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475. Ante omnia may be taken either with primum or with dulces, but the former best brings out the sense of the whole passage, which is Above all things I would be the poet of philosophy; if I cannot be that, I would be the poet of the country.-476. Sacra fero means either to carry the sacred symbols in procession, or to sacrifice as a priest. The latter is, perhaps, preferable here. - 477. Accipiant; i. e. may they receive my dedication of myself and assist me with their favors. Gr. 487. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Vias et sidera may be taken as a hendiadys for vias siderum. -478. Defectus and labores both refer to eclipses. Cf. A. I. 740; errantem lunam solisque labores. — 479. Terris. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Tumescant. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. The commentators take this of the tides; but it seems to denote something more violent and irregular, such as the sudden rise of the sea in an earthquake. 481. Oceano ...tinguere. The ancients believed that the sun, when he set, descended into the ocean. Soles hiberni...tardis noctibus; i. i. e. why the days are so short and the nights so long in winter. —483. Possim. Gr. 492; 499. I and 2. A. & S. 262 and R. 11. — 484. Frigidus... sanguis. It was the opinion of some of the ancient philosophers that the blood about the heart was the seat of thought, and as that was warm or cold the mental powers were vigorous or obtuse. -486. O, ubi campi=0 essem ubi sunt campi =O (that I were) where (are) the plains! Ubi and qui (v. 488) are relatives, not interrogatives. Campi Spercheusque may be taken as a hendiadys for Campi Sperchei. Cf. fagus stivaque, G. I. 173. 487. Spercheus; a river of Thessaly. Bacchata = revelled on. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 162. 17 (a). Lacaenis Laconian, Spartan. -488. Taygeta (neu. plu., common Latin form Taygetus); a ridge of mountains in Laconia, terminating in the promontory Taenarum. O, qui: utinam sit, qui. Haemi. See on I. 492. —489. Sistat. A. & S. 264. 6. —491. Fatum; i. e. death, regarded as the fiat of nature. Acherontis; a river of the lower world, here put for the lower world itself. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3.-494. Pana. See on E. IV. 58. Silvanum. See on I. 20. Nymphas. See on E. V. 75.-495. Populi fasces; i. e. the consulate at Rome. -496. Flexit = movit. Fratres is generally taken to refer to one of the domestic contests for Eastern thrones, such as that in the family of the Arsacidae between Phraates and Tiridates. See Hor. C. I. 26, Introd. 497. Conjurato... Histro the conspiring Danube. Conjurato is applied to the Danube, by a change very common with the poets, to signify that other nations on the Danube joined the Dacians. Descendens; alluding to their position on the mountains. Dacus. See on Hor. C. I. 35. 9.—498. Res Romanae = the Roman state. -499. Habenti = diviti. 502. Tabularia: =ar



Gr. 501. I.

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chives.-503-512. The pursuits of ambition and avarice. — 503. Freta: = maria. Caeca = ignota. 504. Penetrant

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regum. Cf. Hor. Ep. II. 78.505. Exscidiis. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Penates homes. 506. Gemma; i. e. e gemma. Sarrano Tyrian; from Sarra, a name of Tyre. -508. Hic; the aspirant to eloquence, who is struck dumb with admiration of the successful speaker, and the applause which greets him. Rostris. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and I. Hunc; the aspirant (hiantem) to political greatness, who is caught and carried away (corripuit) by the applause in the theatre (per cuneos) which rewarded popular statesmen. - 509. Enim = = quidem. — 510. Gaudent; sc. alii. 511. Exsilio; i. e. the place of exile. Cf. A. III. 4. -513. Dimovit. See on I. 49.-514. Labor; sc. est or venit. Parvosque Penates little homestead. The common reading is nepotes. 516. Quin... exuberet annus to the year's abounding. Gr. 498. A. & S. 262, R. 10 and N. 6. 2. - 519. Sicyonia bacca; i. e. the olive, for which Sicyon, a city near Corinth, was famous. 520. Glande. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. Laeti isfied. - 521. Ponit = drops, yields. 522. See on v. 377.1 .524. Domus = familia; here the wife. - 525. Laeto luxuriant. 527. Ipse; sc. agricola. celebrates. –528. Ignis; i. e. on the altar. Cratera. Gr. 93. I. A. & S. 80. Coronant; i. e. with a wreath of flowers. Cf. A. III. 525. The flagon containing the wine for a libation was encircled with a garland. 529. Lenaee. See on v. 4.530. Certamina ponit = institutes contests. In ulmo. The mark was set up in or scored on an elm. - 531. Nudant; sc. pecoris magistri. — 532. Sabini; one of the most ancient and powerful of the indigenous peoples of Central Italy, and one of the few who preserved their race unmixed. — 533. Remus; the twin brother of Romulus, the reputed founder of Rome. Etruria; the country of the Etrusci or Tusci, in Central Italy, called by the Greeks Tyrrhenia.- 534. Scilicet. See on I. 282.-535. Una = alone; i. e. though a single city. Arces=montes, colles.-536. Dictaei regis; i. e. Jupiter, who was said to have been born on Mount Dicte in the island of Crete. — 538. Aureus... Saturnus. See on Ov. M. I. 113.539. Etiam connects necdum with ante, as the former etiam connects ante with what precedes. 541. Spatiisin its courses, circuits; i. e. in its extent. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. See on I. 513. Aequor. Comp. on v. 105 and I. 50.




THE subject of the Aeneid, as propounded in the opening lines, is the settlement of Aeneas in Italy, after years of wandering, and a short but sharp final struggle. It is, however, only of the events preceding the settlement that the poet really treats, — of the wanderings and the war. Accordingly, the poem divides itself into two parts, the wanderings being embraced by the first, the Italian war by the second. But the two parts naturally involve different modes of treatment, comprehending as they do periods of time widely differing in length, the one seven years, the other apparently a few days. Here the poet follows the example of Homer in the Odyssey. The long period of wanderings is taken at a point not far from its conclusion; enough is told in detail to serve as a specimen of the whole, and the hero is made to narrate the rest of his past adventures to the person whose relation to him is all the time forming one adventure more. This peculiarity of the Homeric story is noticed by Horace (A. P. 164 foll.) and recommended to epic writers generally.

The First Book of the Aeneid performs well the objects which it was no doubt intended to accomplish, those of interesting us in the hero and introducing the story. After a brief statement of the subject, we have a view of the supernatural machinery by which it is to be worked out; and this, though imitated from Homer, is skilfully contrived so as to throw a light on the subsequent history of the Roman descendants of Aeneas, by the mention, even at that early time, of their great enemy, Carthage. Like Ulysses, Aeneas is shipwrecked in the voyage which was to have been his last, the main difference being that the Grecian hero is solitary, having long since lost all his companions, while the Trojan is still accompanied by those who followed his fortunes from Troy. The machinery by which the storm is allayed is perhaps managed more adroitly by Virgil than by Homer, as there seems to be more propriety in representing the inferior god of the winds as counteracted by the superior god of the sea, than in making a sea-nymph rescue one whom the god of the sea is seeking to destroy. The remaining incidents of the Book are mostly borrowed from Homer; but we may admire the skill with which Virgil has introduced varieties of detail, and the art with which a new impression is produced by a combination of old materials, in making the friendly power that receives Aeneas unite the blandishments of Calypso with the hospitalities of Alcinous, and so engrafting a tale of passion on a narrative of ordinary adventure.


AFTER stating the subject of the poem generally (1-7), addressing the Muse (8-11), and accounting for the resentment of Juno to the Trojan race (12 – 33), the poet introduces his hero, Aeneas, the son of Anchises and Venus, in the seventh year of his wanderings after the destruction of Troy, when he had just started from Sicily, and was making for the Italian mainland: a tempest is sent forth against him by Aeolus, at the instigation of Juno, which sinks one of the ships and drives the rest in a shattered condition on the coast of Africa (34-123). Neptune interferes to calm the storm (124-156). Aeneas lands with seven out of twenty ships, slays seven stags of immense size, gives one carcass to each of the ships, and exhorts his companions to patience and hope (157-207). The banquet of the ships' crews is described (208-222). Venus pleads the cause of her son Aeneas and of the Trojans before Jupiter, and lays all the blame of their misfortunes on Juno (223-253). The king of the gods, moved by the appeal, discloses the decrees of the Fates, and consoles his daughter by the assurance of future prosperity and unbounded empire to the Trojans in their descendants, the Roman people (254 -296). Mercury is sent down to render Dido, queen of Carthage, friendly to Aeneas (297-304). Satisfied with the declaration of Jupiter, Venus descends to earth, and in the guise of a huntress presents herself to Aeneas, and announces that the ships which he had supposed lost were safe in port (305-409.) Aeneas proceeds to Carthage, accompanied by Achates, both rendered invisible by the care of Venus (410-420). Carthage is described in progress of building (421-436). Aeneas visits the temple of Juno, and sees depicted there the Trojan wars (437-493). Dido visits the temple (494–508). A deputation from the twelve missing ships of the Trojans waits on Dido to complain of the outrages of her people and bewail the loss of Aeneas (509-560). Dido consoles them, and offers them a settlement (561-578). Aeneas, freed from the cloud, appears, and addresses Dido, who replies kindly, and prepares to entertain him and his followers (579-642). Aeneas sends for Ascanius (643-656). Venus substitutes Cupid for Ascanius (657-698). The banquet is given in Dido's palace (699-747). Dido asks Aeneas to narrate the downfall of Troy and his own wanderings (748 – 756).

1. This line is preceded in some MSS. by the following verses : Ille ego, qui quondam gracili modulatus avena

Carmen et egressus silvis vicina coegi

Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono,

Gratum opus agricolis; at nunc horrentia Martis.

The genuineness of these verses is doubtful. By Burmann, Peerlkamp, Heyne, and many other commentators they are condemned as unworthy of the genius of Virgil, and inconsistent with the dignity of epic poetry, and are assigned to some unknown grammarian; but Wr., Forb., Henry, and others, regard them as genuine, and by no means devoid of terseness and elegance. Wr. does not, however, suppose them to have formed originally the beginning of the Aeneid, but to have been prefixed, as an inscription, to a few copies of the first book, which the poet circulated among private friends, as a sample of the whole. They appear to have existed in the time of Servius and Donatus, who say that Nisus the grammarian had heard a story of their having been expunged by Tucca and Varius, to whom, after Virgil's death, the revision of the Aeneid, preparatory to publication, was intrusted. See Life.

They may be translated thus: I (am) that (poet), who formerly tuned a lay on a slender reed-pipe (E. I. 2), and, having gone forth from the woods (i. e. having abandoned pastoral poetry), taught (i. e. in the Georgics) the neighboring fields to obey the husbandman, however eager (for harvests), — a work acceptable to cultivators of the soil; but now (I sing) the horrid (arms) of Mars. Horrentia; sc. arma and cano from the first line of the poem.

Arma =arms, war. The words arma virumque are not a hendiadys, as some have taught, but give first the character of the subject and then the subject itself. Trojae; the chief city of Troas, a district in the northwest corner of Mysia, in Asia Minor. It was called Troja, from Tros, one of its early kings; also Ilium, Ilios, or Ilion, from Ilus, the son of Tros; Dardania, from Dardanus, the grandfather of Tros; and Teucria, from Teucer, its first king; whence also the Trojans are often called Teucri. It was situated on a rising ground, above the plain of the rivers Scamander and Simoïs. On a hill to the east of it rose its acropolis, called Pergamum or Pergama. The city was protected by strong and lofty walls, said to have been built by Apollo and Poseidon. Primus. The earlier commentators have found a difficulty in reconciling primus with Antenor's previous migration (below, vv. 242 foll.), and suggest that Aeneas had first reached Italy proper, though Antenor had previously reached Venetia. On the other hand, Heyne and Wr. make primus equivalent to olim, thus weakening a word which from its position and its occurrence in the first line of the poem must be emphatic. The more obvious sense is that Aeneas is so called without reference to Antenor, as the founder of the great Trojan empire in Italy. -2. Italiam. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). Fato is a mixture of modal and instrumental abl., as in IV. 696; VI. 449, 466, etc.; and belongs no less to venit than to profugus, the two words forming one idea, that

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