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Si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset;
Huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae.
Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sychaei

20
Conjugis, et sparsos fraterna caede Penates,
Solus hic inflexit sensus, animumque labantem
Impulit: agnosco veteris vestigia flammae.
Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat,
Vel Pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras, 25
Pallentes umbras Erebi, noctemque profundam,
Ante, Pudor, quam te violo, aut tua jura resolvo.
Ille meos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores
Abstulit: ille habeat secum, servetque sepulcro.'
Sic effata, sinum lacrimis implevit obortis.

30
Anna refert: 'O luce magis dilecta sorori!
Solane perpetua moerens carpere juventa?
Nec dulces natos, Veneris nec praemia noris ?
Id cinerem aut Manes credis curare sepultos?
Esto: aegram nulli quondam flexere mariti,

35
Non Libyae, non ante Tyro; despectus Iarbas,
Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra, triumphis
Dives, alit: placitone etiam pugnabis amori?
Nec venit in mentem, quorum consederis arvis ?
Hinc Gaetulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello, 40
Et Numidae infreni cingunt, et inhospita Syrtis;
Hinc deserta siti regio, lateque furentes

narrative merely, and had better be taken in after si.—18. Taedae nuptiarum.19. Potui. Strongly put instead of possem. See A. 2, 55.

-20. Sychaei. See A. 1, 343-352.-24. Prius. An apparent pleonasm, with antequam, verse 27. But prius may have a general reference, antequam a more precise one to what follows.—28. İlle--primus. The Roman feeling was strongly against the marriage of widows.

31. Dilecta sorori, for a sorore. See Zumpt, § 419.–35. Granted (esto) that you have rightly indulged your wounded feelings (aegram) in rejecting so many suitors, why resist a passion fondly cherished Mariti. See Ecl. 8, 18.-36. Libyae in prose would be, in Libya. See verse 320, and A.' 3, 162. Iarbas. See verse 196, &c.—37. Virgil's expressions refer constantly to Roman usages (see A. 1, 73), as here, where he makes frequent triumphs to indicate the warlike nature of the Africans ; the triumph being peculiar to Rome.-39. Consederis, in the subjunctive, because hypothetically put as the thought of Dido.41. Infreni. Riding horses without bridles. See A. 10, 750. Cingunt. Dido was surrounded on all sides by savage races : on the south were the Gaetulians; on the west, the Numidians; on the east, the quicksands called Syrtes, bordered by savage (inhospita) tribes, and a sandy desert, across which roamed the inhabitants of Barca in Cyrēnē.

Barcaei. Quid bella Tyro surgentia dicam,
Germanique minas?
Dis equidem auspicibus reor, et Junone secunda, 45
Hunc cursum Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas.
Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes! quae surgere regna
Conjugio tali! Teucrûm comitantibus armis,
Punica se quantis attollet gloria rebus !
Tu modo posce deos veniam, sacrisque litatis, 50
Indulge hospitio, causasque innecte morandi,
Dum pelago desaevit hiems, et aquosus Orion,
Quassataeque rates; dum non tractabile coelum.'
His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore,
Spemque dedit dubiae menti, solvitque pudorem. 55

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras
Exquirunt; mactant lectas de more bidentes
Legiferae Cereri, Phoeboque, patrique Lyaeo;
Junoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curae.
Ipsa, tenens dextra pateram, pulcherrima Dido, 60
Candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit;
Aut, ante ora deûm, pingues spatiatur ad aras,
Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis

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43. Barcaei, a city of Cyrēnē, east of the Greater Syrtis, afterwards Ptolemāis.-46. Cursum tenuisse, “to have taken such a direction.”49. With rebus supply gestis.—50. Veniam = favorem.--51. Hospitio hospitibus. —52. Orion. See A. 1, 533. – 55. Pudorem, her desire to remain unmarried.

56. Pacem, “the good-will of the gods,' absence of all hostility.' Per aras; per, because they passed from one altar to the others, offering a sacrifice on each.—57. Construe de more, according to solemn ritual,' with mactant, as well as bidentes. Bidentes; properly, sheep two years old, from the idea that sheep of this age have two teeth more prominent than the rest (bis, dens); but taken in a general sense, signifies sheep of any age.—58. Legiferae Cereri ; Ceres introducing agriculture, introduced also laws and marriage, the bond of civilisation. Phoebus was one of the gods specially worshipped at Carthage. Lyaeo. See A. 1, 686 and 734.—59. Junoni. See A. 1, 15, &c. Juno presided over marriage; hence called pronuba, verse 166. Cui sunt curae. Jugalia, hence Juno was called Jugalis, as the Greek "Hgee was called Suryce. — 60. Pateram fundit = vinum e patera. By this libation on a certain part of the head, the victim was consecrated to the deity.--62. Spatiatur. This verb expresses a slow and measured movement which the Roman matrons adopted in particular ceremonies. — 63. The sacrificial expression instaurare sacra, to repeat the sacrifice,' is changed into instaurat diem donis = sacrificiis offerendis. She again celebrates the day by repeated sacrifices; or, she renews (the commemoration of) the day by repeated sacrifices :

65

70

75

Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta.
Heu vatum ignarae mentes! quid vota furentem,
Quid delubra juvant? est molles flamma medullas
Interea, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.
Uritur infelix Dido, totaque vagatur
Urbe furens: qualis conjecta cerva sagitta,
Quam procul incautam nemora inter Cresia fixit
Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum
Nescius: illa fuga silvas saltusque peragrat
Dictaeos; haeret lateri letalis arundo.
Nunc media Aenean secum per moenia ducit,
Sidoniasque ostentat opes, urbemque paratam;
Incipit effari, mediaque in voce resistit:
Nunc eadem, labente die, convivia quaerit,
Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores
Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore.
Post, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim
Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos,
Sola domo moeret vacua, stratisque relictis
Incubat: illum absens absentem auditque videtque:
Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta,
Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem.
Non coeptae assurgunt turres; non arma juventus
Exercet, portusve aut propugnacula bello

80

85

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cf. Liv. 23, 36: plebeiis ludis biduum instauratum est.—64. Pectoribīs inhians, by the arsis.--65. Heu, &c. The soothsayers knew not Dido's object in consulting them, or, knew not the future woes of Dido, so as to avert them. Vatum extispăcum, the more exact term. Vota =

sacrificia ex voto diis oblata. 66. Est = edit, consumes." Molles is construed with medullas, her yielding heart.”—69, &c. Virgil compares Dido to a stag wounded by a random dart in the woods of Crete (Cresia). 72. Nescius, “not knowing' that his shaft had struck.

73. Dictaeos. See Ecl. 6, 56. -- 75. Sidonias. The Carthaginians had come from Sidon, which Virgil uses indifferently with Tyre, both being Phoenician cities. See A. 1, 338.—77. Construe eadem with convivia.78. Iterum. See end of A. 1, and the Second and Third Books.-80. Lumen suum.–81. Premit, conceals,' “suppresses.' Suadentque, &c. See A. 2, 9.--82. Relictis, in the one clause, seems to be compared with vacua in the other, and to refer to the desire of appeasing the sense of desolation felt in the absence of a beloved object

- here relictis ab Aenea.—83. Absens, though absent,' referring to the abstraction of Dido's mind; while absentem refers to the personal absence of Aeneas.-86. The works, so vividly described A. 1, 423, &c., are suspended.

Tuta parant: pendent opera interrupta, minaeque
Murorum ingentes, aequataque machina coelo.
Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri

90
Cara Jovis conjux, nec famam obstare furori;
Talibus aggreditur Venerem Saturnia dictis :-
'Egregiam vero laudem et spolia ampla refertis
Tuque puerque tuus: magnum et memorabile numen,
Una dolo divûm si femina victa duorum est.

95
Nec me adeo fallit, veritam te moenia nostra,
Suspectas habuisse domos Carthaginis altae.
Sed quis erit modus? aut quo nunc certamine tanto?
Quin potius pacem aeternam pactosque hymenaeos
Exercemus ? habes, tota quod mente petisti : 100
Ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem.
Communem hunc ergo populum, paribusque regamus
Auspiciis : liceat Phrygio servire marito,
Dotalesque tuae Tyrios permittere dextrae.'

Olli-sensit enim simulata mente locutam, 105
Quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras-
Sic contra est ingressa Venus: 'Quis talia demens
Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello?
Si modo, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur.
Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam

110 Esse velit Tyriis urbem, Trojaque profectis,

88. Minae murorum; that is, muri qui minantur in coelum ; see 4.1, 162, where it is thus expressed.-89. Machina is variously explained: 1,Towers along the walls:' 2, “Warlike engines :' 3, “The cranes for raising the materials:' or, 4, “The scaffolding for erecting the walls.' The first of these meanings best accords with aequata coelo.

93, &c. Spoken ironically. — 94. Memorabile est numen vestrum. Nomen for numen is found in manuscripts of the second and third order only.-96. Adeo, to the degree that you suppose. See verse 533. Fallere sometimes means to elude notice.' See A. 9, 572.-97. Suspectas. See A. 1, 670, &c.—98. Quo nunc certamine tanto? that is, Quorsum progrediemini certamine vestro? Cf. Ecl. 1, 72; 3, 19; 9, 1: G. 4, 324: X. 1, 370; 2, 520, &c.—102. Juno proposes that she and Venus shall preside over the united nations with equal power and protection. -103. Liceat reginae servire ; the latter, purposely, a strong word for nubere.--104. Permittere dextrae, 'to administer.'

105. Olli. See A. 1, 254.-106. Ad oras. See A. 1, 2.—107. Est ingressa incepit (dicere). Quis, &c. Equivalent to quis tam demens ut abnuat. See À. 2, 519.--110. Fatis, the ablative ; her uncertainty of action arising from the Fates, no course of action arising from uncertainty as to the will of the Fates, otherwise we should have fatorum. See verse 564.

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Miscerive probet populos, aut foedera jungi.
Tu conjux: tibi fas animum tentare precando.
Perge: sequar.' Tum sic excepit regia Juno: 114

‘Mecum erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat,
Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo.
Venatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido
In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus
Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem.
His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120
Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine cingunt,
Desuper infundam, et tonitru coelum omne ciebo.
Diffugient comites, et nocte tegentur opaca:
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem
Devenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125
Connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo.
Hic Hymenaeus erit.' Non adversata, petenti
Annuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis.

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit :
It portis, jubare exorto, delecta juventus:

130
Retia rara, plagae, lato venabula ferro,
Massylique ruunt equites, et odora canum vis.
Reginam, thalamo cunctantem, ad limina primi
Poenorum exspectant; ostroque insignis et auro
Stat sonipes, ac frena ferox spumantia mandit.

135 Tandem progreditur, magna stipante caterva,

115. Mecum erit iste labor, that shall be my task.'-117. Mark the different uses of the infinitive and supine, parant ire venatum, prepare the act of going, in order to hunt.—119. Titan, in conformity with an old legend, is used here for the sun-god, as often.—121. Alae. Either horsemen employed to enclose the forest, and, startling the game, to drive it into the nets; or feathers fastened on ropes (indagine), the flapping of which (trepidant) was used for the same purpose. 122. Observe that here Juno is represented as possessed of the power of thundering, as Minerva is, A. 1, 42.—124. Ad speluncam. See verse 106.--126. See A. 1, 73.—128. Dolis. Either the ablative of cause, or the dative, governed by risit, which also governs the accusative. Dolis repertis may refer to Juno's contrivance of the artful scheme, or Venus's discovery of it. In the latter case, dolis repertis may be the ablative absolute.

130. It = exit.—131. Rara, 'with large meshes ;' opposed to densa. -132. Massyli, the inhabitants of the district west of Carthage, comprehending the Roman province of Numidia. They were celebrated for horsemanship. Odora canum vis, equivalent to odororum canum vis. Odorus is used actively, •quick-scented,' and vis refers to number and strength. We use the word force in a similar sense.

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