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Demissa ex humeris; dives quae munera Dido
Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro.
Continuo invadit: “Tu nunc Carthaginis altae 265
Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem
Exstruis? heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum !
Ipse deûm tibi me claro demittit Olympo
Regnator, coelum et terras qui numine torquet;
Ipse haec ferre jubet celeres mandata per auras: 270
Quid struis ? aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris ?
Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum,
Nec super ipse tua moliris laude laborem;
Ascanium surgentem, et spes heredis Iuli
Respice, cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus

275
Debentur.' Tali Cyllenius ore locutus
Mortales visus medio sermone reliquit,
Et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.

At vero Aeneas aspectu obmutuit amens,
Arrectaeque horrore comae, et vox faucibus haesit. 280
Ardet abire fuga, dulcesque relinquere terras,
Attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum.
Heu! quid agat? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem
Audeat affatu? quae prima exordia sumat ?
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 285
In partesque rapit varias, perque omnia versat.
Haec alternanti potior sententia visa est:

Laconia, and Tarentum, were famed for the murex - the shell-fish which yielded the dark purple so much esteemed by the ancients. As this shell-fish had sharp protuberances, murex is also taken to signify a sharp-pointed rock. See A. 5, 205.—263. Munera refers to both ensis and laena, but fecerat and discreverat only to the latter.265. Invadit = increpat in prose. Tu, emphatic.-267. The idea conveyed by tuarum is understood as qualifying regni also.—269. Torquet

versat.271. See verse 232, &c.—274. Ascanium, Iuli. This change of name seems designedly employed to connect empire with Iulus, as the supposed founder of the gens Julia. See A. 1, 288.-276. Debentur a fatis. Cyllenius. See verse 252. Ore = oratione.277. Medio; that is, before he finished it.'

281. Dulces terras, Carthaginem. Throughout, it is to be noticed that Virgil endeavours to represent-though, perhaps, with no great success—Aeneas as a man sacrificing self to the will of Heaven (pius), and the glories which the Fates had reserved for his race through him. —285-286. These two lines occur again, A. 8, 19, 20. Dividere, &c., mplies rapid and discrimin ing glances at different courses of action; rupere, &c., a swift survey of the best methods of effecting his determined course in its onward steps; versare, &c., that his masterly survey

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Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat, fortemque Serestum,
Classem aptent taciti, socios ad litora cogant;
Arma parent, et quae sit rebus causa novandis 290
Dissimulent; sese interea, quando optima Dido
Nesciat, et tantos rumpi non speret amores,
Tentaturum aditus, et quae mollissima fandi
Tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. Ocius omnes
Imperio laeti parent, ac jussa facessunt.

295
At regina dolos-quis fallere possit amantem !
Praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros,
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti
Detulit armari classem, cursumque parari.
Saevit inops animi, totamque incensa per urbem

300
Bacchatur: qualis commotis excita sacris
Thyias, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho
Orgia, nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron.
Tandem his Aenean compellat vocibus ultro :-

Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantum 305
Posse nefas, tacitusque mea decedere terra ?
Nec te noster amor, nec te data dextera quondam,
Nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido?
Quin etiam hiberno moliris sidere classem,
Et mediis properas Aquilonibus ire per altum, 310
Crudelis ? Quid ? si non arva aliena, domosque
Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua maneret,
Troja per undosum peteretur classibus aequor?

left no point unthought of.-289. Aptent. The result of his meditations assumes the indirect form; hence the present subjunctive here representing the imperative, and (verse 293) tentaturum representing the indicative. In the direct form, we should have had aptate, cogite, &c., tentabo.—293. With aditus understand qui sint molissimi.

297. Excepit infers Dido's immediate knowledge-excipere meaning to catch in immediate succession.—298. Eadem, described verse 173, &c. -301. An allusion to the celebration of the wild rites of Bacchus (orgia), once every two years (in the Greek mode of speaking, three years, tgietngis), on Cithaeron, a mountain-range between Boeotia and Megaris, partly by night (nocturnus), in which the women (Thyias, Juices - two syllables—a female follower of Bacchus) bore a prominent part. — 302. Audito Baccho auditis clamoribus Io Bacche !303. Nocturnus noctu.

306. Posse te, & poetic usage. See Zumpt, $ 605.-307, &c. Virgil, through anxiety to elaborate the characteristic feature of Aeneas (see verse 281), exposes his hero to an unfavourable contrast with Dido. 309. Moliris classem. In A. 3, 6, classem moliri is to construct a

Mene fugis ? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te-
Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui- 315
Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos,
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quidquam
Dulce meum; miserere domus labentis, et istam,
Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem.
Te propter Libycae gentes, Nomadumque tyranni 320
Odere; infensi Tyrii: te propter eundem
Extinctus pudor, et, qua sola sidera adibam,
Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes ?
Hoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat.
Quid moror? an mea Pygmalion dum moenia frater 325
Destruat, aut captam ducat Gaetulus Iarbas?
Saltem, si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset
Ante fugam suboles; si quis mihi parvulus aula
Luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret;
Non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer.' 330

Dixerat: ille Jovis monitis immota tenebat
Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat.
Tandem pauca refert:— Ego te, quae plurima fando
Enumerare vales, nunquam, Regina, negabo
Promeritam; nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae, 335
Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus.
Pro re pauca loquar. Neque ego hanc abscondere furto
Speravi, ne finge, fugam: nec conjugis unquam
Praetendi taedas, aut haec in foedera veni.

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fleet;' but here to refit,. repair.'-—314. Per, &c. The separation of the preposition from its object is to be observed. It occurs in Greek also, and indicates earnestness. See Zumpt, $ 794.-318. Meum, of mine,' belonging to, or coming from me.'— 320. Libycae ; properly, the eastern part of Africa was called Libya by the Romans, but the Greeks, whom Virgil follows, knew the whole country by this name. See A. 1, 158. Certain tribes, from wandering in search of pasture (vojen, véjew), were named Nomades, hence Numidia (Noucido), 321. Odere = oderunt (me); with infensi supply sunt. 324. Hoc nomen, hospes.--325. Quid moror (mori)? See A. I, 340, &c.; 4, 43. --326. See verse 196.-327. For the form of the hypothetic pluperfect and imperfect subjunctive, implying what does not exist, see Żumpt, § 524.-329. Tamen refers to a suppressed idea, qui quamvis tibi non par, te tamen,

333, &c. We can only vindicate, and that doubtfully, the heartless language of Aeneas, on the ground that he was suppressing his own bitter emotions (see verses 281, 399, 449), and acting as stern necessity required (pro re, verse 337).-335. Elissa was the original name of Dido.-338. "Speravi abscondere. See verse 306. Conjugis taedas

Me si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam.

340
Auspiciis, et sponte mea componere curas;
Urbem Trojanam primum, dulcesque meorum
Reliquias colerem; Priami tecta alta manerent,
Et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis.
Sed nunc Italiam magnam Grynaeus Apollo, 345
Italiam Lyciae jussere capessere sortes.
Hic amor, haec patria est. Si te Carthaginis arces
Phoenissam, Libycaeque aspectus detinet urbis ;
Quae tandem, Ausonia Teucros considere terra
Invidia est? Et nos fas extera quaerere regna.

350
Me patris Anchisae, quoties humentibus umbris
Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt,
Admonet in somnis, et turbida terret imago:
Me puer Ascanius, capitisque injuria cari,
Quem regno Hesperiae fraudo, et fatalibus arvis. 355
Nunc etiam interpres Divûm, Jove missus ab ipso-
Testor utrumque caput-celeres mandata per auras
Detulit. Ipse Deum manifesto in lumine vidi
Intrantem muros, vocemque his auribus hausi.
Desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis: 360
Italiam non sponte sequor.'

Talia dicentem jamdudum aversa tuetur,
Huc illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat
Luminibus tacitis, et sic accensa profatur:-
'Nec tibi Diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor, 365

Perfide, sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens justas nuptias. — 340. Si paterentur. See verse 327. — 343. Reliquias meorum, 'the ruins (of the city) of my people, of my country. He would have rebuilt Troy on the same site. Colerem, would (at this moment) be cherishing, because I should (before) have founded (posuissem).-—344. Victis, the dativus commodi. See Zumpt, $ 405.345. Grynaeus. See Ecl. 6, 72.-346. Sortes, the responses of an oracle, as often. For the counsels of Apollo (here called Lyciae sortes, see verse 143), with special reference to Italy, see A. 3, 154, &c.—347. Hic, in Italia.–349. Ausonia. See p. 140, line 27.-350. Quae invidia est?

quid invides?——355. Hesperiae. See A. 1, 530. Fatalibus, predestined by the Fates. See A. 2, 165. — 356. Interpres Divâm, Mercurius. 357. Utrumque caput are generally taken to refer either to Aeneas and Ascanius, or to Dido and Aeneas; but they may refer to Jupiter and Mercury:

363. Her face was turned away, but she surveyed him from head to foot with eyes askance, and for awhile said nothing (tacitis), then her indignation burst forth.-365. She denies his descent from Venus and Dardanus. See A. 1, 25.-366, Construe horrens with cautibus.-

N

Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tigres.
Nam quid dissimulo? aut quae me ad majora reservo ?
Num fletu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit? 369
Num lacrimas victus dedit, aut miseratus amantem est ?
Quae quibus anteferam? Jam jam nec maxima Juno,
Nec Saturnius haec oculis pater aspicit aequis.
Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore, egentem
Excepi, et regni demens in parte locavi:
Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi.

375
Heu, Furiis incensa feror! Nunc augur Apollo,
Nunc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso,
Interpres Divûm fert horrida jussa per auras.
Scilicet is Superis labor est! ea cura quietos
Sollicitat! Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello. 380
I, sequere Italiam ventis; pete regna per undas.
Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possunt,
Supplicia hausurum scopulis, et nomine Dido
Saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens;
Et, quum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus,

385
Omnibus Umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbe, poenas:
Audiam, et haec Manes veniet mihi fama sub imos '-
His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras
Aegra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert,
Linquens multa metu cunctantem, et multa parantem
Dicere. Suscipiunt famulae, collapsaque membra 391

Marmoreo referunt thalamo, stratisque reponunt. 367. Caucasus, the mountain-range between the Black and Caspian Seas. See Ecl. 6, 42. Hyrcanae. Hyrcania lay to the south-east of the Caspian Sea.—368. Ad majora, "for greater outrages.'—369. Num asks questions to which it is known that a negative answer will be returned.-371. Quae (= haec) quibus anteferam? literally: “To what can I prefer this treatment? What can be more hardhearted ??372. Saturnius, Jupiter, the son of Saturn. See A. 1, 23.–374. Excepi implies freedom from hesitation. See verse

297. For Dido's reception of the Trojans, see A. 1, 561, &c.—-375. With classem understand servavi.—-376. She breaks out into the incredulous language of bitter indignation, as if all his excuses were a mere fiction.—380. Teneo = retineo.-382. Spero te hausurum is a bolder instance of the poetical usage referred to in the notes to verses 306, 338, and should not be imitated in prose.—383. Dido, the accusative.--384. Ignibus, sc. rogi mei. As the Furies pursued the guilty with avenging torches, Dido, similarly armed, alive (absens) or dead (umbra), like a Fury, was to haunt Aeneas. -387. Manes, here the region of departed souls.—388. Auras, "the light,' the open air.'—390. Multa cunctantem, for multum cunctantem. Metu, • fear of irritating her father.--392. Thalamo, dative = in thalamum.

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