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In writing numbers which have no units, or no tens, or no hundreds, &c. the order observed in the foregoing tables must be maintained by filling the vacant places with a character called a nought or cypher, (0) which, of itself, represents no number. See


Tens of millions
Hundreds of millions
Tens of thousands
~Hundreds of thousands -


0.... Ten
100....One hundred

I thousand 1 0,00 0.... 10 thousand 100,000 ...100 thousand 1,000,000 1 million 1 0,00 0,00 0. 10 millions 10 0,00 0,0 0 0 100 millions 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ....200 millions and 2 30 0,0 0 3,0 30. .300 millions 3 thousand and 30 4 O 4,0 4 0,4 0 0. 404 millions 40 thous. 4 hund. 5 5 0,5 0 0,000. 550 millions 500 thousand

EXAMPLES Read the following numbers, or write them in words.

Note.- Making a point or dot after every third figure, counting from the units place, greatly facilitates the reading of large numbers. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 30, 31, 32, 40, 43, 44, 50, 55, 56, 60, 67, 68, 70, 71, 79, 80, 82, 83, 90, 92, 100, 101, 111, 112, 113, 114, 120, 128, 130, 132, 200, 203, 210, 300, 320, 332, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 2001, 3010, 4020, 5200, 10250, 23450, 356789, 6789402, 76450791, 20156789, 1304136784.

Write the following numbers in figures. Ten, Twelve, Fifteen, Seventeen, Twenty-six, Thirtynine, Fifty-two, Seventy-four, Eighty-one, Ninety-six, One hundred and fifteen, Two hundred, Three hundred and twenty, Nine hundred and nine, One thousand two hundred, Seven thousand seven hundred and thirty, One hundred and forty thousand, Seven hundred thousand five hundred and sixty-three, Seventeen millions, Eighty-four millions two thousand and forty-nine, Two hundred millions and fifteen.

SIMPLE ADDITION. Addition teaches to collect several numbers into one.

The number formed by adding several' numbers is called the amount or sum of those numbers.


Place the numbers one under another, with units und der units, tens under tens, &c. The units will then form a vertical column; the tens will form another, and the hundreds another, &c.

Add up the column of units, and if its amount do not exceed nine, set it down, and then add the tens; but if it exceed that number, conceive it to be written in figures, set down its right hand figure, and in adding the tens add its left hand figure or figures with them. Proceed with the amount of the tens in the same manner as with that of the units;,viz. if it do not exceed nine set it down, but if it exceed nine set down its right hand figure, and add its left hand figure or figures into the next column. Continue this process till the last column is added ; the amount of which set down.

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Add the following numbers, viz. 14, 18, 99, 45, 28, 27, 19, 38, 16, 39, 48, 29, 269, 148.

Add, six hundred and forty, seventy-nine, eighty, one hundred, two hundred and ten, four hundred and fifty.

Add, nineteen thousands, filty thousands, one million one hundred and onė, one hundred and twenty-five,

APPLICATION. 1. If John give Charles twenty nuts, and James give him fifty-six, and Joseph give him ninety-five, how many will he have?

Answer 171. 2. A person went to collect money, and received of one man ninety dollars; of another, one hundred and forty dollars; of another, one hundred and one dollars ; and of another, twenty-nine dollars. How much did he collect in all ?

Ans. 360 dollars. 3. Deposited in bank, fifty dollars in gold; three hundred dollars in silver; and five thousand dollars in notes. What is the whole amount deposited ? Ans. 5350 dols.

4. The distance from Philadelphia to Bristol is 20 miles; from Bristol to Trenton, 10 miles; from Trenton to Princeton, 12 miles; from Princeton to Brunswick, 18 miles; from Brunswick to New York, 30 miles. How many miles from Philadelphia to New York ? Ans. 90.

5. A merchant bought of one person 50 barrels of flour for 300 dollars; of another person, 75 barrels for 525 dollars; and of another person, 125 barrels for 1000 dollars. How many barrels did he buy, and how much did he pay for the whole ?

Ans. 250 barrels, and paid 1825 dollars.

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By subtraction we ascertain how much greater one number is than another: or what remains when a less number is taken from a greater.

RULE. Place the less number under the greater, with units under units, tens under tens, &c. Then begin at the units place, and if ncither of the lower figures be greater than the one above it, take each lower figure from the upper one, setting down their respective remainders. Put if either of the lower figures be greater than the upper one, conceive 10 to be added to the upper,* then take the lower from it, and set down the remainder. When 10 is thus added to the upper figure, there must bę 1 added to the next lower figure.


Add the remainder to the less number and their amount will be equal to the greater.

• Some prefer taking the lower figure from 10, adding the remainder to the upper, and setting down their amount.

EXAMPLES. From 2 5 6 8 4 4 2 1

5 4 1 030 076 Take 1 3 2 6 3879


Remainder 1 2 4 3

5 4 2

5 3 9 0 2 9 2 7 0

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Take one hundred and fifty-six from three hundred and twenty-five.

Subtract fifteen thousands five hundred and nine from twenty thousand six hundred and fifty-four.

Subtract twenty-five from ten thousand.

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1. Charles has thirty-two marbles, and John has twenty-five; how many has Charles more than John? Ans. 7.

2. William is seventeen years old, and James is nine; how much older is William than James? Ans. 8 years.

3. Charles had twenty-five apples, but gave his brother twelve of them: how many had he left? Ans. 13."

4. A person had in bank 9000 pounds, but drew out 1112 pounds : how much money had he remaining in bank ?

Ans. 7883 pounds. 5. My friend owed me one hundred and fifty dollars, but has paid me ninety dollars : how much does he still owe me?

Ans, 60 dollars. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION. 1. If I add 500, 627, and 1000, and subtract from their amount 900, what number will remain ? Ans. 1227.

2. A person borrowed of me, at one time, 62 dollars; at another time, 150 dollars; and at another time, 200 .dollars. He has now paid me 300 dollars. How much does he still owe me?

Ans. 12 dollars.

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