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Si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset;
narrative merely, and had better be taken in after si.—18. Taedae nuptiarum.—19. Potui. Strongly put instead of possem. See A. 2, 55.
-20. Sychaei. See A. 1, 343-352.-24. Prius. An apparent pleonasm, with antequam, verse 27. But prius may have a general reference, antequam a more precise one to what follows.—28. İlle--primus. The Roman feeling was strongly against the marriage of widows.
31. Dilecta sorori, for a sorore. See Zumpt, § 419.–35. Granted (esto) that you have rightly indulged your wounded feelings (aegram) in rejecting so many suitors, why resist a passion fondly cherished Mariti. See Ecl. 8, 18.-36. Libyae in prose would be, in Libya. See verse 320, and A.' 3, 162. Iarbas. See verse 196, &c.—37. Virgil's expressions refer constantly to Roman usages (see A. 1, 73), as here, where he makes frequent triumphs to indicate the warlike nature of the Africans ; the triumph being peculiar to Rome.-39. Consederis, in the subjunctive, because hypothetically put as the thought of Dido.41. Infreni. Riding horses without bridles. See A. 10, 750. Cingunt. Dido was surrounded on all sides by savage races : on the south were the Gaetulians; on the west, the Numidians; on the east, the quicksands called Syrtes, bordered by savage (inhospita) tribes, and a sandy desert, across which roamed the inhabitants of Barca in Cyrēnē.
Barcaei. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam,
Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras
43. Barcaei, a city of Cyrēnē, east of the Greater Syrtis, afterwards Ptolemāis.-46. Cursum tenuisse, “to have taken such a direction.”49. With rebus supply gestis.—50. Veniam = favorem.--51. Hospitio hospitibus. —52. Orion. See A. 1, 533. – 55. Pudorem, her desire to remain unmarried.
56. Pacem, “the good-will of the gods,' absence of all hostility.' Per aras; per, because they passed from one altar to the others, offering a sacrifice on each.—57. Construe de more, according to solemn ritual,' with mactant, as well as bidentes. Bidentes; properly, sheep two years old, from the idea that sheep of this age have two teeth more prominent than the rest (bis, dens); but taken in a general sense, signifies sheep of any age.—58. Legiferae Cereri ; Ceres introducing agriculture, introduced also laws and marriage, the bond of civilisation. Phoebus was one of the gods specially worshipped at Carthage. Lyaeo. See A. 1, 686 and 734.—59. Junoni. See A. 1, 15, &c. Juno presided over marriage; hence called pronuba, verse 166. Cui sunt curae. Jugalia, hence Juno was called Jugalis, as the Greek "Hgee was called Suryce. — 60. Pateram fundit = vinum e patera. By this libation on a certain part of the head, the victim was consecrated to the deity.--62. Spatiatur. This verb expresses a slow and measured movement which the Roman matrons adopted in particular ceremonies. — 63. The sacrificial expression instaurare sacra, to repeat the sacrifice,' is changed into instaurat diem donis = sacrificiis offerendis. She again celebrates the day by repeated sacrifices; or, she renews (the commemoration of) the day by repeated sacrifices :
Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta.
cf. Liv. 23, 36: plebeiis ludis biduum instauratum est.—64. Pectoribīs inhians, by the arsis.--65. Heu, &c. The soothsayers knew not Dido's object in consulting them, or, knew not the future woes of Dido, so as to avert them. Vatum extispăcum, the more exact term. Vota =
sacrificia ex voto diis oblata. 66. Est = edit, consumes." Molles is construed with medullas, her yielding heart.”—69, &c. Virgil compares Dido to a stag wounded by a random dart in the woods of Crete (Cresia). — 72. Nescius, “not knowing' that his shaft had struck.
73. Dictaeos. See Ecl. 6, 56. -- 75. Sidonias. The Carthaginians had come from Sidon, which Virgil uses indifferently with Tyre, both being Phoenician cities. See A. 1, 338.—77. Construe eadem with convivia.—78. Iterum. See end of A. 1, and the Second and Third Books.-80. Lumen suum.–81. Premit, conceals,' “suppresses.' Suadentque, &c. See A. 2, 9.--82. Relictis, in the one clause, seems to be compared with vacua in the other, and to refer to the desire of appeasing the sense of desolation felt in the absence of a beloved object
- here relictis ab Aenea.—83. Absens, though absent,' referring to the abstraction of Dido's mind; while absentem refers to the personal absence of Aeneas.-86. The works, so vividly described A. 1, 423, &c., are suspended.
Tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta, minaeque
Olli-sensit enim simulata mente locutam, 105
110 Esse velit Tyriis urbem, Trojaque profectis,
88. Minae murorum; that is, muri qui minantur in coelum ; see 4.1, 162, where it is thus expressed.-89. Machina is variously explained: 1,Towers along the walls:' 2, “Warlike engines :' 3, “The cranes for raising the materials:' or, 4, “The scaffolding for erecting the walls.' The first of these meanings best accords with aequata coelo.
93, &c. Spoken ironically. — 94. Memorabile est numen vestrum. Nomen for numen is found in manuscripts of the second and third order only.-96. Adeo, to the degree that you suppose. See verse 533. Fallere sometimes means to elude notice.' See A. 9, 572.-97. Suspectas. See A. 1, 670, &c.—98. Quo nunc certamine tanto? that is, Quorsum progrediemini certamine vestro? Cf. Ecl. 1, 72; 3, 19; 9, 1: G. 4, 324: X. 1, 370; 2, 520, &c.—102. Juno proposes that she and Venus shall preside over the united nations with equal power and protection. -103. Liceat reginae servire ; the latter, purposely, a strong word for nubere.--104. Permittere dextrae, 'to administer.'
105. Olli. See A. 1, 254.-106. Ad oras. See A. 1, 2.—107. Est ingressa incepit (dicere). Quis, &c. Equivalent to quis tam demens ut abnuat. See À. 2, 519.--110. Fatis, the ablative ; her uncertainty of action arising from the Fates, no course of action arising from uncertainty as to the will of the Fates, otherwise we should have fatorum. See verse 564.
Miscerive probet populos, aut foedera jungi.
‘Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat,
Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit :
135 Tandem progreditur, magna stipante caterva,
115. Mecum erit iste labor, that shall be my task.'-117. Mark the different uses of the infinitive and supine, parant ire venatum, prepare the act of going, in order to hunt.—119. Titan, in conformity with an old legend, is used here for the sun-god, as often.—121. Alae. Either horsemen employed to enclose the forest, and, startling the game, to drive it into the nets; or feathers fastened on ropes (indagine), the flapping of which (trepidant) was used for the same purpose. 122. Observe that here Juno is represented as possessed of the power of thundering, as Minerva is, A. 1, 42.—124. Ad speluncam. See verse 106.--126. See A. 1, 73.—128. Dolis. Either the ablative of cause, or the dative, governed by risit, which also governs the accusative. Dolis repertis may refer to Juno's contrivance of the artful scheme, or Venus's discovery of it. In the latter case, dolis repertis may be the ablative absolute.
130. It = exit.—131. Rara, 'with large meshes ;' opposed to densa. -132. Massyli, the inhabitants of the district west of Carthage, comprehending the Roman province of Numidia. They were celebrated for horsemanship. Odora canum vis, equivalent to odororum canum vis. Odorus is used actively, •quick-scented,' and vis refers to number and strength. We use the word force in a similar sense.