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Quae luctantem animam nexosque resolveret artus. 695
Nam, quia nec fato, merita nec morte peribat,
Sed misera ante diem, subitoque accensa furore,
Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem
Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco.
Ergo Iris croceis per coelum roscida pennis, 700
Mille trahens varios adverso Sole colores,
Devolat, et supra caput astitit:

—Hunc ego Diti
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo.'
Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat: omnis et una
Dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit. 705

these now described, see verse 242, &c.) was of Jupiter. -696. The origin of this notion, that death did not take place tisl Proserpine had severed a lock from the head, has been ingeniously conjectured to arise from a similar practice with regard to animals about to be slain in sacrifice, A. 6, 245.—699. Stygio Orco. See verse 638.700. Construe: ergo roscida Iris, trahens mille varios colores (ex) adverso Sole, devolat per coelum croceis pennis, &c.—701. The rainbow here, and A. 5, 609, is represented as formed by the track of Iris through the heavens.702. Diti = Stygio Orco. Pluton is found in Virgil only once, A. 7, 327.

L I B E R V.

AENEAS sets sail from Carthage for Italy, 1-7. The threatening aspect

of the heavens induces him to make for Sicily, where he arrives, and is welcomed by the Trojan Acestes, 8-41. Aeneas proclaims a festival and games in memory of Anchises, on the anniversary of his funeral, 42-71. He performs sacred honours at the tomb, 72-103. The games take place eight days thereafter, beginning with a contest between four galleys, 104-285. A foot-race, 286-362. A contest with the cestus, 363-484. Archery, 485-544. The ludus Trojanus of the boys, 545-602. Iris, sent by Juno, instigates the Trojan women, weary with wandering, to burn the ships, 603-663. Four are actually burned, and the rest saved, in answer to the prayers of Aeneas, 664-699. Following the advice of Nautes, and the shade of his father Anchises, Aeneas resolves to leave in Sicily the matrons, and all who were unfit for further voyaging, 700-754. He founds a town for those left behind, 755-761. After a farewell festival of nine days' duration, the Trojans again set sail for Italy, under Neptune's protection, secured by the intervention of Venus, 762-834. Palinurus, the pilot, is drowned, to the great grief of Aeneas, 835-871.

5

INTEREA medium Aeneas jam classe tenebat
Certus iter, fluctusque atros Aquilone secabat,
Moenia respiciens, quae jam infelicis Elissae
Collucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem,
Causa latet : duri magno sed amore dolores
Polluto, notumque, furens quid femina possit,
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt.

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec jam amplius ulla
Occurrit tellus, maria undique, et undique coelum :
Olli coeruleus supra caput astitit imber,

10
Noctem hiememque ferens; et inhorruit unda tenebris.
Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab alta :-
' Heu! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi ?
Quidve, pater Neptune, paras ?' Sic deinde locutus
Colligere arra jubet, validisque incumbere remis; 15
Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur:-
‘Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Jupiter auctor
Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere coelo.
Mutati transversa fremunt, et vespere ab atro
Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aër; 20
Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantum
Sufficimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur;
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe
Fida reor fraterna Erycis, portusque Sicanos,

1. Medium iter has not its exact import here; nor has our own phrase 'in the midst of' always its precise meaning. Medius may be applied to anything formerly commenced, or in which one is at the time engaged: cf. A. 4, 277; G. 3, 486 and 519, &c.—2. Certus, mente obstinata. See A. 4, 554. Aquilone ; that is, Aquilone adjutus, Aquilonis ope: cf. A. 2, 25, 180; 3, 529; 4, 46. Aquilo = rentus, for Auster, not Aquilo, was the wind necessary for sailing from Carthage to Italy. -3. Élissae. See A. 4, 335.-5. Construe: sed dolores duri (de) amore magno polluto (profaned '); polluere is used of things regarded as sacred : cf. A. 3, 61. By polluto the sacredness of 'love' is intimated. -6. Notum, with its clause, is used as a substantive.—7. Augurium, foreboding.'

8. Pelagus, the open sea.' Tenuere, gained.”—10. Olli. See A. 1, 254.-14. Construe: sic locutus, deinde, and cf. A. 2, 391.-15. Arma = armamenta, 'the sails.' From what follows as to turning the sails with their folds obliquely to the wind, 'tacking,' colligere must mean

to reef.'—19. Transversa. An instance of the poetic usage of employing the accusative neuter of an adjective for the corresponding adverb. See Zumpt, $8 266, 383, and Ed. 3, 8. Vespere, the region of the erening, the west, the wind from which would blow them past Italy.21. Tuntum, as much as is necessary to overcome the wind.-24. Eryx,

G

25

Si modo rite memor servata remetior astra.'.
Tum pius Aeneas: ‘Equidem, sic poscere

ventos
Jamdudum, et frustra cerno te tendere contra.
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla,
Quove magis fessas optem demittere naves,
Quam quae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30
Et patris Anchisae gremio complectitur ossa ?'
Haec ubi dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi
Intendunt Zephyri; fertur cita gurgite classis;
Et tandem laeti notae advertuntur arenae.
At, procul ex celso miratus vertice montis

35
Adventum sociasque rates, occurrit Acestes,
Horridus in jaculis et pelle Libystidis ursae;
Troïa, Crimiso conceptum flumine, mater
Quem genuit. Veterum non immemor ille parentum
Gratatur reduces, et gaza laetus agresti

40 Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis.

Postera quum primo stellas oriente fugarat
Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni
Advocat Aeneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur:-

“Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divům, 45
Annuus exactis completur mensibus orbis,
Ex quo reliquias divinique ossa parentis
Condidimus terra, moestasque sacravimus aras;
Jamque dies, nisi fallor, adest quem semper acerbum,
Semper honoratum-sic di voluistis !-habebo.
Hunc ego Gaetulis agerem si Syrtibus exsul,

50

who gave name to the town, was a son of Venus, and therefore brother to Aeneas.-25. Remetiri astra is to fix on one's position from a remembrance of the position of the stars ; just as at verse 628, emetiri tot sidera, to traverse an extensive space, as measured by so many constellations passed under. See also A. 1, 680.—28. Velis, ‘by means of the sails,' which you must set for that purpose. — 30. Acesten, a Trojan settler, on the north-west coast of Sicily; hence fida, verse 24. See A. 1, 195.—31. See A. 3, 707.-34. Arenae = litori.

35. Montis, probably Eryx, at the foot of which was the abode of Acestes.-37. In jaculis : cf. A. 1, 313: heroes carried tuo javelins. The phrase is similar to in armis = arma gestans. Libystidis, Libycae. See A. 4, 320.–38. Crimisus, a river in the south-west of Sicily. Mater, Egesta, or Segesta.—39. Parentum, Trojanorum. 42. Oriente sole matutino.—44. Tumuli ex aggere = ex tumulo.

45. See A. 3, 168.-51. Gaetulis ; Syrtibus. See A. 4, 41. Gaetulis is applied to Syrtibus in the general sense of African; just as Argolico, in the next verse, means the sea around Greece. See A. 2, 55.

0

Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus, 705
Et vada dura lego saxis Lilybeïa caecis.
Hinc Drepani me portus, et illaetabilis ora,
Accipit. Hic, pelagi tot tempestatibus actus,
Heu! genitorem, omnis curae casusque levamen,
Amitto Anchisen. Hic me, pater optime, fessum 710
Deseris, heu ! tantis nequidquam erepte periclis!
Nec vates Helenus, quum multa horrenda moneret,
Hos mihi praedixit luctus; non dira Celaeno.
Hic labor extremus, longarum haec meta viarum.
Hinc me digressum vestris deus appulit oris.' 715

Sic pater Aeneas, intentis omnibus, unus
Fata renarrabat divûm, cursusque docebat.
Conticuit tandem, factoque hic fine quievit.

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these steeds aspired to the victories in the Grecian games. Pindar sang the victory of the steeds sent thither by Theron to dispute the prize. Quondam in this verse refers to future time: render: "one day.'—705. The ruins of Selinus (-untis), destroyed 249 B.C., are still considerable. They are near Torre di Polluce.-706. Lilybeža. The promontory of Lilybaeum is now called Capo Boco. It is one of the three headlands that gave the name of Trinacria to Sicily.—707. Drepanum, a maritime town, now called Trepani. This coast is characterised illaetabilis on account of its sterility from the piled-up sand-banks which lie along it.—711. Nequidquam ; since, after all, he had not reached Italy.

716. Intentis, bringing back the mind to A. 2, 1, ' Intentique ora tenebant.'. Unus, for he alone spoke.—717. Fata divům, this is the genitive with active signification, which the gods had fixed:' cf. fata Jovis, A. 4, 614,

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LIBER IV.

Dido loves Aeneas, 1-5. She reveals her passion to her sister Anna, 6-30.

Anna encourages her to marry him, 31-55. They offer sacrifices, in order to propitiate the gods, 56-67. Progress of Dido's love, 68-89. Juno, alarmed, proposes to Venus the marriage of Aeneas and Dido, with the junction of the two nations; to which Venus seemingly assents, 90-128. The Carthaginians and Trojans go forth to hunt, 129-159. In a storm, raised by Juno, Aeneas and Dido, separated from their companions, are married, 160-172. Fame (who is described bears the tidings through Libya, 173-197. This irritates King Iarbas, a rejected suitor of Dido's, who prays to his father Jupiter, 198-218. Jupiter sends Mercury to hasten the voyage of Aeneas to Italy, 219-237. Flight of Mercury, 238-258. Mercury's message to Aeneas, 259-278. Aeneas, whose leading characteristic is obedience to the will of Heaven (pius), prepares for his departure, attempting to conceal his plans from Dido, 279-295. The queen divines his intentions, and upbraids him, 296-330. His reply, 331-361. Dido's resentment and grief, 362-392. Aeneas, sorrowful, persists in his preparations, 393-407. Anna, at Dido's request, interposes, but in vain, 408-449. Dido is appalled by frightful omens, and prepares for death, but concealing her design from her sister, pretends that she is making preparations to win back Aeneas by magical rites, 450-552. Aeneas, warned by Mercury in a vision to depart on the instant, sets sail, 553-582. The queen sees his fleet departing, and stabs herself, 583-665. The general consternation, and Anna's despair, 666-687. Agonies of Dido, till Iris, by Juno's command, interposes to release her by death, 688-705.

6

At regina, gravi jamdudum saucia cura,
Vulnus alit venis, et caeco carpitur igni.
Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat
Gentis lonos : haerent infixi pectore vultus
Verbaque : nec placidam membris dat cura quietem. 5

Postera Phoebea lustrabat lampade terras,
Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram,
Quum sic unanimam alloquitur male sana sororem :

Anna soror, quae me suspensam insomnia terrent!
Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes, 10
Quem sese ore ferens! quam forti pectore et armis !
Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse deorum.
Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu! quibus ille
Jactatus fatis! quae bella exhausta canebat!
Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet, 15
Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali,
Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;

G

1. At seems to connect this Book with the preceding narrative. Aeneas had concluded his tale, but long before he had finished, the queen was smitten with the pains of love. Cura = amore.-2. Caeco = occulto. Carpo, the primitive idea of which is to draw up' = contraho, and so “to wither,' dry,' shrivel,' infers a gradual process.

6, 7. Lustrabat, dimoverat. Aurora had dispelled previously, and was lighting up.-8. Male sana = insana. See A. 2, 735.-10. Novus, "extraordinary,' not what usually happens.—1]. Quem = qualem. Ferre sese refers to the general deportment. See a similar expression, A. 1, 503.-12. Genus, prolem.-15. Sederet. This term indicates the unalterableness of her resolution. See Zumpt, $ 524.-17. Fefellit. This clause is no part of her resolution, otherwise we should have fefellisset. It is

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