west coast of America, though now unknown to us ? And, might not Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo, his wife, have found their way to the Peruvian coast by this passage, who are supposed to have first instructed the men in agriculture and other useful arts, and the women to spin and weave? Vide vol. ii.

p. 164. .

Or, might not the Phænicians have reached by some accident the opposite shore? What favours this conjecture, is, that Buenoth Ayres, a city placed at the mouth of the River de la Plata, is, probably, so called from muz 79, that is, the city of Venus, for, as the authors of the Universal History observe, Succoth Booth, 2 Kings, xvii. 30, is the shrines of Venus, by changing the B into V, and, T into S; and, it is farther remarkable, that the name of Inca, which the Americans give to their kings, may be derived from psy, Anac, or Enak ; for, as Vossius observes, de Idolola, lib. i. c. 13. Non dubium quin qui prius ärares et postea avaxtos dicti sunt, genus ducebant ab Anac, sive Ænac.

Add to this, that Vossius, in his letter, p. 676, to Hugo Grotius, says thus, “ Est hic juvenis Eruditus, discipulus Petavii, antea minorita, qui contendit Americanos esse a Phænicibus. Nempe ut quemadmodum Carthago eorum Colonia et Gades, bonaque pars Hispaniæ possessa, ita et hi Americam tempestate, vel aliter, delati fuerint.”

The southern parts of America were anticntly thought to be inhabited by the Atlantii, descendants of the Phænician Atlas, who was the son of Uranus and brother of Saturn. That many of the American nations descended from Phoenicians and Carthaginians is evident both from the names of Places and cities, and also from the manner of their worship. Many of them worship the sun, and moon, and Saturn, which were the most antient Phænician deities; nor were any other known in Darien, New Grenada, and Peru, nor in Florida, California, or New Mexico. Vide Horn. lib. ii. de Orig. Gent. Americ. p. 128. Jackson's Chronol. vol. iii. p. 350, 355.

The mode of computing tiine ainong the Americans inay be considered as an evidence of their progress iu improvement. They, the Mexicans, divided their year into eighteen months, each consisting of twenty days, in all, 360, to which they added tive days, which they termed supernumerary or waste, and devoted them wholly to festivity and pastime. Robertson's Hist. vol. ii. p. 290.

Religion was formed among the Mexicans into a regular system, with its complete -train of priests, temples, victims, and festivals. Its divinities were clothed with terror and delighted in vengeance. — Of all offerings, human sacrifices were deemed



the most acceptable, and they never approached their altars without sprinkling them with blood drawn from their own bodies. The spirit of the Mexicans was accordingly un feeling and atrocious. To what circumstances it was owing that superstition assumed such a dreadful form among the Mexicans we have not sufficient knowledge of their history to determine. Robertson's Hist. vol. ii. p. 302, 303.

But, are not these rites of a similar nature with those of the Canaanites, who offered their sons and daughters unto devils; and, might not they be derived from the Phoenicians, who were well skilled in navigation?

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Most historians, antient and modern, extol AUGUSTUS as one of the most mild, humane, and moderate, princes, 'that ever swayed a sceptre; 'but, we meet with too many instances in history which evidently shew that cruelty'was the natural bent of his temper.' An instance of which we have in Aulus Gellius, whom, 'though on all occasions he had assisted him to the utinost of his power, on a 'suspicion that he had a design to murder him, 'he condemned to the rack, but first caused the miserable magistrate to be brought before him, that he might have the cruel and brutal pleasure of digging out his eyes with his own hands. Univ. Hist, vol. xiii. p. 363. ini!

Habebat hoc omnino Augustus Cæsar quem plane perditum ære alienò egentemque, si eundem nequam hominem audacemque cognoverat, hunc in familiaritatem libentissime recipiebat. Ciceron, Philip. Qda.'

Si ADAMUM recens creatum cogitamus, qualem eum nobis exhibent Sacræ literæ, rationis et orationis facultate perfectâ præditum; non sui, non Dei, ignarum, divinæ bonitatis, majestatis, et potentiæ, conscium; pulcherrimæ totius mundi fabricæ, terræ cæliq. non indignum spectatorem, fierine posse credamus, quin ei hæc omnia intuenti intus incalesceret cor, ita ut ipso affectuum æstu abreptus animus ultro sese effunderet in Creatoris laudes, inq. eum impetum orationis, eamq: vocis exultantiam exardėsčeret, quæ tales motus animi pene necessario consequitur. Et Odæ origo ad ipsum poeseos initium recurrit, quod cum religionis, hoc est, cum ipsius humanæ naturæ ortu con junctum videtur. *Lowth; de Sac. Poesi.

A most astonishing instance of unnatural fortitude exhibited in the person of ARISTODEMUS, a Messenian, who, the Oracle of Delphos having declared in the war of the Messenians with the Spartans “that a virgin of the royal blood of the Æpytidæ should be sacrificed and willingly devoted,” offered his own virgin-daughter as a victim for his country. But her lover, when he found no persuasions could save her, boldly charged her with being debauched and with child by himself. This so enraged the generous Aristodemus that he killed the virgin; and, opening her body, shewed to the whole assembly her womb, that they might be convinced she was not with child: upon which this sacrifice was allowed as sufficient. What a horrid religion was the

prevailing prevailing Paganism of Greece at that time! Winder's. Hist. of Knowledge, yol. ii.

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The ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION fell out in the year before Christ 1095. Jackson's

Le Chronol. vol. iii. p. 313.


k rinitis Astarte, the elder Venus, had her name from the fecundity of flocks, minut, greges. Æsculapius, health, from the Arabic Aaz kelpo, the power of the heart; or's the virtue of converting from sickness to health. Blackw. Mythol.

It is now the common practice of the Christian world, and it hath been so for many ages past, to admit children to BAPTISM; but there are, and there have been, persons of another mind, who have thought that none should be baptised except those who are capable of answering for themselves; and this is a subject of controversy on which learned and good men have been divided. Our opposers in this question have so much to say for themselves that they should not be condemned by us for acting according to their serious and best judgement, or treated as stubborn and contentious persons. But then it becomes them to judge as fairly and favourably of us, who have as much to say for ourselves as they ; and, I think, have something more than they. First, the general practice of the church from the fourth century to this day. Secondly, baptism was substituted in the place of circumcision; and, when the Jews made proselytes, they used to baptise the new convert with his whole family, infants as well as adults; and hence it is reasonable to conclude that the apostles followed this custom. Thirdly, God permitted the Jews to make vows in the name of their children ; and, for the same reason, a parent may present and offer his child to Jesus Christ; and it seems as proper that an infant should be baptised in the name of Christ, as that he should be brought to be blessed by him. Fourthly, since baptism is appointed in general terms, and infants are neither expressly named nor expressly excluded, it seems best, all things duly considered, rather to admit them to a covenant which cannot be prejudicial to them, than, by refusing them, to run the risk of acting contrary to the design of the precept. Jortin's Serm. vol. (forgot.)

If baptism be, as it is generally allowed, substituted in the place of circumcision; if it be, in design and intention, exactly analogous to what that was among the Jews; there will be no farther room for any dispute concerning its use and necessity. It will be, as that was, a divine institution, communicated to mankind for the bringing them nearer unto God; and it will be interpreted not only as an outward sign of an inward and invisible grace, but will be a means, likewise, of conveying that grace to us; so that he, who doth duly and properly receive this holy sacrament, shall together with it



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